Erratum for the Report "Global distribution of earthworm diversity" by H. R. P. Phillips, C. A. Guerra, M. L. C. Bartz, M. J. I. Briones, G. Brown, T. W. Crowther, O. Ferlian, K. B. Gongalsky, J. van den Hoogen, J. Krebs, A. Orgiazzi, D. Routh, B. Schwarz, E. M. Bach, J. Bennett, U. Brose, T. Decaens, B. Konig-Ries, M. Loreau, J. Mathieu, C. Mulder, W. H. van der Putten, K. S. Ramirez, M. C. Rillig, D. Russell, M. Rutgers, M. P. Thakur, F. T. de Vries, D. H. Wall, D. A. Wardle, M. Arai, F. O. Ayuke, G. H. Baker, R. Beausejour, J. C. Bedano, K. Birkhofer, E. Blanchart, B. Blossey, T. Bolger, R. L. Bradley, M. A. Callaham, Y. Capowiez, M. E. Caulfield, A. Choi, F. V. Crotty, A. Davalos, D. J. Diaz Cosin, A. Dominguez, A. E. Duhour, N. van Eekeren, C. Emmerling, L. B. Falco, R. Fernandez, S. J. Fonte, C. Fragoso, A. L. C. Franco, M. Fugere, A. T. Fusilero, S. Gholami, M. J. Gundale, M. Gutierrez Lopez, D. K. Hackenberger, L. M. Hernandez, T. Hishi, A. R. Holdsworth, M. Holmstrup, K. N. Hopfensperger, E. Huerta Lwanga, V. Huhta, T. T. Hurisso, B. V. Iannone III, M. Iordache, M. Joschko, N. Kaneko, R. Kanianska, A. M. Keith, C. A. Kelly, M. L. Kernecker, J. Klaminder, A. W. Kone, Y. Kooch, S. T. Kukkonen, H. Lalthanzara, D. R. Lammel, I. M. Lebedev, Y. Li, J. B. Jesus Lidon, N. K. Lincoln, S. R. Loss, R. Marichal, R. Matula, J. H. Moos, G. Moreno, A. Moron-Rios, B. Muys, J. Neirynck, L. Norgrove, M. Novo, V. Nuutinen, V. Nuzzo, M. Rahman P, J. Pansu, S. Paudel, G. Peres, L. Perez-Camacho, R. Pineiro, J.-F. Ponge, M. I. Rashid, S. Rebollo, J. Rodeiro-Iglesias, M. A. Rodriguez, A. M. Roth, G. X. Rousseau, A. Rozen, E. Sayad, L. van Schaik, B. C. Scharenbroch, M. Schirrmann, O. Schmidt, B. Schroder, J. Seeber, M. P. Shashkov, J. Singh, S. M. Smith, M. Steinwandter, J. A. Talavera, D. Trigo, J. Tsukamoto, A. W. de Valenca, S. J. Vanek, I. Virto, A. A. Wackett, M. W. Warren, N. H. Wehr, J. K. Whalen, M. B. Wironen, V. Wolters, I. V. Zenkova, W. Zhang, E. K. Cameron, N. Eisenhauer
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Errata Source Type: news
Structural insights into differences in G protein activation by family A and family B GPCRs
Family B heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism. Recent structures of family B GPCR-Gs protein complexes reveal a disruption in the α-helix of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) not observed in family A GPCRs. To investigate the functional impact of this structural difference, we compared the structure and function of the glucagon receptor (GCGR; family B) with the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR; family A). We determined the structure of the GCGR-Gs complex by means of cryo–electron microscopy at 3.1-...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hilger, D., Kumar, K. K., Hu, H., Pedersen, M. F., OBrien, E. S., Giehm, L., Jennings, C., Eskici, G., Inoue, A., Lerch, M., Mathiesen, J. M., Skiniotis, G., Kobilka, B. K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
The function of the thymus and its impact on modern medicine
The lymphoid system is intimately involved in immunological processes. The small lymphocyte that circulates through blood into lymphoid tissues, then through the lymph and back to the blood through the thoracic duct, is able to initiate immune responses after appropriate stimulation by antigen. However, the lymphocytes found in the thymus are deficient in this ability despite the fact that the thymus plays a central role in lymphocyte production and in ensuring the normal development of immunological faculty. During embryogenesis, lymphocytes are present in the thymus before they can be identified in the circulation and in...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Miller, J. F. A. P. Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only review Source Type: news
A physics-based method that can predict imminent large solar flares
We present the -scheme, a physics-based model to predict large solar flares through a critical condition of magnetohydrodynamic instability, triggered by magnetic reconnection. Analysis of the largest (X-class) flares from 2008 to 2019 (during solar cycle 24) shows that the -scheme predicts most imminent large solar flares, with a small number of exceptions for confined flares. We conclude that magnetic twist flux density, close to a magnetic polarity inversion line on the solar surface, determines when and where solar flares may occur and how large they can be. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kusano, K., Iju, T., Bamba, Y., Inoue, S. Tags: Astronomy, Physics reports Source Type: news
