Survival Improves for Peritoneal Mesothelioma Patients in Finland
Survival time improved significantly for peritoneal mesothelioma patients in Finland who underwent a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, according to a recently released study. The five-year survival rate was 66 percent. The median survival was 62 months. According to a smaller, previous study in Finland, the median survival without treatment was just four months after diagnosis. “Despite these advances in treatment…the majority of patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma receive only palliative care of systemic chemotherapy, leaving many eligible patients without the benefit of this more invasive...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - April 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

New study confirms EpCAM as promising target for cancer immunotherapy
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers have shown that cancer immunotherapy targeting the tumor biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is safe and nontoxic in mice and can significantly delay tumor formation and growth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

SGO 2019: Pembrolizumab Combo Shows Clinical Benefit for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Results of a phase II trial evaluating pembrolizumab in combination with bevacizumab and oral metronomic cyclophosphamide were presented at SGO 2019. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christina Bennett, MS Source Type: news

Study: Less-Invasive Mesothelioma Surgery Yields Better Results
A team of researchers at the Hyogo College of Medicine in Nishinomiya, Japan, studied the outcomes for pleural mesothelioma patients who received surgery at their facility between 2004 and 2016. The results: More aggressive surgery did not help mesothelioma patients live longer. “We showed that introducing less-invasive surgical techniques could decrease surgical risks without compromising survival,” the researchers wrote in their study, published in January in Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. “Surgery that is less invasive than conventional extrapleural pneumonectomy could achieve lower ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - March 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Mesothelioma Treatment Combines Proton and Photodynamic Therapy
Intraoperative photodynamic therapy combined with novel proton radiation improved survival time significantly for recent patients with advanced-stage pleural mesothelioma. The study — the first to measure the impact of this combination — involved 10 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pennsylvania’s Abramson Cancer Center. The treatment regimen resulted in a 90 percent, two-year disease control rate and an impressive 30.3-month median overall survival from the time of diagnosis. All 10 patients were diagnosed before treatment began with stage 3 or stage 4 disease, which typically results in ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - March 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer
Which patients with epithelial ovarian cancer should be considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery?Chinese Clinical Oncology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - February 28, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology Journal Article Source Type: news

Chronic TGF-{beta} exposure drives stabilized EMT, tumor stemness, and cancer drug resistance with vulnerability to bitopic mTOR inhibition
Tumors comprise cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their heterogeneous progeny within a stromal microenvironment. In response to transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), epithelial and carcinoma cells undergo a partial or complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to cancer progression. This process is seen as reversible because cells revert to an epithelial phenotype upon TGF-β removal. However, we found that prolonged TGF-β exposure, mimicking the state of in vivo carcinomas, promotes stable EMT in mammary epithelial and carcinoma cells, in contrast to the reversible EMT induced ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 26, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Katsuno, Y., Meyer, D. S., Zhang, Z., Shokat, K. M., Akhurst, R. J., Miyazono, K., Derynck, R. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Elucidation of molecular-targeted drug resistance mechanism by lung cancer cells
(Kanazawa University) We revealed that ALK-positive lung cancer cells, treated with crizonitib, a molecular target drug, acquired resistance to the drug not only by genetic mutation but also by concomitant epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, in animal experiments, mesenchymal cancer cells due to EMT were shown to revert to epithelial ones by quisinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor; they regained sensitivity to the molecular-targeted drug. These results indicate a significant potential of overcoming resistance to molecular-targeted drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How Could Machine Learning and Radiomics Improve Ovarian Cancer Care?
A score derived from CT imaging using a machine learning radiomics approach was able to reliably identify epithelial ovarian cancer patients with poor survival outcomes. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - February 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Source Type: news

