What Australia needs to do to avoid a third Covid wave
Lessons from other parts of the world show we should lock down early, rely on evidence – and get used to wearing masksVictoria and Melbourne trend mapVic hotspots list;Australia interactive;NSW trend mapMelbourne ’s stage 4 rules;Victoria ’s ‘step 3’ rulesSign up for Guardian Australia ’s Covid emailAs Victoria reaches the end of its second wave of the coronavirus, the focus is now on ensuring a third wave doesn ’t hit as Australia heads into summer.Guardian Australia spoke to leading epidemiologists about the lessons learned from other countries, particularly in Europe, that are e...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 25, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Calla Wahlquist Tags: Australia news Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Microbiology Medical research Health Source Type: news

Not accounting for sex differences in Covid research could be deadly
Analysis suggests too little attention is paid to gender disparities in medical trialsCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageHistorically, medical research has often taken a one-size-fits-all approach, lumping women and men together despite growing evidence that the sexes differ in how they catch and fight disease.A stark example was the heart drug digoxin, which was widely marketed in the late 1990s on the basis of a trial that showed it to beeffective and safe. But over time a higher incidence of side-effects in women emerged. When the same dataset wasanalysed on the basis of sex, it showed dig...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 25, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Natalie Grover Tags: Medical research Gender Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science World news Microbiology Source Type: news

'Any breed could do it': dogs might be a Covid tester's best friend
Researchers around the world are training canines to sniff out the virus – could they be deployed for mass testing?Coronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageIt is simple and pain-free, could be used to test for coronavirus in care homes, airports and schools, and might just be more realistic than the UK government ’s £100bn“Operation Moonshoot” mass screening plan. Its name? Fido.Around the world – from theUK to Finland, Spain, Brazil, Lebanon andAustralia– teams of researchers are training dogs to sniff out Covid-19. And some say the idea of training hundre...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 25, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nicola Davis Science correspondent Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Medical research Dogs Animals Infectious diseases World news Microbiology Source Type: news

Dealing with the global tsunami of mental health problems during and post COVID-19
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) In a special session addressing global mental health before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic held at the ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID) Professor Vikram Patel H(arvard Medical School, USA) will present a new review of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global mental health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Shorter time from symptom onset to hospitalization is associated with worse outcome in patients with COVID-19
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) New research presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online) shows that a shorter time from symptom onset to hospitalisation is associated with more serious disease and death in patients with COVID-19. The study is by Dr Annie Wong-Beringer and colleagues, University of Southern California (USC) School of Pharmacy, Los Angeles, CA, USA, and presented at ECCVID by co-author Amanda Chron. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Contact tracing study results recommend consistent wearing of masks, handwashing, and social distancing in public to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) A contact tracing study presented at this year's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID) confirms the effectiveness of wearing of masks in public, handwashing, and social distancing to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The study is by Assistant Professor Direk Limmathurotsakul, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, and Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, University of Oxford, UK, and colleagues. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study demonstrates SARS-CoV-2 emergence was associated with a large drop in the circulation of other respiratory viruses during the first wave
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Analysis of samples taken to test for respiratory viruses over the past five years suggests that the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a large drop in circulation of other common respiratory viruses during the first wave. The study, presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID), is by Dr Stephen Poole, BRC Clinical Research Fellow from the Southampton NIHR BRC, Southampton, UK, and colleagues. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How to better understand what makes a virus win during transmission?
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) The framework, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, was applied on transmission data of the influenza virus, and offers to be a new tool for anticipating the consequences of microbial diversity and optimizing disease control measures. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

We won't beat Covid by channelling Churchill | Letters
Boris Johnson ’s Churchillian language does not impressRichard Teverson, whileKatherine Arnott dismisses the prime minister ’s appeal to people’s common sense. Plus letters fromPatrick Cosgrove andDavid Boyd HaycockI, like so many others, am slack-jawed at the incompetence of this government ’s response to Covid. Our death rate is terrible and the continued mixed messages from “go to work as you are less likely to be sacked if you are in the office/don’t go to work” and “eat out to help out/don’t eat out, certainly not after 10pm” have exhausted the public and mak...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Letters Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Boris Johnson Dominic Cummings Winston Churchill Medical research Politics Microbiology UK news World news Science Michael Gove Brexit Australia news New Zealand Asia Pacific Europea Source Type: news

