ScienceNOW This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.
Erratum for the Research Article "Anticancer sulfonamides target splicing by inducing RBM39 degradation via recruitment to DCAF15" by T. Han, M. Goralski, N. Gaskill, E. Capota, J. Kim, T. C. Ting, Y. Xie, N. S. Williams, D. Nijhawan
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Tags: Errata Source Type: news
Ancestral alliances: Plant mutualistic symbioses with fungi and bacteria
Within the plant microbiota, mutualistic fungal and bacterial symbionts are striking examples of microorganisms playing crucial roles in nutrient acquisition. They have coevolved with their hosts since initial plant adaptation to land. Despite the evolutionary distances that separate mycorrhizal and nitrogen-fixing symbioses, these associations share a number of highly conserved features, including specific plant symbiotic signaling pathways, root colonization strategies that circumvent plant immune responses, functional host-microbe interface formation, and the central role of phytohormones in symbiosis-associated root de...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Martin, F. M., Uroz, S., Barker, D. G. Tags: Botany, Evolution, Online Only review Source Type: news
A subcellular map of the human proteome
Resolving the spatial distribution of the human proteome at a subcellular level can greatly increase our understanding of human biology and disease. Here we present a comprehensive image-based map of subcellular protein distribution, the Cell Atlas, built by integrating transcriptomics and antibody-based immunofluorescence microscopy with validation by mass spectrometry. Mapping the in situ localization of 12,003 human proteins at a single-cell level to 30 subcellular structures enabled the definition of the proteomes of 13 major organelles. Exploration of the proteomes revealed single-cell variations in abundance or spati...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Thul, P. J., Akesson, L., Wiking, M., Mahdessian, D., Geladaki, A., Ait Blal, H., Alm, T., Asplund, A., Björk, L., Breckels, L. M., Bäckström, A., Danielsson, F., Fagerberg, L., Fall, J., Gatto, L., Gnann, C., Hober, S., Hjelmare, Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
RNA polymerase motions during promoter melting
We report evidence for an unexpected and obligatory step early in the initiation involving a transient clamp closure as a prerequisite for DNA melting. We also present a 2.6-angstrom crystal structure of a late-initiation intermediate harboring a rotationally unconstrained downstream DNA duplex within the open RNAP active site cleft. Our findings explain how RNAP thermal motions control the promoter search and drive DNA melting in the absence of external energy sources. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Feklistov, A., Bae, B., Hauver, J., Lass-Napiorkowska, A., Kalesse, M., Glaus, F., Altmann, K.-H., Heyduk, T., Landick, R., Darst, S. A. Tags: Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Tudor-SN-mediated endonucleolytic decay of human cell microRNAs promotes G1/S phase transition
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. The pathways that mediate mature miRNA decay are less well understood than those that mediate miRNA biogenesis. We found that functional miRNAs are degraded in human cells by the endonuclease Tudor-SN (TSN). In vitro, recombinant TSN initiated the decay of both protein-free and Argonaute 2–loaded miRNAs via endonucleolytic cleavage at CA and UA dinucleotides, preferentially at scissile bonds located more than five nucleotides away from miRNA ends. Cellular targets of TSN-mediated decay defined using microRNA sequencing followed this rule. Inhi...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Elbarbary, R. A., Miyoshi, K., Myers, J. R., Du, P., Ashton, J. M., Tian, B., Maquat, L. E. Tags: Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation
The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) -aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Zhang, X., van den Pol, A. N. Tags: Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
Ring attractor dynamics in the Drosophila central brain
Ring attractors are a class of recurrent networks hypothesized to underlie the representation of heading direction. Such network structures, schematized as a ring of neurons whose connectivity depends on their heading preferences, can sustain a bump-like activity pattern whose location can be updated by continuous shifts along either turn direction. We recently reported that a population of fly neurons represents the animal’s heading via bump-like activity dynamics. We combined two-photon calcium imaging in head-fixed flying flies with optogenetics to overwrite the existing population representation with an artificia...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Kim, S. S., Rouault, H., Druckmann, S., Jayaraman, V. Tags: Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
An on/off Berry phase switch in circular graphene resonators
The phase of a quantum state may not return to its original value after the system’s parameters cycle around a closed path; instead, the wave function may acquire a measurable phase difference called the Berry phase. Berry phases typically have been accessed through interference experiments. Here, we demonstrate an unusual Berry phase–induced spectroscopic feature: a sudden and large increase in the energy of angular-momentum states in circular graphene p-n junction resonators when a relatively small critical magnetic field is reached. This behavior results from turning on a Berry phase associated with the topo...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Ghahari, F., Walkup, D., Gutierrez, C., Rodriguez-Nieva, J. F., Zhao, Y., Wyrick, J., Natterer, F. D., Cullen, W. G., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., Levitov, L. S., Zhitenev, N. B., Stroscio, J. A. Tags: Physics, Applied reports Source Type: news
Release of mineral-bound water prior to subduction tied to shallow seismogenic slip off Sumatra