Artificial Intelligence Predicts Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
FRIDAY, Feb. 15, 2019 -- Artificial intelligence software can predict prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) above established prognostic methods, according to a study published online Feb. 15 in Nature Communications. Haonan Lu, from the... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - February 15, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Breast cancer cells in mice tricked into turning into fat cells
(Cell Press) As cancer cells respond to cues in their microenvironment, they can enter a highly plastic state in which they are susceptible to transdifferentiation into a different type of cell. Researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland exploited this critical phase, known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to coax breast cancer cells in mice to turn into harmless fat cells. The proof-of-concept study appears Jan. 14, 2019, in the journal Cancer Cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UCLA study overturns dogma of cancer metabolism theory
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) Scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered that squamous cell skin cancers do not require increased glucose to power their development and growth, contrary to a long-held belief about cancer metabolism. The findings could bring about a better understanding of many cancers' metabolic needs and lead to the development of more effective therapies for squamous cell skin cancer and other forms of epithelial cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Noninvasive Test for Colon Cancer Screening Offered as an Alternative to Colonoscopy for Screening
“The only real cure for cancer is finding it early,” said Padma Sundar, vice president of strategy and market access at CellMax Life, in an interview with MD+DI. In terms of colorectal cancer, she said it takes a long time for an adenoma to develop into cancer, so early detection of these adenomas can be lifesaving. But colonoscopy, although the gold standard of adenoma and colon cancer detection, has issues with patient compliance. There are about 125 million Americans, 45 years old and older, who are advised to have routine screening for colorectal cancer. “Unfortunat...
Source: MDDI - January 8, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Susan Shepard Tags: IVD Source Type: news

GPR35 promotes glycolysis, proliferation, and oncogenic signaling by engaging with the sodium potassium pump
We report that the G protein–coupled receptor GPR35 interacted with the α chain of Na/K-ATPase and promotes its ion transport and Src signaling activity in a ligand-independent manner. Deletion of Gpr35 increased baseline Ca2+ to maximal levels and reduced Src activation and overall metabolic activity in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In contrast, a common T108M polymorphism in GPR35 was hypermorphic and had the opposite effects to Gpr35 deletion on Src activation and metabolic activity. The T108M polymorphism is associated with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflamm...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 1, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Schneditz, G., Elias, J. E., Pagano, E., Zaeem Cader, M., Saveljeva, S., Long, K., Mukhopadhyay, S., Arasteh, M., Lawley, T. D., Dougan, G., Bassett, A., Karlsen, T. H., Kaser, A., Kaneider, N. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Radiation Could Make Mesothelioma Immunotherapy More Effective
Doctors at the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto are studying the use of hypofractionated radiation to increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy for patients with mesothelioma. They are expected to launch soon a clinical trial that will add an immunotherapy combination to the high-dose radiation and aggressive surgery mix that has been so successful in Toronto. “There are a lot of questions that still need to be answered, but if I was a betting man, I’d lay odds on it [working well],” Dr. John Cho of the cancer center’s clinical research unit, told The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com....
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - November 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Reprogramming normal human epithelial tissues to a common, lethal neuroendocrine cancer lineage
The use of potent therapies inhibiting critical oncogenic pathways active in epithelial cancers has led to multiple resistance mechanisms, including the development of highly aggressive, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC). SCNC patients have a dismal prognosis due in part to a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this malignancy and the lack of effective treatments. Here, we demonstrate that a common set of defined oncogenic drivers reproducibly reprograms normal human prostate and lung epithelial cells to small cell prostate cancer (SCPC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), respectively. We ide...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Park, J. W., Lee, J. K., Sheu, K. M., Wang, L., Balanis, N. G., Nguyen, K., Smith, B. A., Cheng, C., Tsai, B. L., Cheng, D., Huang, J., Kurdistani, S. K., Graeber, T. G., Witte, O. N. Tags: Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

CTLA4 targeted therapy plus PD-1 targeted therapy could benefit women with ovarian cancer
(NRG Oncology) An analysis of the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-GY003 suggests that adding ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the protein receptor CTLA-4, to a regimen with the checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab could improve the proportion with tumor response and progression-free survival hazard rates for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. These results were presented as a late-breaking abstract oral presentation at the 17th Biennial Meeting of the International Gynecological Cancer Society (IGCS) in Kyoto, Japan. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues
UCLA researchers have discovered  genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how ag gressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as lung, prostate and bladder cancers. The study, led by senior authors Owen Witte and Thomas Graeber, both of the  UCLA E...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 18, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Ca2+ concentration-dependent premature death of igfbp5a-/- fish reveals a critical role of IGF signaling in adaptive epithelial growth
The phenotype gap is a challenge for genetically dissecting redundant endocrine signaling pathways, such as the six isoforms in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family. Although overexpressed IGFBPs can inhibit or potentiate IGF actions or have IGF-independent actions, mutant mice lacking IGFBP-encoding genes do not exhibit major phenotypes. We found that although zebrafish deficient in igfbp5a did not show overt phenotypes when raised in Ca2+-rich solutions, they died prematurely in low Ca2+ conditions. A group of epithelial cells expressing igfbp5a take up Ca2+ and proliferate under low Ca2+ conditi...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - September 18, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Liu, C., Xin, Y., Bai, Y., Lewin, G., He, G., Mai, K., Duan, C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Scientists Are Developing New Ways to Treat Disease With Cells, Not Drugs
When Nichelle Obar learned she was pregnant with her second child last year, she never expected that her pregnancy, or her baby, would make history. But when the 40-year-old food-and-beverage coordinator from Hawaii and her fiancé Christopher Constantino went to their 18-week ultrasound, they learned something was wrong. The heart was larger than it should have been, and there was evidence that fluid was starting to build up around the organ as well. Both were signs that the fetus was working extra hard to pump blood to its fast-growing body and that its heart was starting to fail. Obar’s doctor knew what coul...
Source: TIME: Science - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized medicine Source Type: news

