Fluctuations shape plants through proprioception
Plants constantly experience fluctuating internal and external mechanical cues, ranging from nanoscale deformation of wall components, cell growth variability, nutating stems, and fluttering leaves to stem flexion under tree weight and wind drag. Developing plants use such fluctuations to monitor and channel their own shape and growth through a form of proprioception. Fluctuations in mechanical cues may also be actively enhanced, producing oscillating behaviors in tissues. For example, proprioception through leaf nastic movements may promote organ flattening. We propose that fluctuation-enhanced proprioception allows plant...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Moulia, B., Douady, S., Hamant, O. Tags: Botany, Development, Online Only review Source Type: news

Preventing Engrailed-1 activation in fibroblasts yields wound regeneration without scarring
Skin scarring, the end result of adult wound healing, is detrimental to tissue form and function. Engrailed-1 lineage–positive fibroblasts (EPFs) are known to function in scarring, but Engrailed-1 lineage–negative fibroblasts (ENFs) remain poorly characterized. Using cell transplantation and transgenic mouse models, we identified a dermal ENF subpopulation that gives rise to postnatally derived EPFs by activating Engrailed-1 expression during adult wound healing. By studying ENF responses to substrate mechanics, we found that mechanical tension drives Engrailed-1 activation via canonical mechanotransduction sig...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Davitt, M. F., Griffin, M., Borrelli, M. R., Moore, A. L., Chen, K., Duoto, B., Chinta, M., Foster, D. S., Shen, A. H., Januszyk, M., Kwon, S. H., Wernig, G., Wan, D. C., Lorenz, H. P., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Cholinergic neurons constitutively engage the ISR for dopamine modulation and skill learning in mice
The integrated stress response (ISR) maintains proteostasis by modulating protein synthesis and is important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We developed a reporter, SPOTlight, for brainwide imaging of ISR state with cellular resolution. Unexpectedly, we found a class of neurons in mouse brain, striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs), in which the ISR was activated at steady state. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations revealed that ISR signaling was necessary in CINs for normal type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) modulation. Inhibiting the ISR inverted the sign of D2R modulation of CIN firing and evoked dopa...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Helseth, A. R., Hernandez-Martinez, R., Hall, V. L., Oliver, M. L., Turner, B. D., Caffall, Z. F., Rittiner, J. E., Shipman, M. K., King, C. S., Gradinaru, V., Gerfen, C., Costa-Mattioli, M., Calakos, N. Tags: Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Barcoded viral tracing of single-cell interactions in central nervous system inflammation
Cell-cell interactions control the physiology and pathology of the central nervous system (CNS). To study astrocyte cell interactions in vivo, we developed rabies barcode interaction detection followed by sequencing (RABID-seq), which combines barcoded viral tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Using RABID-seq, we identified axon guidance molecules as candidate mediators of microglia-astrocyte interactions that promote CNS pathology in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and, potentially, multiple sclerosis (MS). In vivo cell-specific genetic perturbation EAE studies, in vitro systems, and the an...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Clark, I. C., Gutierrez-Vazquez, C., Wheeler, M. A., Li, Z., Rothhammer, V., Linnerbauer, M., Sanmarco, L. M., Guo, L., Blain, M., Zandee, S. E. J., Chao, C.-C., Batterman, K. V., Schwabenland, M., Lotfy, P., Tejeda-Velarde, A., Hewson, P., Manganeli Polo Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

When do I tell my supervisor?
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Banono, N. S. Tags: Working Life Source Type: news

Technology Feature | Small images, big picture: Artificial intelligence to revolutionize microscopy
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: O'Meara, S. Tags: From the AAAS Office of Publishing Source Type: news

New Products
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Tags: products Source Type: news

Global groundwater wells at risk of running dry
Groundwater wells supply water to billions of people, but they can run dry when water tables decline. Here, we analyzed construction records for ~39 million globally distributed wells. We show that 6 to 20% of wells are no more than 5 meters deeper than the water table, implying that millions of wells are at risk of running dry if groundwater levels decline by only a few meters. Further, newer wells are not being constructed deeper than older wells in some of the places experiencing significant groundwater level declines, suggesting that newer wells are at least as likely to run dry as older wells if groundwater levels con...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jasechko, S., Perrone, D. Tags: Geochemistry, Geophysics reports Source Type: news

Timing the SARS-CoV-2 index case in Hubei province
Understanding when severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged is critical to evaluating our current approach to monitoring novel zoonotic pathogens and understanding the failure of early containment and mitigation efforts for COVID-19. We used a coalescent framework to combine retrospective molecular clock inference with forward epidemiological simulations to determine how long SARS-CoV-2 could have circulated before the time of the most recent common ancestor of all sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Our results define the period between mid-October and mid-November 2019 as the plausible interval when...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Pekar, J., Worobey, M., Moshiri, N., Scheffler, K., Wertheim, J. O. Tags: Epidemiology, Evolution reports Source Type: news

