MicroRNA regulates process vital to placenta growth in early pregnancy
(University of South Florida (USF Health)) A study by University of South Florida Health (USF Health) researchers discovered how a very large human non-protein coding gene regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) -- a process that contributes to placental implantation during early pregnancy, as well as cancer progression and spread. EMT plays a key role in proper placenta growth, critical to the health of the mother and her growing fetus. The USF Health team showed that robustly activating the chromosome 19 microRNA cluster using CRISPR technology inhibited EMT. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Duke Completes Largest Study of Mesothelioma in Women
This study of women included 275 cases of pleural mesothelioma and 79 cases of peritoneal. Papillary mesothelioma and localized mesothelioma cases were excluded. Previous reports have shown that 22% to 29% of mesothelioma cases involve women, but only 12% in this particular study. Other Notable Takeaways The majority of those studied were exposed to asbestos through household contact. Women who worked in occupations and industries associated with higher asbestos exposure had objective markers of exposure similar to men. Survival was longer for the epithelial subtype of mesothelioma and magnified with the per...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - February 5, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Tumor secreted ANGPTL2 facilitates recruitment of neutrophils to the lung to promote lung pre-metastatic niche formation and targeting ANGPTL2 signaling affects metastatic disease
(Impact Journals LLC) The authors determined that tumor-derived ANGPTL2 stimulates lung epithelial cells, which is essential for primary tumor-induced neutrophil recruitment in lung and subsequent pre-metastatic niche formation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin induces claudin-4 to activate YAP in oral squamous cell
(Impact Journals LLC) Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 4: Treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines HSC3 and HSC4 with Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin, induced CLDN4 nuclear translocation to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness, cell proliferation, and invasive ability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Janssen to Highlight Depth of Solid Tumor Portfolio at ASCO GU
RARITAN, N.J., February 3, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson announced today multiple data presentations from a robust solid tumor portfolio that will be featured at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary (ASCO GU) Cancers Symposium, taking place February 13-15 in San Francisco. Company-sponsored data presentations will include clinical results for ERLEADA® (apalutamide) and niraparib in prostate cancer; and BALVERSA™ (erdafitinib) in bladder cancer. “We are committed to improving outcomes in patients with prostate and bladder cancer where high unmet...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - February 3, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news

Weekly Dose-Dense Chemo Not Recommended in First-Line Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treatment
A study showed that first-line treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer using weekly dose-dense chemotherapy did not improve progression-free survival, compared with 3-weekly chemotherapy, in European women. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - December 20, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matthew Fowler Source Type: news

Researchers create accurate model of organ scarring using stem cells in a lab
Every organ in the body is capable, to some extent, of repairing itself after an injury. As part of this process, scar tissue forms and then recedes to make room for normal tissue when healing is complete.However, when healing is disrupted — whether by chronic injury or disease — the cells that make up scar tissue can go rogue, continuously dividing and spreading until the scar eventually strangles the organ it was intended to help heal, which can lead to organ failure.That progressive, out-of-control scarring is called fibrosis, and it can occur in any organ in the body. Fibrosis plays a major role in many dis...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - December 11, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

New Cochrane Review assesses different HPV vaccines and vaccine schedules in adolescent girls and boys
New evidence published in the Cochrane Library today provides further information on the benefits and harms of different human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines and vaccine schedules in young women and men.HPV is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract in both women and men globally (WHO 2017). Most people who have sexual contact will be exposed to HPV at some point in their life. In most people, their own immune system will clear the HPV infection.HPV infection can sometimes persist if the immune system does not clear the virus. Persistent infection with some ‘high-risk’ strains of HPV can lead t...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - November 20, 2019 Category: Information Technology Authors: Katie Abbotts Source Type: news