Scientists Are Developing New Ways to Treat Disease With Cells, Not Drugs
When Nichelle Obar learned she was pregnant with her second child last year, she never expected that her pregnancy, or her baby, would make history. But when the 40-year-old food-and-beverage coordinator from Hawaii and her fiancé Christopher Constantino went to their 18-week ultrasound, they learned something was wrong. The heart was larger than it should have been, and there was evidence that fluid was starting to build up around the organ as well. Both were signs that the fetus was working extra hard to pump blood to its fast-growing body and that its heart was starting to fail. Obar’s doctor knew what coul...
Source: TIME: Health - September 13, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized Innovation Health medicine Source Type: news

3D cell environment key for divvying up chromosomes -- find could explain cancer hallmark
(Howard Hughes Medical Institute) Epithelial cells grown on a plastic dish are worse at segregating their chromosomes than epithelial cells growing in mice, a new study shows. The results may help explain why chromosomes go awry in cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - August 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Ovarian Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer Treatment
Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Source: eMedicineHealth.com - July 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Lgl reduces endosomal vesicle acidification and Notch signaling by promoting the interaction between Vap33 and the V-ATPase complex
Epithelial cell polarity is linked to the control of tissue growth and tumorigenesis. The tumor suppressor and cell polarity protein lethal-2-giant larvae (Lgl) promotes Hippo signaling and inhibits Notch signaling to restrict tissue growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Notch signaling is greater in lgl mutant tissue than in wild-type tissue because of increased acidification of endosomal vesicles, which promotes the proteolytic processing and activation of Notch by -secretase. We showed that the increased Notch signaling and tissue growth defects of lgl mutant tissue depended on endosomal vesicle acidification mediated by t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - June 5, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Portela, M., Yang, L., Paul, S., Li, X., Veraksa, A., Parsons, L. M., Richardson, H. E. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Researchers uncover cell types of the human breast epithelium
(University of California - Irvine) Researchers from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, in collaboration with scientists at UCSF and Northwestern University, have profiled human breast epithelial cells, identifying three new distinct epithelial cell populations. The discovery of these cell populations could aid in understanding the origins of breast cancer and lead to improved early cancer detection, a slowing of cancer progression and possibly even cancer prevention. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 31, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Secondary Surgery Associated With Improved Survival in Ovarian Cancer
A secondary cytoreductive surgery along with chemotherapy following recurrence in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer offered improved outcomes over treatment with chemotherapy alone. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - May 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Tags: Gynecologic Cancers SiteTerms/www.cannabissciencetech.com/News Ovarian Cancer Source Type: news

Study examines treatment options for women with recurrent ovarian cancer
(Wiley) New research indicates that for women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer whose cancer has relapsed after surgery, a second surgery is worth considering. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Integration of protein phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation data sets to outline lung cancer signaling networks
Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) have typically been studied independently, yet many proteins are modified by more than one PTM type, and cell signaling pathways somehow integrate this information. We coupled immunoprecipitation using PTM-specific antibodies with tandem mass tag (TMT) mass spectrometry to simultaneously examine phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation in 45 lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung tissue and to cell lines treated with anticancer drugs. This simultaneous, large-scale, integrative analysis of these PTMs using a cluster-filtered network (CFN) approach revealed that ce...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 22, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Grimes, M., Hall, B., Foltz, L., Levy, T., Rikova, K., Gaiser, J., Cook, W., Smirnova, E., Wheeler, T., Clark, N. R., Lachmann, A., Zhang, B., Hornbeck, P., Maayan, A., Comb, M. Tags: STKE Research Resources Source Type: news