Genomic surveillance reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Northern California
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, with>365,000 cases in California as of 17 July 2020. We investigated the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Northern California from late January to mid-March 2020, using samples from 36 patients spanning nine counties and the Grand Princess cruise ship. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the cryptic introduction of at least seven different SARS-CoV-2 lineages into California, including epidemic WA1 strains associated with Washington state, with lack of a predominant lineage and lim...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Deng, X., Gu, W., Federman, S., du Plessis, L., Pybus, O. G., Faria, N. R., Wang, C., Yu, G., Bushnell, B., Pan, C.-Y., Guevara, H., Sotomayor-Gonzalez, A., Zorn, K., Gopez, A., Servellita, V., Hsu, E., Miller, S., Bedford, T., Greninger, A. L., Roychoudh Tags: Epidemiology, Virology reports Source Type: news
Ancient orogenic and monsoon-driven assembly of the worlds richest temperate alpine flora
Understanding how alpine biotas formed in response to historical environmental change may improve our ability to predict and mitigate the threats to alpine species posed by global warming. In the world’s richest temperate alpine flora, that of the Tibet-Himalaya-Hengduan region, phylogenetic reconstructions of biome and geographic range evolution show that extant lineages emerged by the early Oligocene and diversified first in the Hengduan Mountains. By the early to middle Miocene, accelerated diversification and colonization of adjacent regions were likely driven jointly by mountain building and intensification of t...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ding, W.-N., Ree, R. H., Spicer, R. A., Xing, Y.-W. Tags: Evolution reports Source Type: news
Disparities in PM2.5 air pollution in the United States
Air pollution at any given time is unequally distributed across locations. Average concentrations of fine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) have fallen over time. However, we do not know how the spatial distribution of PM2.5 has evolved. Here, we provide early evidence. We combine 36 years of PM2.5 concentrations measured over ~8.6 million grid cells with geographic, economic, and demographic data from ~65,000 U.S. census tracts. We show that differences in PM2.5 between more and less polluted areas declined substantially between 1981 and 2016. However, the most polluted census tracts in 1...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Colmer, J., Hardman, I., Shimshack, J., Voorheis, J. Tags: Economics, Sociology reports Source Type: news
Rational synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons directly on metal oxide surfaces
Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) attract great interest because of their highly tunable electronic, optical, and transport properties. However, on-surface synthesis of GNRs is typically based on metal surface–assisted chemical reactions, where metallic substrates strongly screen their designer electronic properties and limit further applications. Here, we present an on-surface synthesis approach to forming atomically precise GNRs directly on semiconducting metal oxide surfaces. The thermally triggered multistep transformations preprogrammed in our precursors’ design rely on highly selective and se...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kolmer, M., Steiner, A.-K., Izydorczyk, I., Ko, W., Engelund, M., Szymonski, M., Li, A.-P., Amsharov, K. Tags: Chemistry reports Source Type: news
DNA capture by a CRISPR-Cas9-guided adenine base editor