Article proposes important mucin link between microbial infections and many cancers
(University of North Carolina at Charlotte) In a review article, cancer biologists Pinku Mukherjee and Mukulika Bose argue that recent research suggests a mechanism that may implicate bacterial infections as important factors in epithelial cell cancers. The article points to microbial interactions that may alter the glycoprotein known as MUC1, triggering signaling pathways that cause cancer, including cancers of the colon, lungs, stomach, liver and pancreas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - November 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Adult fly intestine could help understand intestinal regeneration
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to diverse types of environmental stresses such as bacteria and toxins, but the mechanisms by which epithelial cells sense stress are not well understood. New research by the universities of Bristol, Heidelberg and the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) have found that Nox-ROS-ASK1-MKK3-p38 signaling in IECs integrates various stresses to facilitate intestinal regeneration. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - September 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Health, International, Research; Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institutes, Institutes, Elizabeth Blackwell; Press Release Source Type: news

Reverse signaling by semaphorin 4C elicits SMAD1/5- and ID1/3-dependent invasive reprogramming in cancer cells
Semaphorins are a family of molecular signals that guide cell migration and are implicated in the regulation of cancer cells. In particular, transmembrane semaphorins are postulated to act as both ligands ("forward" mode) and signaling receptors ("reverse" mode); however, reverse semaphorin signaling in cancer is relatively less understood. Here, we identified a previously unknown function of transmembrane semaphorin 4C (Sema4C), acting in reverse mode, to elicit nonconventional TGF-β/BMP receptor activation and selective SMAD1/5 phosphorylation. Sema4C coimmunoprecipitated with TGFBRII and BMPR1, ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - August 20, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Gurrapu, S., Franzolin, G., Fard, D., Accardo, M., Medico, E., Sarotto, I., Sapino, A., Isella, C., Tamagnone, L. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Mesothelioma Treatment in Toronto Moves from SMART to SMARTER
The Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto has moved from SMART to SMARTER with the recent launch of its latest clinical trial for pleural mesothelioma patients. SMARTER is the acronym for Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy using Extensive pleural Resection, which also describes the latest clinical trial. The phase I clinical trial is an unconventional approach to treatment of mesothelioma: Find the maximum tolerated dosage of hypofractionated radiation to stimulate the immune system before aggressive surgery. It comes on the heels of the SMART protocol, which stands for Surgery for Mesothelioma After Rad...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - July 31, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Walter Pacheco Source Type: news

Galectin-3 initiates epithelial-stromal paracrine signaling to shape the proteolytic microenvironment during corneal repair
Paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts occur during tissue repair, development, and cancer. Crucial to these processes is the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that modify the microenvironment. Here, we demonstrated that the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 stimulated microenvironment remodeling in the cornea by promoting the paracrine action of secreted interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Through live cell imaging in vitro, we observed rapid activation of the MMP9 promoter in clusters of cultured human epithelial cells after direct heterotypic contact with single primary ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 16, 2019 Category: Science Authors: AbuSamra, D. B., Mauris, J., Argüeso, P. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Similarities of small cell cancers to blood cancers could lead to better treatments
An interdisciplinary team of UCLA scientists has found that small cell neuroendocrine cancers from a range of tissues have a common molecular signature and share drug sensitivities with blood cancers. The discoveries could improve the diagnoses of these aggressive cancers and lead to the development of new treatments that build upon the lessons learned from successful blood cancer therapies.The study, led by senior authors  Thomas Graeber and Dr. Owen Witte,  both of the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 8, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Understanding sarcoma: from diagnosis to treatment
A cancer diagnosis can be scary and confusing, especially for a patient receiving a sarcoma diagnosis. What is sarcoma? Sarcoma is a rare cancer of the soft tissues and bone. Most types of cancer originate in the epithelial linings that cover exposed surfaces of the body and have direct exposure to environmental toxins. Sarcomas, however, originate from cells or tissues that lie below these lini ngs in the muscle, bone, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, smooth muscle and skeletal muscles. Any type… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - June 30, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Dr. Kamal Ummed Source Type: news

Understanding sarcoma: from diagnosis to treatment
A cancer diagnosis can be scary and confusing, especially for a patient receiving a sarcoma diagnosis. What is sarcoma? Sarcoma is a rare cancer of the soft tissues and bone. Most types of cancer originate in the epithelial linings that cover exposed surfaces of the body and have direct exposure to environmental toxins. Sarcomas, however, originate from cells or tissues that lie below these lini ngs in the muscle, bone, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, smooth muscle and skeletal muscles. Any type… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 30, 2019 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Dr. Kamal Ummed Source Type: news