Africa: Battling a Pandemic - an African Perspective
[UCT] Researchers from the University of Cape Town's (UCT) faculties of Health Sciences and Science have recently published a paper describing an African perspective on global approaches to the fight against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV ‑2), which causes COVID-19. "Prospects for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines in Africa" was published in Nature Reviews Microbiology. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - September 24, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: news

BIOCAD will produce the COVID-19 vaccine developed by Gamalei Institute
(BIOCAD) On September 23, 2020, the biotechnology company BIOCAD signed an agreement on the industrial production of the COVID-19 vaccine with the Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Ministry of Health of Russia named after V. Gamaleya. BIOCAD becomes an industrial partner of the scientific center and will ensure the mass-scale production of the « Sputnik V » vaccine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - September 24, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Large-scale RNAi screening uncovers therapeutic targets in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosome parasites kill 250,000 people every year. Treatment of schistosomiasis relies on the drug praziquantel. Unfortunately, a scarcity of molecular tools has hindered the discovery of new drug targets. Here, we describe a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in adult Schistosoma mansoni that examined the function of 2216 genes. We identified 261 genes with phenotypes affecting neuromuscular function, tissue integrity, stem cell maintenance, and parasite survival. Leveraging these data, we prioritized compounds with activity against the parasites and uncovered a pair of protein kinases (TAO and STK25) that coop...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wang, J., Paz, C., Padalino, G., Coghlan, A., Lu, Z., Gradinaru, I., Collins, J. N. R., Berriman, M., Hoffmann, K. F., Collins, J. J. Tags: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

A single-cell RNA-seq atlas of Schistosoma mansoni identifies a key regulator of blood feeding
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that infects 240 million people. With no vaccines and only one drug available, new therapeutic targets are needed. The causative agents, schistosomes, are intravascular flatworm parasites that feed on blood and lay eggs, resulting in pathology. The function of the parasite’s various tissues in successful parasitism are poorly understood, hindering identification of therapeutic targets. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we characterize 43,642 cells from the adult schistosome and identify 68 distinct cell populations, including specialized stem cells that mainta...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wendt, G., Zhao, L., Chen, R., Liu, C., ODonoghue, A. J., Caffrey, C. R., Reese, M. L., Collins, J. J. Tags: Development, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led to interstitial pneumonia and inflammatory responses in both young and aged mice after intranasal inoculation. Deep sequencing revealed a panel of adaptive mutations potentially associated with the increased virulence. In parti...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gu, H., Chen, Q., Yang, G., He, L., Fan, H., Deng, Y.-Q., Wang, Y., Teng, Y., Zhao, Z., Cui, Y., Li, Y., Li, X.-F., Li, J., Zhang, N.-N., Yang, X., Chen, S., Guo, Y., Zhao, G., Wang, X., Luo, D.-Y., Wang, H., Yang, X., Li, Y., Han, G., He, Y., Zhou, X., G Tags: Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news

Distinct conformational states of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein
Intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The trimeric viral spike (S) protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes to initiate infection. Here, we report two cryo–electron microscopy structures derived from a preparation of the full-length S protein, representing its prefusion (2.9-angstrom resolution) and postfusion (3.0-angstrom resolution) conformations, respectively. The spontaneous transition to the postfusion state is independent of target cells. The prefusion trimer has three receptor-binding domains cl...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cai, Y., Zhang, J., Xiao, T., Peng, H., Sterling, S. M., Walsh, R. M., Rawson, S., Rits-Volloch, S., Chen, B. Tags: Biochemistry, Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news

Schistosome biology illuminated
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zahn, L. M. Tags: Anatomy, Morphology, Biomechanics, Microbiology twis Source Type: news

Modeling SARS-CoV-2 in mice
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kelly, P. N. Tags: Microbiology twis Source Type: news

A dynamic viral spike
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Microbiology twis Source Type: news

Transformative tools for parasitic flatworms
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 24, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anderson, T. J. C., Duraisingh, M. T. Tags: Microbiology perspective Source Type: news

Guts and brains: How microbes in a mother ’s intestines affect fetal neurodevelopment
During pregnancy in mice, the billions of bacteria and other microbes that live in a mother ’s intestines regulate key metabolites, small molecules that are important for healthy fetal brain development,UCLA biologists report Sept. 23 in the journal Nature.While the maternal gut microbiota has been associated with abnormalities in the brain function and behavior of offspring — often in response to factors like infection, a high-fat diet or stress during pregnancy — scientists had not known until now whether it influenced brain development during critical prenatal periods and in the absence of such environ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 23, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Covid vaccine tracker: when will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progressResearchers around the world are racing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, withmore than 170 candidate vaccines now tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 23, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news Vaccines and immunisation Health Society Source Type: news