CRISPR-Cas–guided base editors convert A•T to G•C, or C•G to T•A, in cellular DNA for precision genome editing. To understand the molecular basis for DNA adenosine deamination by adenine base editors (ABEs), we determined a 3.2-angstrom resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of ABE8e in a substrate-bound state in which the deaminase domain engages DNA exposed within the CRISPR-Cas9 R-loop complex. Kinetic and structural data suggest that ABE8e catalyzes DNA deamination up to ~1100-fold faster than earlier ABEs because of mutations that stabilize DNA substrates in a constrained, transf...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lapinaite, A., Knott, G. J., Palumbo, C. M., Lin-Shiao, E., Richter, M. F., Zhao, K. T., Beal, P. A., Liu, D. R., Doudna, J. A. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news
Allele-specific open chromatin in human iPSC neurons elucidates functional disease variants
This study highlights ASoC as a functional mechanism of noncoding neuropsychiatric risk variants, providing a powerful framework for identifying disease causal variants and genes. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhang, S., Zhang, H., Zhou, Y., Qiao, M., Zhao, S., Kozlova, A., Shi, J., Sanders, A. R., Wang, G., Luo, K., Sengupta, S., West, S., Qian, S., Streit, M., Avramopoulos, D., Cowan, C. A., Chen, M., Pang, Z. P., Gejman, P. V., He, X., Duan, J. Tags: Genetics, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Direct reversible decarboxylation from stable organic acids in dimethylformamide solution
We report that chemically stable C(sp3) carboxylates, such as arylacetic acids and malonate half-esters, undergo uncatalyzed reversible decarboxylation in dimethylformamide solution. Decarboxylation-carboxylation occurs with substrates resistant to protodecarboxylation by Brønsted acids under otherwise identical conditions. Isotopically labeled carboxylic acids can be prepared in high chemical and isotopic yield by simply supplying an atmosphere of 13CO2 to carboxylate salts in polar aprotic solvents. An understanding of carboxylate reactivity in solution enables conditions for the trapping of aldehydes, ketones, an...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kong, D., Moon, P. J., Lui, E. K. J., Bsharat, O., Lundgren, R. J. Tags: Chemistry reports Source Type: news
In-cell architecture of an actively transcribing-translating expressome
Structural biology studies performed inside cells can capture molecular machines in action within their native context. In this work, we developed an integrative in-cell structural approach using the genome-reduced human pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We combined whole-cell cross-linking mass spectrometry, cellular cryo–electron tomography, and integrative modeling to determine an in-cell architecture of a transcribing and translating expressome at subnanometer resolution. The expressome comprises RNA polymerase (RNAP), the ribosome, and the transcription elongation factors NusG and NusA. We pinpointed NusA at the i...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: OReilly, F. J., Xue, L., Graziadei, A., Sinn, L., Lenz, S., Tegunov, D., Blötz, C., Singh, N., Hagen, W. J. H., Cramer, P., Stülke, J., Mahamid, J., Rappsilber, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Cooling and entangling ultracold atoms in optical lattices
We report the cooling of a quantum simulator with 10,000 atoms and mass production of high-fidelity entangled pairs. In a two-dimensional plane, we cool Mott insulator samples by immersing them into removable superfluid reservoirs, achieving an entropy per particle of . The atoms are then rearranged into a two-dimensional lattice free of defects. We further demonstrate a two-qubit gate with a fidelity of 0.993 ± 0.001 for entangling 1250 atom pairs. Our results offer a setting for exploring low-energy many-body phases and may enable the creation of large-scale entanglement. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yang, B., Sun, H., Huang, C.-J., Wang, H.-Y., Deng, Y., Dai, H.-N., Yuan, Z.-S., Pan, J.-W. Tags: Physics reports Source Type: news
Human-specific ARHGAP11B increases size and folding of primate neocortex in the fetal marmoset