Scientific expert reaction to new Cochrane Review on HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in girls and women
This study looks at a collection of studies looking at the benefit of HPV vaccines in reducing pre cervical cancer lesions.  HPV also causes many other serious cancers (especially head and neck).  In time, as more people have been vaccinated, we will see a reduction in all HPV cancers.  The HP V vaccine is one of a number of vaccines using virus like particles (VLPS) which have been shown to be very safe over the last 35 years. “The Cochrane library of reviews has a very rigorous assessment process of all their reviews. “The review only looked at cervical precancer (in women and girls),...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - May 8, 2018 Category: Information Technology Authors: Muriah Umoquit Source Type: news

FDA Approves Rucaparib for Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Maintenance Therapy
The FDA has granted approval of rucaparib for maintenance therapy in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - April 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Tags: Gynecologic Cancers SiteTerms/www.cannabissciencetech.com/News Ovarian Cancer Source Type: news

Clovis Oncology ovarian cancer drug receives fast-tracked FDA approval
Clovis Oncology won the fast-tracked verdict it hoped for on Friday when the  U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved marketing the company's ovarian cancer drug rucaparib to treat a broader range of patients. The FDA approved the Boulder-based company (Nasdaq: CLVS) selling rucaparib as a maintenance treatment in women “with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tu be, or primary peritoneal cancer who are platinum sensitive” and regardless of their genetic profile. The FDA completed its… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - April 6, 2018 Category: American Health Authors: Greg Avery Source Type: news

Clovis Oncology ovarian cancer drug receives fast-tracked FDA approval
Clovis Oncology won the fast-tracked verdict it hoped for on Friday when the  U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved marketing the company's ovarian cancer drug rucaparib to an expanded range of patients. The FDA approved the Boulder-based company (Nasdaq: CLVS) selling rucaparib as a maintenance treatment in women “with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are platinum sensitive” and regardless of their genetic profile. That means more women with… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - April 6, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Greg Avery Source Type: news

The microbiome in cancer immunotherapy: Diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies
The fine line between human health and disease can be driven by the interplay between host and microbial factors. This "metagenome" regulates cancer initiation, progression, and response to therapies. Besides the capacity of distinct microbial species to modulate the pharmacodynamics of chemotherapeutic drugs, symbiosis between epithelial barriers and their microbial ecosystems has a major impact on the local and distant immune system, markedly influencing clinical outcome in cancer patients. Efficacy of cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibodies can be diminished with administration of antibiotics, a...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 22, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zitvogel, L., Ma, Y., Raoult, D., Kroemer, G., Gajewski, T. F. Tags: Immunology special/review Source Type: news

Blood Test Could Make Monitoring Mesothelioma Easier
A simple blood test may have the potential to replace the more costly and burdensome CT scan for monitoring post-treatment recurrence and progression of pleural mesothelioma. Researchers at the University of Bristol in the United Kingdom recently found that the changing levels of the protein mesothelin in blood often mirrored CT scan results in patients who already had completed treatment. BMC Cancer published results of their study — a first of its kind — which included the long-term monitoring of 41 patients with mesothelioma who had either completed chemotherapy or other supportive care. “With this stu...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - March 8, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Daniel King Source Type: news

Convergence of Wnt, growth factor, and heterotrimeric G protein signals on the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Daple
Cellular proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis are shaped by multiple signaling cascades, and their dysregulation plays an integral role in cancer progression. Three cascades that contribute to oncogenic potential are those mediated by Wnt proteins and the receptor Frizzled (FZD), growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and heterotrimeric G proteins and associated GPCRs. Daple is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the G protein Gαi. Daple also binds to FZD and the Wnt/FZD mediator Dishevelled (Dvl), and it enhances β-catenin–independent Wnt signaling in response to Wnt5a-FZD...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 27, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Aznar, N., Ear, J., Dunkel, Y., Sun, N., Satterfield, K., He, F., Kalogriopoulos, N. A., Lopez-Sanchez, I., Ghassemian, M., Sahoo, D., Kufareva, I., Ghosh, P. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

