Policing the digital divide: How racial bias can limit Internet access for people of color
(University of Pennsylvania) A new study from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania investigated the ways that institutions control who has access to Wi-Fi. The findings indicate that powerful institutions and privileged people use quality-of-life policing -- the report and/or arrest of individuals engaged in nonviolent offenses such as loitering, noise violations, and public intoxication -- to keep those with less privilege, including people of color, from accessing resources like the internet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 23, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

City-funded housing repairs in low-income neighborhoods associated with drop in crime
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) In Philadelphia, when a home received repairs through a city-funded program, total crime dropped by 21.9% on that block, and as the number of repaired houses on a block increased, instances of crime fell even further, according to research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published today in JAMA Network Open. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 21, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Amazon using videos from Ring doorbell devices to create the largest civilian surveillance network in the US
(Natural News) Amazon is building the largest civilian surveillance network in the United States with the help of its signature home security product: the Ring doorbell. “Ring video doorbells … pose a serious threat to a free and democratic society.” This is the warning of Lauren Bridges, a doctoral candidate at the University of Pennsylvania. In... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - July 20, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Study finds surprising source of social influence
(University of Pennsylvania) New research from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania found that social influencers are unlikely to change a person's behavior by example. To stimulate a shift in people's thinking, target small groups of people in the outer edge or fringe of a network. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Public trust in CDC, FDA, and Fauci holds steady, survey shows
(Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania) Top U.S. health agencies retain the trust of the vast majority of the American public, as does Dr. Anthony Fauci, according to a new survey from the Annenberg Public Policy Center. Public confidence has grown in the safety and effectiveness of vaccines to prevent Covid-19. But people who say they rely on conservative media have less confidence in Fauci and are more likely to accept misinformation and conspiracy theories. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 20, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

The 'hijab effect': Feminist backlash to Muslim immigrants in Germany
(University of Pennsylvania) Why do some Europeans discriminate against Muslim immigrants, and how can it be reduced? The School of Arts& Sciences' Nicholas Sambanis conducted innovative studies at train stations across Germany involving willing participants, unknowing bystanders and, most recently, bags of lemons. His newest study finds evidence of significant discrimination against Muslim women, but it is eliminated when they show they share progressive gender attitudes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Obscuring the truth can promote cooperation
(University of Pennsylvania) Obscuring the truth can promote cooperation, according to new research by theoretical biologists from the University of Pennsylvania. Inspired by the example of the file-sharing platform Napster, they show that overstating the level of cooperation in a community can push the community to cooperate more overall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 8, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Protein's 'silent code' affects how cells move
(University of Pennsylvania) Two forms of the ubiquitous protein actin differ by only four amino acids but are dissimilar in 13% of their nucleotide coding sequences due to silent substitutions. A new study led by the University of Pennsylvania reveals that these supposedly " silent " differences have an impact on how fast actin mRNA gets translated into protein and subsequently on the protein's function in propelling cell movement. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Medical journal articles written by women are cited less than those written by men
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Articles published by women in high-impact medical journals also have fewer citations than those written by men, especially when women are primary and senior authors, according to new research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 2, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NIDCR's Summer 2021 E-Newsletter
Having trouble viewing this email? View it as a Web page. NIDCR's Summer 2021 E-Newsletter In this issue: NIDCR News Funding Opportunities & Related Notices NIH/HHS News Subscribe to NICDR News Science Advances   Grantee News   NIDCR News NIDCR to Release Report on Oral Health in America As a 20-year follow-up to the seminal Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General, NIDCR will release Oral Health in America: Advances and Challenges in the fall of 2021. The report will illuminate new directions...
Source: NIDCR Science News - July 1, 2021 Category: Dentistry Source Type: news

Trauma patients with COVID-19 face greater risk of complications and death
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) COVID-19 complicated patient care in a range of ways, from increased incidence of heart attacks to decreased cancer screenings. The virus also caused a six-fold increase in the risk of complications and death among trauma patients, according to new research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 28, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Pulling wisdom teeth can improve long-term taste function
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Patients who had their wisdom teeth extracted had improved tasting abilities decades after having the surgery. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 28, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Higher COVID-19 mortality among Black patients linked to unequal hospital quality
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) If Black patients were admitted to the same hospitals that serve a majority of White patients, researchers showed that their risk of death would drop by 10 percent. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 17, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Tug-of-war receptors for sour taste in fruit flies sheds light on human taste biology
(Monell Chemical Senses Center) His team, including authors Tingwei Mi, John Mack, and Christopher Lee from the Monell Center and University of Pennsylvania, found that flies use two distinct types of gustatory (taste) receptor neurons (GRNs), which are analogous to taste receptor cells in mammals, to discriminate slightly from highly sour foods. One group of GRNs are maximally activated by low acidity, while the other group displayed its best responses to high acidity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 17, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Having a strong life purpose eases loneliness of COVID-19 isolation
(University of Pennsylvania) Why can some people weather the stress of social isolation better than others, and what implications does this have for their health? New research from the Communication Neuroscience Lab at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania found that people who felt a strong sense of purpose in life were less lonely during the COVID-19 pandemic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 16, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Advocating reimbursement parity for nurse practitioners
(University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing) The current Medicare reimbursement policy for nurse practitioners (NPs) allows NPs to directly bill Medicare for services that they perform, but they are reimbursed at only 85% of the physician rate. A growing number of states are granting full practice authority to nurse practitioners. Even more states have loosened practice restrictions due to COVID-19. Both of these reasons illustrate why payment parity is essential. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 16, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