The neocortex has expanded during mammalian evolution. Overexpression studies in developing mouse and ferret neocortex have implicated the human-specific gene ARHGAP11B in neocortical expansion, but the relevance for primate evolution has been unclear. Here, we provide functional evidence that ARHGAP11B causes expansion of the primate neocortex. ARHGAP11B expressed in fetal neocortex of the common marmoset under control of the gene’s own (human) promoter increased the numbers of basal radial glia progenitors in the marmoset outer subventricular zone, increased the numbers of upper-layer neurons, enlarged the neocorte...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Heide, M., Haffner, C., Murayama, A., Kurotaki, Y., Shinohara, H., Okano, H., Sasaki, E., Huttner, W. B. Tags: Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
Exceptional plasticity in the bulk single-crystalline van der Waals semiconductor InSe
Inorganic semiconductors are vital for a number of critical applications but are almost universally brittle. Here, we report the superplastic deformability of indium selenide (InSe). Bulk single-crystalline InSe can be compressed by orders of magnitude and morphed into a Möbius strip or a simple origami at room temperature. The exceptional plasticity of this two-dimensional van der Waals inorganic semiconductor is attributed to the interlayer gliding and cross-layer dislocation slip that are mediated by the long-range In-Se Coulomb interaction across the van der Waals gap and soft intralayer In-Se bonding. We propose a c...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wei, T.-R., Jin, M., Wang, Y., Chen, H., Gao, Z., Zhao, K., Qiu, P., Shan, Z., Jiang, J., Li, R., Chen, L., He, J., Shi, X. Tags: Materials Science reports Source Type: news
Boosted molecular mobility during common chemical reactions
Mobility of reactants and nearby solvent is more rapid than Brownian diffusion during several common chemical reactions when the energy release rate exceeds a threshold. Screening a family of 15 organic chemical reactions, we demonstrate the largest boost for catalyzed bimolecular reactions, click chemistry, ring-opening metathesis polymerization, and Sonogashira coupling. Boosted diffusion is also observed but to lesser extent for the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reaction, but not for substitution reactions SN1 and SN2 within instrumental resolution. Diffusion coefficient increases as measured by pulsed-field gradient nuclear ...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wang, H., Park, M., Dong, R., Kim, J., Cho, Y.-K., Tlusty, T., Granick, S. Tags: Chemistry reports Source Type: news
Human fetal microglia acquire homeostatic immune-sensing properties early in development
Microglia, immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are important for tissue development and maintenance and are implicated in CNS disease, but we lack understanding of human fetal microglia development. Single-cell gene expression and bulk chromatin profiles of microglia at 9 to 18 gestational weeks (GWs) of human fetal development were generated. Microglia were heterogeneous at all studied GWs. Microglia start to mature during this developmental period and increasingly resemble adult microglia with CNS-surveilling properties. Chromatin accessibility increases during development with associated transcriptional ne...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kracht, L., Borggrewe, M., Eskandar, S., Brouwer, N., Chuva de Sousa Lopes, S. M., Laman, J. D., Scherjon, S. A., Prins, J. R., Kooistra, S. M., Eggen, B. J. L. Tags: Neuroscience r-articles Source Type: news
ANGEL2 is a member of the CCR4 family of deadenylases with 2',3'-cyclic phosphatase activity
RNA molecules are frequently modified with a terminal 2',3'-cyclic phosphate group as a result of endonuclease cleavage, exonuclease trimming, or de novo synthesis. During pre-transfer RNA (tRNA) and unconventional messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, 2',3'-cyclic phosphates are substrates of the tRNA ligase complex, and their removal is critical for recycling of tRNAs upon ribosome stalling. We identified the predicted deadenylase angel homolog 2 (ANGEL2) as a human phosphatase that converts 2',3'-cyclic phosphates into 2',3'-OH nucleotides. We analyzed ANGEL2’s substrate preference, structure, and reaction mechanism. Per...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Pinto, P. H., Kroupova, A., Schleiffer, A., Mechtler, K., Jinek, M., Weitzer, S., Martinez, J. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news