Mesothelioma Treatment Guidelines Not Followed Often Enough
Too many patients with pleural mesothelioma are going without treatment recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, according to a recent study at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. Valuable survival time is being lost. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery published the study that looked at disparities in compliance with national treatment guidelines and their impact on overall survival. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network, along with the American Society of Clinical Oncology, recommends multimodal therapy — surgery, chemotherapy and possibly radiation therapy — for mesothelioma pa...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - June 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Nintedanib Worsens Outcomes Along With Chemo in Advanced Ovarian Cancer
A phase II trial showed that the addition of nintedanib to neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not benefit patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - June 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Source Type: news

Does Maintenance Rucaparib Improve Post-Progression Outcomes in Ovarian Cancer?
Researchers tested maintenance therapy with rucaparib in a phase III trial of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer who experienced response to platinum-based chemotherapy. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - June 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Source Type: news

Benefit of Single-Agent Carboplatin in Vulnerable, Elderly Patients With Ovarian Cancer
The EWOC-1 trial looked at single-agent carboplatin in  vulnerable, elderly patients with stage III/IV epithelial ovarian cancer vs weekly or every 3 weeks carboplatin/paclitaxel. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - June 5, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Leah Lawrence Source Type: news

New study explains how inflammation causes gastric cancer
(Kanazawa University) Researchers from Kanazawa University and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development have solved the decades-old mystery of how stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori causes gastric cancer. Using mouse models and human cancer cell lines, they showed that inflammation resulting from bacterial infection leads to the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells, which ultimately form gastric tumors. By blocking the protein pathway responsible for this proliferation, they prevented gastric tumor formation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Survival Improves for Peritoneal Mesothelioma Patients in Finland
Survival time improved significantly for peritoneal mesothelioma patients in Finland who underwent a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, according to a recently released study. The five-year survival rate was 66 percent. The median survival was 62 months. According to a smaller, previous study in Finland, the median survival without treatment was just four months after diagnosis. “Despite these advances in treatment…the majority of patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma receive only palliative care of systemic chemotherapy, leaving many eligible patients without the benefit of this more invasive...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - April 1, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

New study confirms EpCAM as promising target for cancer immunotherapy
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Researchers have shown that cancer immunotherapy targeting the tumor biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is safe and nontoxic in mice and can significantly delay tumor formation and growth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 28, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

SGO 2019: Pembrolizumab Combo Shows Clinical Benefit for Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Results of a phase II trial evaluating pembrolizumab in combination with bevacizumab and oral metronomic cyclophosphamide were presented at SGO 2019. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - March 19, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Christina Bennett, MS Source Type: news

Study: Less-Invasive Mesothelioma Surgery Yields Better Results
A team of researchers at the Hyogo College of Medicine in Nishinomiya, Japan, studied the outcomes for pleural mesothelioma patients who received surgery at their facility between 2004 and 2016. The results: More aggressive surgery did not help mesothelioma patients live longer. “We showed that introducing less-invasive surgical techniques could decrease surgical risks without compromising survival,” the researchers wrote in their study, published in January in Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. “Surgery that is less invasive than conventional extrapleural pneumonectomy could achieve lower ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - March 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Mesothelioma Treatment Combines Proton and Photodynamic Therapy
Intraoperative photodynamic therapy combined with novel proton radiation improved survival time significantly for recent patients with advanced-stage pleural mesothelioma. The study — the first to measure the impact of this combination — involved 10 consecutive patients treated at the University of Pennsylvania’s Abramson Cancer Center. The treatment regimen resulted in a 90 percent, two-year disease control rate and an impressive 30.3-month median overall survival from the time of diagnosis. All 10 patients were diagnosed before treatment began with stage 3 or stage 4 disease, which typically results in ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - March 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced Ovarian Cancer
Which patients with epithelial ovarian cancer should be considered for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery?Chinese Clinical Oncology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - February 28, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology Journal Article Source Type: news