Plate-boundary fault rupture during the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction earthquake extended closer to the trench than expected, increasing earthquake and tsunami size. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 362 sampled incoming sediments offshore northern Sumatra, revealing recent release of fresh water within the deep sediments. Thermal modeling links this freshening to amorphous silica dehydration driven by rapid burial-induced temperature increases in the past 9 million years. Complete dehydration of silicates is expected before plate subduction, contrasting with prevailing models for subduction seismogenesis ...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Hüpers, A., Torres, M. E., Owari, S., McNeill, L. C., Dugan, B., Henstock, T. J., Milliken, K. L., Petronotis, K. E., Backman, J., Bourlange, S., Chemale, F., Chen, W., Colson, T. A., Frederik, M. C. G., Guerin, G., Hamahashi, M., House, B. M., Je Tags: Geochemistry, Geophysics reports Source Type: news
Quantum sensing with arbitrary frequency resolution
Quantum sensing takes advantage of well-controlled quantum systems for performing measurements with high sensitivity and precision. We have implemented a concept for quantum sensing with arbitrary frequency resolution, independent of the qubit probe and limited only by the stability of an external synchronization clock. Our concept makes use of quantum lock-in detection to continuously probe a signal of interest. Using the electronic spin of a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, we demonstrate detection of oscillating magnetic fields with a frequency resolution of 70 microhertz over a megahertz bandwidth. The contin...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Boss, J. M., Cujia, K. S., Zopes, J., Degen, C. L. Tags: Physics, Applied reports Source Type: news
Submillihertz magnetic spectroscopy performed with a nanoscale quantum sensor
Precise timekeeping is critical to metrology, forming the basis by which standards of time, length, and fundamental constants are determined. Stable clocks are particularly valuable in spectroscopy because they define the ultimate frequency precision that can be reached. In quantum metrology, the qubit coherence time defines the clock stability, from which the spectral linewidth and frequency precision are determined. We demonstrate a quantum sensing protocol in which the spectral precision goes beyond the sensor coherence time and is limited by the stability of a classical clock. Using this technique, we observed a precis...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Schmitt, S., Gefen, T., Stürner, F. M., Unden, T., Wolff, G., Müller, C., Scheuer, J., Naydenov, B., Markham, M., Pezzagna, S., Meijer, J., Schwarz, I., Plenio, M., Retzker, A., McGuinness, L. P., Jelezko, F. Tags: Physics reports Source Type: news
Jupiters magnetosphere and aurorae observed by the Juno spacecraft during its first polar orbits
The Juno spacecraft acquired direct observations of the jovian magnetosphere and auroral emissions from a vantage point above the poles. Juno’s capture orbit spanned the jovian magnetosphere from bow shock to the planet, providing magnetic field, charged particle, and wave phenomena context for Juno’s passage over the poles and traverse of Jupiter’s hazardous inner radiation belts. Juno’s energetic particle and plasma detectors measured electrons precipitating in the polar regions, exciting intense aurorae, observed simultaneously by the ultraviolet and infrared imaging spectrographs. Juno transited...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Connerney, J. E. P., Adriani, A., Allegrini, F., Bagenal, F., Bolton, S. J., Bonfond, B., Cowley, S. W. H., Gerard, J.- C., Gladstone, G. R., Grodent, D., Hospodarsky, G., Jorgensen, J. L., Kurth, W. S., Levin, S. M., Mauk, B., McComas, D. J., Mura, A., P Tags: Astronomy r-articles Source Type: news
Jupiters interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft
On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter’s poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn’s poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth’s Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno’s measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order o...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Bolton, S. J., Adriani, A., Adumitroaie, V., Allison, M., Anderson, J., Atreya, S., Bloxham, J., Brown, S., Connerney, J. E. P., DeJong, E., Folkner, W., Gautier, D., Grassi, D., Gulkis, S., Guillot, T., Hansen, C., Hubbard, W. B., Iess, L., Ingersoll, A. Tags: Atmospheric Science, Planetary Science r-articles Source Type: news
Protecting water resources calls for international efforts
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Hoy, A. Q. Tags: a-affairs Source Type: news
Response to Comment on "Dissolved organic sulfur in the ocean: Biogeochemistry of a petagram inventory"
Dittmar et al. proposed that mixing alone can explain our observed decrease in marine dissolved organic sulfur with age. However, their simple model lacks an explanation for the origin of sulfur-depleted organic matter in the deep ocean and cannot adequately reproduce our observed stoichiometric changes. Using radiocarbon age also implicitly models the preferential cycling of sulfur that they are disputing. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Koch, B. P., Ksionzek, K. B., Lechtenfeld, O. J., McCallister, S. L., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Geuer, J. K., Geibert, W. Tags: Oceanography t-comment Source Type: news
Comment on "Dissolved organic sulfur in the ocean: Biogeochemistry of a petagram inventory"
Ksionzek et al. (Reports, 28 October 2016, p. 456) provide important data describing the distribution of dissolved organic sulfur (DOS) in the Atlantic Ocean. Here, we show that mixing between water masses is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of DOS, concluding that the turnover time of refractory DOS that Ksionzek et al. present cannot be deduced from their data. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Dittmar, T., Stubbins, A., Ito, T., Jones, D. C. Tags: Oceanography t-comment Source Type: news
Built on Bones: 15,000 Years of Urban Life and Death
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Tags: books Source Type: news
Nuclear safety regulation in the post-Fukushima era
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Lyman, E., Schoeppner, M., von Hippel, F. Tags: Energy p-forum Source Type: news
Whole cell maps chart a course for 21st-century cell biology
Source: ScienceNOW - May 25, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Horwitz, R., Johnson, G. T. Tags: Cell Biology perspective Source Type: news