Study suggests link between decreasing viral load and proportion of COVID-19 patients needing intensive care
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) New research presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, online 23-25 September) suggests that, as lockdown took effect and case numbers dropped, the amount of virus patients were exposed to (viral load) fell, and this could be linked to lower proportions of patients requiring intensive care and dying. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

US study shows decline in viral load of patients with COVID-19 as pandemic progressed
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) A US study from the city of Detroit, presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCMID, online 23-25 September) shows that the initial SARS-CoV-2 viral load in nasopharyngeal samples has been decreasing as the pandemic progressed. The authors also observed that the decline in viral load was associated with a decrease in death rate. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Large study confirms men have 62% increased risk of COVID-19 associated death, possibly related to higher degree of inflammation
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) New research presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, online 23-25 September) confirms that men with COVID-19 have worse outcomes than women, possibly related to them experiencing higher levels of inflammation. The study is by Dr Frank Hanses, University Hospital Regensburg, Germany, and colleagues, and shows that men have a 62% increased risk of COVID-19 associated death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Study suggests elderly care home outbreaks in England were caused by multiple indepedent infections and also within-home spread
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) New research presented at this week's ESCMID Congress on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online 23-25 September) shows that outbreaks of COVID-19 in elderly care homes were caused by multiple independent infections from outside, plus within care home spread. There is also evidence of transmission between residents and healthcare workers, including paramedics, possibily linking care home outbreaks to hospital outbreaks. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

COVID-19 antibody studies across Brazil reveal Amazon region badly affected, with poorer Indigenous communities hit hardest
(European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) Two nationwide COVID-19 antibody seroprevalence studies from Brazil show that many cities along the Amazon were hit hardest at the beginning of the epidemic in May and June, along with poorer and Indigenous communities. The research is presented at this week's ESCMID Conference on Coronavirus Disease (ECCVID, held online 23-25 September) and published in The Lancet Global Health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Novel dual CAR T cell immunotherapy holds promise for targeting the HIV reservoir
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) A recent study published in the journal Nature Medicine, led by researchers James Riley, PhD, a professor of Microbiology at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and Todd Allen, PhD, a professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Group Leader at the Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, describes a new Dual CAR T cell immunotherapy that can help fight HIV infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Pioneering Scientist's Book Details Invisible Obstacles to Women Pioneering Scientist's Book Details Invisible Obstacles to Women
An eminent microbiologist recounts her long struggle as a woman breaking through sexism to succeed in the sciences.Undark (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - September 22, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Family Medicine/Primary Care News Source Type: news

Coronavirus: work from home if you can, Gove says in government U-turn
Minister announces ‘shift in emphasis’ in England as coronavirus infections soarCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageThe public in England will once again be asked to work from home if they can, Michael Gove has said, signalling a U-turn in government advice to combat the spread of coronavirus that he said could help “avert the need for more serious action in the future”.In broadcast interviews before Boris Johnson sets out the full raft of measures in the Commons later on Tuesday, Gove described the latest change in restrictions as a “shift in emphasis” but ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Archie Bland Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology World news UK news Politics Source Type: news

The Lancet changes editorial policy after hydroxychloroquine Covid study retraction
New policy comes after serious quality control questions were raised about the data relied on by a study in the medical journalOne of the world ’s leading medical journals, the Lancet, has reformed its editorial policies following a shocking case of apparent research misconduct involving the study of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for Covid-19.In May, the Lancet published a peer-reviewed study about the controversial drug hydroxychloroquine, which concluded Covid-19 patients who received the drug were dying at higher rates and experiencing more heart-related complications than other virus patients.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Melissa Davey Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Medical research Infectious diseases Microbiology Health Source Type: news

Ecological factors driving microbial community assembly in response to warming
(University of Oklahoma) Researchers from the OU Institute for Environmental Genomics and Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology lead a study that aims to better understand ecological community assembly mechanisms in response to climate warming. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Vallance: Covid vaccine doses may be available for some by end of year
UK chief scientific adviser says breakthrough far more likely in first half of 2021Coronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageA few doses of an effective Covid vaccine may be available for use before the end of the year, Sir Patrick Vallance, the UK government ’s chief scientific adviser has said – but it is far more likely that any such breakthrough will happen during the first six months of 2021.Vallance, charged with delivering the good news at the end of the dire warnings from himself and Prof Chris Whitty, the chief medical officer, said the UK was in a good position, with orders for...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 21, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sarah Boseley Health editor Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news Patrick Vallance UK news Source Type: news