New Clinical Trial Focuses on Immunotoxins and Mesothelioma
An exciting new mesothelioma clinical trial will study one approach for improving how well immunotoxin drugs work. The phase I trial is enrolling peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma patients. Immunotoxins, which are targeted therapies, attach to and destroy cancer cells. This approach already has shown promise in a small clinical trial. This new clinical trial will give mesothelioma patients an immunotoxin in combination with another substance to suppress the immune system. The goal of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical trial is to learn how safe and tolerable the combination of the immunotoxin and immune suppre...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - February 26, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Abl and Arg mediate cysteine cathepsin secretion to facilitate melanoma invasion and metastasis
The incidence of melanoma is increasing, particularly in young women, and the disease remains incurable for many because of its aggressive, metastatic nature and its high rate of resistance to conventional, targeted, and immunological agents. Cathepsins are proteases that are critical for melanoma progression and therapeutic resistance. Intracellular cathepsins cleave or degrade proteins that restrict cancer progression, whereas extracellular cathepsins directly cleave the extracellular matrix and activate proinvasive proteases in the tumor microenvironment. Cathepsin secretion is markedly increased in cancer cells. We inv...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tripathi, R., Fiore, L. S., Richards, D. L., Yang, Y., Liu, J., Wang, C., Plattner, R. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Structural basis for the interaction between the cell polarity proteins Par3 and Par6
Polarity is a fundamental property of most cell types. The Par protein complex is a major driving force in generating asymmetrically localized protein networks and consists of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC), Par3, and Par6. Dysfunction of this complex causes developmental abnormalities and diseases such as cancer. We identified a PDZ domain–binding motif in Par6 that was essential for its interaction with Par3 in vitro and for Par3-mediated membrane localization of Par6 in cultured cells. In fly embryos, we observed that the PDZ domain–binding motif was functionally redundant with the PDZ domain in targeting ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Renschler, F. A., Bruekner, S. R., Salomon, P. L., Mukherjee, A., Kullmann, L., Schütz-Stoffregen, M. C., Henzler, C., Pawson, T., Krahn, M. P., Wiesner, S. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

SILAC identifies LAD1 as a filamin-binding regulator of actin dynamics in response to EGF and a marker of aggressive breast tumors
Mutations mimicking growth factor–induced proliferation and motility characterize aggressive subtypes of mammary tumors. To unravel currently unknown players in these processes, we performed phosphoproteomic analysis on untransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) that were stimulated in culture with epidermal growth factor (EGF). We identified ladinin-1 (LAD1), a largely uncharacterized protein to date, as a phosphorylation-regulated mediator of the EGF-to-ERK pathway. Further experiments revealed that LAD1 mediated the proliferation and migration of mammary cells. LAD1 was transcriptionally induced, phosphorylat...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Roth, L., Srivastava, S., Lindzen, M., Sas-Chen, A., Sheffer, M., Lauriola, M., Enuka, Y., Noronha, A., Mancini, M., Lavi, S., Tarcic, G., Pines, G., Nevo, N., Heyman, O., Ziv, T., Rueda, O. M., Gnocchi, D., Pikarski, E., Admon, A., Caldas, C., Yarden, Y. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

KIF22 coordinates CAR and EGFR dynamics to promote cancer cell proliferation
The coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a transmembrane receptor that plays a key role in cell-cell adhesion. CAR is found in normal epithelial cells and is increased in abundance in various human tumors, including lung carcinomas. We investigated the potential mechanisms by which CAR contributes to cancer cell growth and found that depletion of CAR in human lung cancer cells reduced anchorage-independent growth, epidermal growth factor (EGF)–dependent proliferation, and tumor growth in vivo. EGF induced the phosphorylation of CAR and its subsequent relocalization to cell junctions through the activation ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pike, R., Ortiz-Zapater, E., Lumicisi, B., Santis, G., Parsons, M. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Tied to Better Survival in Advanced Ovarian Cancer Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Tied to Better Survival in Advanced Ovarian Cancer
The adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with reduced mortality in women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, researchers report.Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - January 10, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medscape Today News Source Type: news

Gut microbiome influences efficacy of PD-1-based immunotherapy against epithelial tumors
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis induce sustained clinical responses in a sizable minority of cancer patients. We found that primary resistance to ICIs can be attributed to abnormal gut microbiome composition. Antibiotics inhibited the clinical benefit of ICIs in patients with advanced cancer. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from cancer patients who responded to ICIs into germ-free or antibiotic-treated mice ameliorated the antitumor effects of PD-1 blockade, whereas FMT from nonresponding patients failed to do so. Metagenomics of patient stool samples at diagnosis revealed correlati...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Routy, B., Le Chatelier, E., Derosa, L., Duong, C. P. M., Alou, M. T., Daillere, R., Fluckiger, A., Messaoudene, M., Rauber, C., Roberti, M. P., Fidelle, M., Flament, C., Poirier-Colame, V., Opolon, P., Klein, C., Iribarren, K., Mondragon, L., Jacquelot, Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