Chronic TGF-{beta} exposure drives stabilized EMT, tumor stemness, and cancer drug resistance with vulnerability to bitopic mTOR inhibition
Tumors comprise cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their heterogeneous progeny within a stromal microenvironment. In response to transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β), epithelial and carcinoma cells undergo a partial or complete epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to cancer progression. This process is seen as reversible because cells revert to an epithelial phenotype upon TGF-β removal. However, we found that prolonged TGF-β exposure, mimicking the state of in vivo carcinomas, promotes stable EMT in mammary epithelial and carcinoma cells, in contrast to the reversible EMT induced ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 26, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Katsuno, Y., Meyer, D. S., Zhang, Z., Shokat, K. M., Akhurst, R. J., Miyazono, K., Derynck, R. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Elucidation of molecular-targeted drug resistance mechanism by lung cancer cells
(Kanazawa University) We revealed that ALK-positive lung cancer cells, treated with crizonitib, a molecular target drug, acquired resistance to the drug not only by genetic mutation but also by concomitant epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, in animal experiments, mesenchymal cancer cells due to EMT were shown to revert to epithelial ones by quisinostat, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor; they regained sensitivity to the molecular-targeted drug. These results indicate a significant potential of overcoming resistance to molecular-targeted drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 25, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How Could Machine Learning and Radiomics Improve Ovarian Cancer Care?
A score derived from CT imaging using a machine learning radiomics approach was able to reliably identify epithelial ovarian cancer patients with poor survival outcomes. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - February 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Source Type: news

Artificial Intelligence Predicts Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
FRIDAY, Feb. 15, 2019 -- Artificial intelligence software can predict prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) above established prognostic methods, according to a study published online Feb. 15 in Nature Communications. Haonan Lu, from the... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - February 15, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Breast cancer cells in mice tricked into turning into fat cells
(Cell Press) As cancer cells respond to cues in their microenvironment, they can enter a highly plastic state in which they are susceptible to transdifferentiation into a different type of cell. Researchers at the University of Basel in Switzerland exploited this critical phase, known as an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to coax breast cancer cells in mice to turn into harmless fat cells. The proof-of-concept study appears Jan. 14, 2019, in the journal Cancer Cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UCLA study overturns dogma of cancer metabolism theory
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) Scientists at the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have discovered that squamous cell skin cancers do not require increased glucose to power their development and growth, contrary to a long-held belief about cancer metabolism. The findings could bring about a better understanding of many cancers' metabolic needs and lead to the development of more effective therapies for squamous cell skin cancer and other forms of epithelial cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 9, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Noninvasive Test for Colon Cancer Screening Offered as an Alternative to Colonoscopy for Screening
“The only real cure for cancer is finding it early,” said Padma Sundar, vice president of strategy and market access at CellMax Life, in an interview with MD+DI. In terms of colorectal cancer, she said it takes a long time for an adenoma to develop into cancer, so early detection of these adenomas can be lifesaving. But colonoscopy, although the gold standard of adenoma and colon cancer detection, has issues with patient compliance. There are about 125 million Americans, 45 years old and older, who are advised to have routine screening for colorectal cancer. “Unfortunat...
Source: MDDI - January 8, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Susan Shepard Tags: IVD Source Type: news