Researchers find diminished response by 'killer' T cells in elderly COVID-19 patients
(American Society for Microbiology) Although people of any age can become infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, elderly patients face a higher risk of severity and death than younger patients. New research comparing the immune response among age groups, published this week in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, may help explain why. Older patients with the disease have lower frequencies of the immune cells needed to expel the virus from the body, the researchers found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Covid vaccine tracker: when will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progressResearchers around the world are racing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, withmore than 170 candidate vaccines now tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology World news Science Vaccines and immunisation Health Society Source Type: news

Matt Hancock ’s Covid cavalry is not yet on the horizon. We need a global approach now
The UK has done well on building capacity. But only wide access to simple, effective tests will allow us to manage life under coronavirusCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageAs the UK battles with the overwhelming demand for Covid-19 tests, the health secretary, Matt Hancock, said on Friday that the country needs to come together to keep the infection levels downwhile we await the cavalry on the horizon.The cavalry, he said, would come in the shape of the science that will bring a vaccine, effective treatments and the ability to undertake mass testing. Detecting cases, tracking contacts and con...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Trudie Lang Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Health World Health Organization Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Society Science World news Source Type: news

Hands, face, space? Johnson's Covid message has got priorities wrong, scientists warn
Physical distancing, far more than washing hands, is the most critical factor in preventing spread of the virusCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageThe latest drive to help halt the spread of Covid-19 has been criticised by senior scientists for placing insufficient emphasis on the issues of ventilation and the need to stay apart from others.They say the government ’s“hands, face, space”campaign stresses handwashing and the wearing of masks as key factors in controlling coronavirus transmission, while the need to keep apart has been downplayed, despite it being the single crit...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Robin McKie Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science Microbiology Royal Holloway, University of London World Health Organization UK news Medical research Society World news Source Type: news

Lack of UK airport tests aiding Covid-19 spread, scientists warn
Sage experts say poor quarantine compliance is also bringing virus into countryCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageGovernment scientists have warned of a “developing situation” over people bringing coronavirus into the UK after travelling abroad and returning home without being tested.People who travel overseas are required to quarantine for two weeks on their return unless they have visited a country on the official list of nations considered low risk for Covid-19.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ian Sample Science editor Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Health Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science UK news Source Type: news

Mutant virus: should we be worried that Sars-CoV-2 is changing?
Scientists tracking the virus have uncovered a major mutation, but it may not be as scary as it soundsCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageScientists have had eyes on Sars-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19, since the beginning of this pandemic.They can see it is evolving, but it is happening at a glacial pace compared with two other viruses with pandemic potential: those that cause flu and Aids. That is good news for efforts to develop vaccines and treatments, but scientists remain wary that anything could still happen.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Laura Spinney Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news Vaccines and immunisation Health Source Type: news

Melbourne life during coronavirus: share your photos of the highs and lows of 2020
Lopsided sourdough, cupboards full of toilet paper, or matching trackpants. What does your Australia 2020 scrapbook look like?There will be, for most of us living in Melbourne, no holiday snaps to memorialise this year. No big weddings. No gathering of old friends at the comedy festival. Instead our lives, for much of the past six months, have been spent inside our homes and nodding politely to our neighbours on the same daily walk.Our scrapbook of the year would contain recipes for sourdough, reminders to never make sourdough again, homemade mask patterns and, for a few glorious weeks in May and June, an awkward photo of ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Calla Wahlquist Tags: Australia news Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science Microbiology Melbourne Victoria Source Type: news

Covid-19 ethics: should we deliberately infect volunteers in the name of science? Part 2
Teams around the world are hard at work developing Covid-19 vaccines. While any potential candidate will need to be tested on thousands of volunteers to prove its safety and efficacy, some scientists have argued that the race to the finish line could be sped up by human challenge trials — where participants are infected with a special strain of the virus.Ian Sample delves into some of the misconceptions and hurdles inherent in this kind of research. In the second of twoepisodes, Ian explores the importance of rescue treatments, what happens if something goes wrong, and whether it would ever be morally permissible to ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Presented by Ian Sample and produced by Madeleine Finlay Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science Source Type: news

Analysis of COVID-19 publications identifies research gaps
(Cell Press) Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific and medical journals have published over 100,000 studies on SARS-CoV-2. But according to data scientists who created a machine-learning tool to analyze the deluge of publications, basic lab-based studies on the microbiology of the virus, including research on its pathogenesis and mechanisms of viral transmission, are lacking. Their analysis appears September 16 in the journal Patterns. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - September 17, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

