Gene Therapy Leaves a Vicious Cycle

Gene Therapy Leaves a Vicious Cycle Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States The human genetic code encrypted in thousands of genes holds the secret for synthesis of proteins that drive all biological processes necessary for normal life and death. Though the genetic ciphering remains unchanged through generations, some genes get disrupted, deleted and or mutated, manifesting diseases, and or disorders. Current treatment options—chemotherapy, protein therapy, radiotherapy, and surgery available for no more than 500 diseases—neither cure nor prevent genetic errors but often cause many side effects. However, gene therapy, colloquially called “living drug,” provides a one-time treatment option by rewriting or fixing errors in the natural genetic ciphering. Since gene therapy is predominantly a viral vector-based medicine, it has met with a fair bit of ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In this study, we found that TLR1/TLR2 expression predicted favorable prognosis of lung cancer patients. In the related mice tumor model, TLR1/TLR2 activation by synthetic bacterial lipoprotein (BLP), a TLR1/2 agonist, greatly inhibited tumor growth and selectively decreased monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs). Furthermore, BLP treatment redirected M-MDSC differentiation towards M1 macrophage through JNK pathway, and thus blocked the suppressive activity of M-MDSCs in a TLR2-dependent manner. Therefore, our data demonstrated that TLR2 could be a promising biomarker and a potential immunotherapeutic target for lung cancer.
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: August 2019Source: Molecular Immunology, Volume 112Author(s): Elizabeth A. Bemis, Jill M. Norris, Jennifer Seifert, Ashley Frazer-Abel, Yuko Okamoto, Marie L. Feser, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Kevin D. Deane, Nirmal K. Banda, V. Michael HolersAbstractRheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex autoimmune disease with an etiology that is not yet well understood, disproportionally affects women and also varies in incidence and prevalence by population. The presence of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) is a highly specific biomarker for the diagnosis of clinically apparent RA. ACPA are also present in the ...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Nupur Bhargava, Shashank Jaitly, Sangam Giri Goswami, Suman Jain, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Sivaprakash RamalingamAbstractSickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a mutation in β-globin (HBB) gene. We have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, IGIBi001-A from an Indian sickle cell patient with a homozygous HBB gene mutation using Sendai virus reprogramming system. Characterization of IGIBi001-A showed that these iPSCs are transgene-free and expressed pluripotent stem cell markers. They had a...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Stem Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Nutnicha Tantarungsee, Zaukir Bostan Ali, Rungtip Soi-ampornkul, Chuda Rujitharanawong, Chanika Subchookul, Alisa Ritthaphai, Bootsakorn Boonkaew, Methichit Wattanapanitch, Kanchalit Thanomkitti, Daranporn Triwongwaranat, Chinnavuth Vatanashevanopakorn, Rattapon ThuangtongAbstractAn induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line, MUSIi010-A, was established by Sendai virus (SeV) transduction of scalp fibroblasts from a 59-year-old male with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Pluripotency of the iPSC line was verified by immunofluorescence staining of ...
Source: Stem Cell Research - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Jang GY, Ha KS Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vascular stenosis after surgical repair frequently occurs in congenital heart disease. Although conventional balloon dilation is a useful option for stenotic lesions, restenosis may occur. Consequently, balloon expandable stents have been used; however, there are a limited number of balloon expandable stents in our country. Here, we report the early and intermediate-term outcomes of self-expandable stents in vascular stenosis of moderate to large-sized vessels in congenital heart disease. METHODS: Twelve self-expandable stents were implanted in 9 patie...
Source: Korean Circulation Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Korean Circ J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Yang Xiong, Ying Wang, Karthik TiruthaniAbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is predicted to be the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related death in United States in 2019. Immunotherapies such as checkpoint inhibitors have proven efficacy in patients with high level of microsatellite instability and refractory to routine chemotherapy. Despite this, immunotherapy-based treatment is seriously limited by cancer immunogenicity which are evolved to evade immune surveillance in many circumstances. Efforts are made by resear...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Nano TodayAuthor(s): Weijing Yang, Zijian Zhou, Joseph Lau, Shuo Hu, Xiaoyuan ChenAbstractImmunotherapy (e.g., checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell therapy, cancer vaccine) has emerged as one of the most important treatment modalities for cancer in the past two decades. While these approaches are promising, the response rates observed in clinical trials are less than 30% due to tumor heterogeneity and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. Smart nanosystems have the potential to address some of the limitations associated with immunotherapy. Herein, we review applica...
Source: Nano Today - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
This study shows the possibility of simultaneous culturing of human OB and OC precursors and demonstrates the efficacy of dopants in the pace change of bone remodeling for bone tissue engineering applications.Graphical abstract
Source: Materials Today Communications - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 15, Part 2Author(s): G. Vidhya, G. Suresh kumar, Vivekanan S. kattimani, E.K. GirijaAbstractRecently research on biogenic derived hydroxyapatite (HAp) is being focused. In the present study it is proposed to make a comparative analysis of microwave synthesised HAp derived from eggshell based calcium precursor with two commercial calcium soruces calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and calcium carbonate using EDTA as the organic modifier. The as-synthesized samples was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM and EDAX. Comparative studies were carried out with eggshell deri...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 2019Source: Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 15, Part 2Author(s): Sumit Das Lala, Payel Deb, Emon Barua, Ashish.B. Deoghare, Sushovan ChatterjeeAbstractNano-sized Hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders are synthesized from natural bio-waste chicken eggshell. The synthesized powder is characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirms the formation of HAp. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) shows highly porous agglomerated HAp powder with average pore diameter of 276.3 nm. EDAX analysis reveals calcium and phosphate ratio (Ca/P) of 1.74 showing close res...
Source: Materials Today: Proceedings - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
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