GPR35 promotes glycolysis, proliferation, and oncogenic signaling by engaging with the sodium potassium pump
We report that the G protein–coupled receptor GPR35 interacted with the α chain of Na/K-ATPase and promotes its ion transport and Src signaling activity in a ligand-independent manner. Deletion of Gpr35 increased baseline Ca2+ to maximal levels and reduced Src activation and overall metabolic activity in macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In contrast, a common T108M polymorphism in GPR35 was hypermorphic and had the opposite effects to Gpr35 deletion on Src activation and metabolic activity. The T108M polymorphism is associated with ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis, inflamm...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 1, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Schneditz, G., Elias, J. E., Pagano, E., Zaeem Cader, M., Saveljeva, S., Long, K., Mukhopadhyay, S., Arasteh, M., Lawley, T. D., Dougan, G., Bassett, A., Karlsen, T. H., Kaser, A., Kaneider, N. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Radiation Could Make Mesothelioma Immunotherapy More Effective
Doctors at the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto are studying the use of hypofractionated radiation to increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy for patients with mesothelioma. They are expected to launch soon a clinical trial that will add an immunotherapy combination to the high-dose radiation and aggressive surgery mix that has been so successful in Toronto. “There are a lot of questions that still need to be answered, but if I was a betting man, I’d lay odds on it [working well],” Dr. John Cho of the cancer center’s clinical research unit, told The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com....
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - November 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Reprogramming normal human epithelial tissues to a common, lethal neuroendocrine cancer lineage
The use of potent therapies inhibiting critical oncogenic pathways active in epithelial cancers has led to multiple resistance mechanisms, including the development of highly aggressive, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC). SCNC patients have a dismal prognosis due in part to a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms driving this malignancy and the lack of effective treatments. Here, we demonstrate that a common set of defined oncogenic drivers reproducibly reprograms normal human prostate and lung epithelial cells to small cell prostate cancer (SCPC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC), respectively. We ide...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Park, J. W., Lee, J. K., Sheu, K. M., Wang, L., Balanis, N. G., Nguyen, K., Smith, B. A., Cheng, C., Tsai, B. L., Cheng, D., Huang, J., Kurdistani, S. K., Graeber, T. G., Witte, O. N. Tags: Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

CTLA4 targeted therapy plus PD-1 targeted therapy could benefit women with ovarian cancer
(NRG Oncology) An analysis of the NRG Oncology clinical trial NRG-GY003 suggests that adding ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the protein receptor CTLA-4, to a regimen with the checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab could improve the proportion with tumor response and progression-free survival hazard rates for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. These results were presented as a late-breaking abstract oral presentation at the 17th Biennial Meeting of the International Gynecological Cancer Society (IGCS) in Kyoto, Japan. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers find adult stem cell characteristics in aggressive cancers from different tissues
UCLA researchers have discovered  genetic similarities between the adult stem cells responsible for maintaining and repairing epithelial tissues — which line all of the organs and cavities inside the body — and the cells that drive aggressive epithelial cancers. Their findings could bring about a better understanding of how ag gressive, treatment-resistant cancers develop and progress, and could eventually lead to new drugs for a range of advanced epithelial cancers such as lung, prostate and bladder cancers. The study, led by senior authors Owen Witte and Thomas Graeber, both of the  UCLA E...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 18, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Ca2+ concentration-dependent premature death of igfbp5a-/- fish reveals a critical role of IGF signaling in adaptive epithelial growth
The phenotype gap is a challenge for genetically dissecting redundant endocrine signaling pathways, such as the six isoforms in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family. Although overexpressed IGFBPs can inhibit or potentiate IGF actions or have IGF-independent actions, mutant mice lacking IGFBP-encoding genes do not exhibit major phenotypes. We found that although zebrafish deficient in igfbp5a did not show overt phenotypes when raised in Ca2+-rich solutions, they died prematurely in low Ca2+ conditions. A group of epithelial cells expressing igfbp5a take up Ca2+ and proliferate under low Ca2+ conditi...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - September 18, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Liu, C., Xin, Y., Bai, Y., Lewin, G., He, G., Mai, K., Duan, C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Scientists Are Developing New Ways to Treat Disease With Cells, Not Drugs
When Nichelle Obar learned she was pregnant with her second child last year, she never expected that her pregnancy, or her baby, would make history. But when the 40-year-old food-and-beverage coordinator from Hawaii and her fiancé Christopher Constantino went to their 18-week ultrasound, they learned something was wrong. The heart was larger than it should have been, and there was evidence that fluid was starting to build up around the organ as well. Both were signs that the fetus was working extra hard to pump blood to its fast-growing body and that its heart was starting to fail. Obar’s doctor knew what coul...
Source: TIME: Science - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized medicine Source Type: news