A steric block to SARS-CoV-2
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Microbiology twis Source Type: news

Microbiota protect the kidneys
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ash, C. Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology twis Source Type: news

Structural basis for neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV by a potent therapeutic antibody
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. There are no approved vaccines or therapeutics for treating COVID-19. Here we report a humanized monoclonal antibody, H014, that efficiently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV pseudoviruses as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2 at nanomolar concentrations by engaging the spike (S) receptor binding domain (RBD). H014 administration reduced SARS-CoV-2 titers in infected lungs and prevented pulmonary pathology in a human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 mouse ...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lv, Z., Deng, Y.-Q., Ye, Q., Cao, L., Sun, C.-Y., Fan, C., Huang, W., Sun, S., Sun, Y., Zhu, L., Chen, Q., Wang, N., Nie, J., Cui, Z., Zhu, D., Shaw, N., Li, X.-F., Li, Q., Xie, L., Wang, Y., Rao, Z., Qin, C.-F., Wang, X. Tags: Biochemistry, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

Diet posttranslationally modifies the mouse gut microbial proteome to modulate renal function
Associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the gut microbiota have been postulated, yet questions remain about the underlying mechanisms. In humans, dietary protein increases gut bacterial production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), indole, and indoxyl sulfate. The latter are uremic toxins, and H2S has diverse physiological functions, some of which are mediated by posttranslational modification. In a mouse model of CKD, we found that a high sulfur amino acid–containing diet resulted in posttranslationally modified microbial tryptophanase activity. This reduced uremic toxin–producing activity and ameliorate...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lobel, L., Cao, Y. G., Fenn, K., Glickman, J. N., Garrett, W. S. Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

'Why wait for it?' How to predict a pandemic
Strides are being made towards an open access atlas that could predict where dangerous animal-borne viruses will next appearHow do you predict where a deadly tropical disease such as Ebola, possibly the most virulent in the world, will appear next? Since it first emerged in a small town on the edge of a Congolese forest, it has broken out in seven other African countries, often thousands of miles apart.Sometimes it has spilled out of remote rainforest and then disappeared for years. Other times it has turned up in cities, baffling world bodies and governments that can only try to respond as fast as possible. But actually, ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: John Vidal Tags: Infectious diseases Ebola Zika virus Coronavirus outbreak Microbiology Medical research Science World news Animals Farming Environment Climate change Source Type: news

Covid vaccine tracker: when will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progressResearchers around the world are racing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, withmore than 170 candidate vaccines now tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science World news Vaccines and immunisation Health Society Source Type: news

Covid-19 ethics: Should we deliberately infect volunteers in the name of science? (part 1)
Would you be willing to have a dose of Sars-CoV-2 sprayed up your nose for medical research? For thousands around the world, the answer is yes. Eager volunteers have already signed up to take part in human challenge trials, where participants would be deliberately infected with the virus in order to better understand the disease, and rapidly develop a treatment or vaccine. But should such studies go ahead with a dangerous and relatively new virus?In the first of two episodes, alongside a panel of experts Ian Sample delves into some of the ethical questions of human challenge trials and asks where the balance of risks and b...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Presented by Ian Sample and produced by Madeleine Finlay Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Medical research Microbiology Science Source Type: news

Covid tests sent to Italy and Germany as UK labs are overwhelmed
Leaked documents reveal backlog of 185,000 swabs and tests sent abroad for processingCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageThe government ’s coronavirus testing programme is dealing with a backlog of 185,000 swabs, with tests being sent to Italy and Germany as local labs are overwhelmed.Not even a week after the governmentwas forced to apologise for continuing delays to Covid testing, the Department of Health and Social Care insisted on Sunday that the capacity of the NHS test-and-trace system was the highest it had ever been but there was a “significant” demand for tests.Conti...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jedidajah Otte Tags: Coronavirus outbreak UK news Infectious diseases Medical research Science Health NHS Italy Germany Europe Microbiology Source Type: news

Covid vaccine tracker: when will a coronavirus vaccine be ready?
More than 170 teams of researchers are racing to develop a safe and effective vaccine. Here is their progressResearchers around the world are racing to develop a vaccine against Covid-19, withmore than 170 candidate vaccines now tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO).Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Niko Kommenda and Frank Hulley-Jones Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Microbiology Science Medical research World news Vaccines and immunisation Health Society Source Type: news