Josephson junction infrared single-photon detector
Josephson junctions are superconducting devices used as high-sensitivity magnetometers and voltage amplifiers as well as the basis of high-performance cryogenic computers and superconducting quantum computers. Although device performance can be degraded by the generation of quasiparticles formed from broken Cooper pairs, this phenomenon also opens opportunities to sensitively detect electromagnetic radiation. We demonstrate single near-infrared photon detection by coupling photons to the localized surface plasmons of a graphene-based Josephson junction. Using the photon-induced switching statistics of the current-biased de...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Walsh, E. D., Jung, W., Lee, G.-H., Efetov, D. K., Wu, B.-I., Huang, K.- F., Ohki, T. A., Taniguchi, T., Watanabe, K., Kim, P., Englund, D., Fong, K. C. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics reports Source Type: news

Higher-dimensional supersymmetric microlaser arrays
The nonlinear scaling of complexity with the increased number of components in integrated photonics is a major obstacle impeding large-scale, phase-locked laser arrays. Here, we develop a higher-dimensional supersymmetry formalism for precise mode control and nonlinear power scaling. Our supersymmetric microlaser arrays feature phase-locked coherence and synchronization of all of the evanescently coupled microring lasers—collectively oscillating in the fundamental transverse supermode—which enables high-radiance, small-divergence, and single-frequency laser emission with a two-orders-of-magnitude enhancement in...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Qiao, X., Midya, B., Gao, Z., Zhang, Z., Zhao, H., Wu, T., Yim, J., Agarwal, R., Litchinitser, N. M., Feng, L. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics reports Source Type: news

C(sp3)-H methylation enabled by peroxide photosensitization and Ni-mediated radical coupling
We report a synthetic method that enables direct methylation of C(sp3)–H bonds in diverse drug-like molecules and pharmaceutical building blocks. Visible light–initiated triplet energy transfer promotes homolysis of the O–O bond in di-tert-butyl or dicumyl peroxide under mild conditions. The resulting alkoxyl radicals undergo divergent reactivity, either hydrogen-atom transfer from a substrate C–H bond or generation of a methyl radical via β-methyl scission. The relative rates of these steps may be tuned by varying the reaction conditions or peroxide substituents to optimize the yield of methyl...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Vasilopoulos, A., Krska, S. W., Stahl, S. S. Tags: Chemistry reports Source Type: news

Broadband directional control of thermal emission
Controlling the directionality of emitted far-field thermal radiation is a fundamental challenge. Photonic strategies enable angular selectivity of thermal emission over narrow bandwidths, but thermal radiation is a broadband phenomenon. The ability to constrain emitted thermal radiation to fixed narrow angular ranges over broad bandwidths is an important, but lacking, capability. We introduce gradient epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) materials that enable broad-spectrum directional control of thermal emission. We demonstrate two emitters consisting of multiple oxides that exhibit high (>0.7,>0.6) directional emissivity (60&d...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Xu, J., Mandal, J., Raman, A. P. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics reports Source Type: news

Conserved genetic signatures parcellate cardinal spinal neuron classes into local and projection subsets
Motor and sensory functions of the spinal cord are mediated by populations of cardinal neurons arising from separate progenitor lineages. However, each cardinal class is composed of multiple neuronal types with distinct molecular, anatomical, and physiological features, and there is not a unifying logic that systematically accounts for this diversity. We reasoned that the expansion of new neuronal types occurred in a stepwise manner analogous to animal speciation, and we explored this by defining transcriptomic relationships using a top-down approach. We uncovered orderly genetic tiers that sequentially divide groups of ne...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Osseward, P. J., Amin, N. D., Moore, J. D., Temple, B. A., Barriga, B. K., Bachmann, L. C., Beltran, F., Gullo, M., Clark, R. C., Driscoll, S. P., Pfaff, S. L., Hayashi, M. Tags: Neuroscience r-articles Source Type: news

Assessing Chinas efforts to pursue the 1.5{degrees}C warming limit
Given the increasing interest in keeping global warming below 1.5°C, a key question is what this would mean for China’s emission pathway, energy restructuring, and decarbonization. By conducting a multimodel study, we find that the 1.5°C-consistent goal would require China to reduce its carbon emissions and energy consumption by more than 90 and 39%, respectively, compared with the "no policy" case. Negative emission technologies play an important role in achieving near-zero emissions, with captured carbon accounting on average for 20% of the total reductions in 2050. Our multimodel comparisons reve...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Duan, H., Zhou, S., Jiang, K., Bertram, C., Harmsen, M., Kriegler, E., van Vuuren, D. P., Wang, S., Fujimori, S., Tavoni, M., Ming, X., Keramidas, K., Iyer, G., Edmonds, J. Tags: Economics, Science and Policy r-articles Source Type: news