Electron microscope images reveal how cells absorb a vital mineral
(Columbia University Medical Center) Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have obtained the first detailed snapshots of the structure of a membrane pore that enables epithelial cells to absorb calcium. The findings could accelerate the development of drugs to correct abnormalities in calcium uptake, which have been linked to cancers of the breast, endometrium, prostate, and colon. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 20, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Oncogenic PI3K promotes methionine dependency in breast cancer cells through the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT
The precursor homocysteine is metabolized either through the methionine cycle to produce methionine or through the transsulfuration pathway to synthesize cysteine. Alternatively, cysteine can be obtained through uptake of its oxidized form, cystine. Many cancer cells exhibit methionine dependency such that their proliferation is impaired in growth media in which methionine is replaced by homocysteine. We showed that oncogenic PIK3CA and decreased expression of SLC7A11, a gene that encodes a cystine transporter also known as xCT, correlated with increased methionine dependency in breast cancer cells. Oncogenic PIK3CA was su...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - December 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Lien, E. C., Ghisolfi, L., Geck, R. C., Asara, J. M., Toker, A. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Clovis Oncology gets FDA fast-tracked review date for ovarian cancer drug
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast-tracked review of using a Clovis Oncology drug to treat a wider range of ovarian cancer patients. The Boulder-based company (Nasdaq: CLVS) seeks approval to use its ovarian cancer drug, rucaparib, as a maintenance treatment in women “with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are platinum sensitive” and regardless of their genetic profile. The FDA says it will make a decision by April 6, 2018,… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - December 6, 2017 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Greg Avery Source Type: news

Clovis Oncology gets FDA fast-tracked review date for ovarian cancer drug
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted a fast-tracked review of using a Clovis Oncology drug to treat a wider range of ovarian cancer patients. The Boulder-based company (Nasdaq: CLVS) seeks approval to use its ovarian cancer drug, rucaparib, as a maintenance treatment in women “with recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer who are platinum sensitive” and regardless of their genetic profile. The FDA says it will make a decision by April 6, 2018,… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - December 6, 2017 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Greg Avery Source Type: news

Invasive cells in head and neck tumors predict cancer spread
(Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary) Head and neck tumors that contain cells undergoing a partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition --   which transforms them from neatly organized blocks into irregular structures that extrude into the surrounding environment -- are more likely to invade and spread to other parts of the body, according to a new study led by researchers from Mass. Eye and Ear, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - November 30, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Gut microbiome influences efficacy of PD-1based immunotherapy against epithelial tumors
This piece of research is behind the headline: Gut bacteria " boost " cancer therapy. This early-stage study gives us some insights into factors that might influence people's responses to a specific type of cancer treatment (immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies). The findings are of interest, but don't have any immediate implications for cancer treatment. This early-stage study gives us some insights into factors that might influence people's responses to a specific type of cancer treatment (immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies).The findings are of interest, but don't have any immediate implications for c...
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - November 17, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Computer program finds new uses for old drugs
(Case Western Reserve University) Researchers at the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have developed a computer program to find new indications for old drugs. The computer program, called DrugPredict, matches existing data about FDA-approved drugs to diseases, and predicts potential drug efficacy. In a recent study published in Oncogene, the researchers successfully translated DrugPredict results into the laboratory, and showed common pain medications--like aspirin--can kill patient-derived epithelial ovarian cancer cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - November 16, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Cancer treatment response may be affected by gut bacteria
Conclusion This early-stage study gives us some insights into factors that might influence people's responses to a specific type of cancer treatment (immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies). The findings are of interest, but don't have any immediate implications for cancer treatment. We don't know what the conditions that required antibiotic treatment were and whether these could have affected the response to immunotherapy. We don't know whether the antibiotics themselves influenced how well the immunotherapy worked, or whether it was their effect on gut bacteria. We also don't know whether having high levels of part...
Source: NHS News Feed - November 3, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer Source Type: news