Scientists Are Developing New Ways to Treat Disease With Cells, Not Drugs
When Nichelle Obar learned she was pregnant with her second child last year, she never expected that her pregnancy, or her baby, would make history. But when the 40-year-old food-and-beverage coordinator from Hawaii and her fiancé Christopher Constantino went to their 18-week ultrasound, they learned something was wrong. The heart was larger than it should have been, and there was evidence that fluid was starting to build up around the organ as well. Both were signs that the fetus was working extra hard to pump blood to its fast-growing body and that its heart was starting to fail. Obar’s doctor knew what coul...
Source: TIME: Health - September 13, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized Innovation Health medicine Source Type: news

3D cell environment key for divvying up chromosomes -- find could explain cancer hallmark
(Howard Hughes Medical Institute) Epithelial cells grown on a plastic dish are worse at segregating their chromosomes than epithelial cells growing in mice, a new study shows. The results may help explain why chromosomes go awry in cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - August 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Ovarian Epithelial Fallopian Tube Cancer Treatment
Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Source: eMedicineHealth.com - July 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Lgl reduces endosomal vesicle acidification and Notch signaling by promoting the interaction between Vap33 and the V-ATPase complex
Epithelial cell polarity is linked to the control of tissue growth and tumorigenesis. The tumor suppressor and cell polarity protein lethal-2-giant larvae (Lgl) promotes Hippo signaling and inhibits Notch signaling to restrict tissue growth in Drosophila melanogaster. Notch signaling is greater in lgl mutant tissue than in wild-type tissue because of increased acidification of endosomal vesicles, which promotes the proteolytic processing and activation of Notch by -secretase. We showed that the increased Notch signaling and tissue growth defects of lgl mutant tissue depended on endosomal vesicle acidification mediated by t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - June 5, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Portela, M., Yang, L., Paul, S., Li, X., Veraksa, A., Parsons, L. M., Richardson, H. E. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Researchers uncover cell types of the human breast epithelium
(University of California - Irvine) Researchers from the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, in collaboration with scientists at UCSF and Northwestern University, have profiled human breast epithelial cells, identifying three new distinct epithelial cell populations. The discovery of these cell populations could aid in understanding the origins of breast cancer and lead to improved early cancer detection, a slowing of cancer progression and possibly even cancer prevention. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 31, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Secondary Surgery Associated With Improved Survival in Ovarian Cancer
A secondary cytoreductive surgery along with chemotherapy following recurrence in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer offered improved outcomes over treatment with chemotherapy alone. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - May 24, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Tags: Gynecologic Cancers SiteTerms/www.cannabissciencetech.com/News Ovarian Cancer Source Type: news

Study examines treatment options for women with recurrent ovarian cancer
(Wiley) New research indicates that for women with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer whose cancer has relapsed after surgery, a second surgery is worth considering. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Integration of protein phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation data sets to outline lung cancer signaling networks
Protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs) have typically been studied independently, yet many proteins are modified by more than one PTM type, and cell signaling pathways somehow integrate this information. We coupled immunoprecipitation using PTM-specific antibodies with tandem mass tag (TMT) mass spectrometry to simultaneously examine phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation in 45 lung cancer cell lines compared to normal lung tissue and to cell lines treated with anticancer drugs. This simultaneous, large-scale, integrative analysis of these PTMs using a cluster-filtered network (CFN) approach revealed that ce...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 22, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Grimes, M., Hall, B., Foltz, L., Levy, T., Rikova, K., Gaiser, J., Cook, W., Smirnova, E., Wheeler, T., Clark, N. R., Lachmann, A., Zhang, B., Hornbeck, P., Maayan, A., Comb, M. Tags: STKE Research Resources Source Type: news

Scientific expert reaction to new Cochrane Review on HPV vaccine for cervical cancer prevention in girls and women
This study looks at a collection of studies looking at the benefit of HPV vaccines in reducing pre cervical cancer lesions.  HPV also causes many other serious cancers (especially head and neck).  In time, as more people have been vaccinated, we will see a reduction in all HPV cancers.  The HP V vaccine is one of a number of vaccines using virus like particles (VLPS) which have been shown to be very safe over the last 35 years. “The Cochrane library of reviews has a very rigorous assessment process of all their reviews. “The review only looked at cervical precancer (in women and girls),...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - May 8, 2018 Category: Information Technology Authors: Muriah Umoquit Source Type: news