Replication timing maintains the global epigenetic state in human cells
The temporal order of DNA replication [replication timing (RT)] is correlated with chromatin modifications and three-dimensional genome architecture; however, causal links have not been established, largely because of an inability to manipulate the global RT program. We show that loss of RIF1 causes near-complete elimination of the RT program by increasing heterogeneity between individual cells. RT changes are coupled with widespread alterations in chromatin modifications and genome compartmentalization. Conditional depletion of RIF1 causes replication-dependent disruption of histone modifications and alterations in genome...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Klein, K. N., Zhao, P. A., Lyu, X., Sasaki, T., Bartlett, D. A., Singh, A. M., Tasan, I., Zhang, M., Watts, L. P., Hiraga, S.-i., Natsume, T., Zhou, X., Baslan, T., Leung, D., Kanemaki, M. T., Donaldson, A. D., Zhao, H., Dalton, S., Corces, V. G., Gilbert Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Epidemiological and evolutionary considerations of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dosing regimes
Given vaccine dose shortages and logistical challenges, various deployment strategies are being proposed to increase population immunity levels to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Two critical issues arise: How timing of delivery of the second dose will affect infection dynamics and how it will affect prospects for the evolution of viral immune escape via a buildup of partially immune individuals. Both hinge on the robustness of the immune response elicited by a single dose as compared with natural and two-dose immunity. Building on an existing immuno-epidemiological model, we find that in the ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Saad-Roy, C. M., Morris, S. E., Metcalf, C. J. E., Mina, M. J., Baker, R. E., Farrar, J., Holmes, E. C., Pybus, O. G., Graham, A. L., Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B. T., Wagner, C. E. Tags: Epidemiology, Immunology r-articles Source Type: news

How missing APOE4 protects
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Muons against the standard model
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Stajic, J. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Pufferfish-inspired water purification
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Lavine, M. S. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Unlearning reward responses
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Stern, P. Tags: twil Source Type: news

The opposable thumb
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Hemoglobin in the balance
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Nusinovich, Y. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Weighing Psyche
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Smith, K. T. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Supersymmetric switch-on
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Osborne, I. S. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics twis Source Type: news

Single-cell analysis of CNS interactions
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

When your well runs dry
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Smith, H. J. Tags: Geochemistry, Geophysics twis Source Type: news

TCR detection of citrullinated epitopes
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Williams, I. Tags: twis Source Type: news

One dose or two?
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ash, C. Tags: Epidemiology, Immunology twis Source Type: news

Regeneration without scarring
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Always stressed
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Neuroscience twis Source Type: news

Plant proprioception
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Botany, Development twis Source Type: news

Highlighting health inequity
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Alderton, G. Tags: twis Source Type: news

Neuronal identities
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Neuroscience twis Source Type: news

Systemically inflamed from afar
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: VanHook, A. M. Tags: twis Source Type: news

Broadband thermal beaming
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Grocholski, B. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics twis Source Type: news

Adding methyl groups with good timing
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yeston, J. Tags: Chemistry twis Source Type: news

Astrotherapy for stroke
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Maroso, M. Tags: twis Source Type: news

Backtracking a pandemic
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ash, C. Tags: Epidemiology, Evolution twis Source Type: news

A junction for single-photon detection
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Osborne, I. S. Tags: Physics, Applied, Physics twis Source Type: news

Replication timing organizes epigenome
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jiang, D. Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Change in the air
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Smith, H. J. Tags: Economics, Science and Policy twis Source Type: news

A new frontier for mi familia
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Otero-Symphony, R. D. Tags: letters Source Type: news

Partial immunity and SARS-CoV-2 mutations--Response
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Saad-Roy, C. M., Morris, S. E., Metcalf, C. J. E., Mina, M. J., Baker, R. E., Farrar, J., Holmes, E. C., Pybus, O. G., Graham, A. L., Levin, S. A., Grenfell, B. T., Wagner, C. E. Tags: letters Source Type: news

Partial immunity and SARS-CoV-2 mutations
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hanage, W. P., Russell, C. A. Tags: letters Source Type: news

Man's (next) best friend
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Gellers, J. C. Tags: books Source Type: news

Crafting a culture of secrecy
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Brown, K. Tags: books Source Type: news

Jose Manuel Baselga (1959-2021)
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Scaltriti, M. Tags: perspective Source Type: news

Addressing racial inequities in medicine
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Fair, M. A., Johnson, S. B. Tags: perspective Source Type: news

Healing without scarring
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Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Konieczny, P., Naik, S. Tags: perspective Source Type: news