COVID-19 Exposed the Faults in America ’s Elder Care System. This Is Our Best Shot to Fix Them
For the American public, one of the first signs of the COVID-19 pandemic to come was a tragedy at a nursing home near Seattle. On Feb. 29, 2020, officials from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Washington State announced the U.S. had its first outbreak of the novel coronavirus. Three people in the area had tested positive the day before; two of them were associated with Life Care Center of Kirkland, and officials expected more to follow soon. When asked what steps the nursing home could take to control the spread, Dr. Jeff Duchin, health officer for Seattle and King County, said he was working w...
Source: TIME: Health - June 15, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Abigail Abrams Tags: Uncategorized Aging COVID-19 feature franchise Magazine TIME for Health Source Type: news

Designing public institutions that foster cooperation
(University of Pennsylvania) People are more likely to cooperate with those they see as 'good.' Using a mathematical model, University of Pennsylvania researchers found it's possible to design systems that assess and broadcast participants' reputations, leading to high levels of cooperation and adherence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 11, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Black and white women have same mutations linked to breast cancer risk
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) The prevalence of genetic mutations associated with breast cancer in black and white women is the same. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Pinpointing how cancer cells turn aggressive
(University of Pennsylvania) As deadly as it is, cancer metastasis is a poorly understood process. A new study led by Penn's Kamen Simeonov and Christopher Lengner describes a cutting-edge tool for tracing the lineage and gene expression of thousands of individual metastatic cancer cells. Their findings open new angles for investigating the processes that drive metastasis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Roadmaps' of the brain reveal regions vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease
(Van Andel Research Institute) Much like a supply truck crossing the countryside, the misfolded proteins that damage neurons in Alzheimer's disease travel the " roads " of the brain, sometimes stopping and sometimes re-routing to avoid roadblocks, reports a study published in Science Advances by researchers at Van Andel Institute and University of Pennsylvania. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A link between childhood stress and early molars
(University of Pennsylvania) Research from the University of Pennsylvania's Allyson Mackey and graduate student Cassidy McDermott shows that children from lower-income backgrounds and those who go through greater adverse childhood experiences get their first permanent molars sooner. The findings align with a broader pattern of accelerated development often seen under conditions of early-life stress. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

For early amphibians, a new lifestyle meant a new spine
(University of Pennsylvania) A new study led by Penn paleontologist Aja Carter documents distinct patterns in how early amphibians' spines evolved. Certain modifications, the research team found, correlated with the animals' habitat: terrestrial or aquatic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The First Treatment for Alzheimer ’s Disease Is Here
Alzheimer’s disease was first described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906, and now, more than 100 years later, doctors have an effective drug to treat the cognitive disorder. On June 7, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved aducanumab, developed by the U.S.-based biotech Biogen and Japanese pharmaceutical company Eisai. But the drug’s approval comes with a caveat. The FDA is requiring Biogen to conduct an additional placebo controlled study of the drug to verify it’s effectiveness in improving people’s memory and cognitive symptoms. That request stems in large part from the conclusion of an ...
Source: TIME: Health - June 7, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Correcting misperceptions about, and increasing empathy for, migrants
(University of Pennsylvania) A new study from the Peace and Conflict Neuroscience Lab at the Annenberg School for Communication found that Americans dramatically overestimate the number of migrants affiliated with gangs and children being trafficked, and that this overestimation contributes to dehumanization of migrants, lack of empathy for their suffering, and individuals' views on immigration policy. In addition, the researchers developed and tested interventions to address this misinformation and increase empathy for undocumented immigrants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 7, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

ADHD medications associated with reduced risk of suicidality in certain children
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) ADHD medications may lower suicide risk in children with hyperactivity, oppositional defiance and other behavioral disorders, according to new research from the Lifespan Brain Institute (LiBI) of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the University of Pennsylvania. The findings, published today in JAMA Network Open, address a significant knowledge gap in childhood suicide risk and could inform suicide prevention strategies at a time when suicide among children is on the rise. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 4, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How HIV infection shrinks the brain's white matter
(University of Pennsylvania) Researchers from Penn and CHOP detail the mechanism by which HIV infection blocks the maturation process of brain cells that produce myelin, a fatty substance that insulates neurons. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 2, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Scientists say active early learning shapes the adult brain
(Virginia Tech) Through the Abecedarian Project, an early education, randomized controlled trial that has followed children since 1971, researchers from Virginia Tech and the University of Pennsylvania have discovered an enhanced learning environment during the first five years of life shapes the brain in ways that are apparent four decades later. The study appears in the June edition of the Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 1, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How news coverage affects public trust in science
(Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania) News media reports about scientific failures that do not recognize the self-correcting nature of science can damage public perceptions of trust and confidence in scientific work, according to findings of a study by researchers at the Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania and the University at Buffalo, the State University of New York. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

'Electronic nose' accurately sniffs out hard-to-detect cancers
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) An odor-based test that sniffs out vapors emanating from blood samples was able to distinguish between benign and pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells with up to 95% accuracy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Penn researchers discover drug that blocks multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice
The drug diABZI - which activates the body's innate immune response - was highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 in mice that were infected with SARS-CoV-2, according to scientists in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The findings, published this month in Science Immunology, suggest that diABZI could also treat other respiratory coronaviruses. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - May 31, 2021 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

Penn researchers discover drug that blocks multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in mice
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) A small molecule STING agonist was highly protective against the virus that causes COVID-19 and likely other coronaviruses (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - May 28, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Climate change-resistant corals could provide lifeline to battered reefs
(University of Pennsylvania) Corals that withstood a severe bleaching event and were transplanted to a different reef maintained their resilient qualities, according to a new study led by Katie Barott of the University of Pennsylvania. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 28, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The Science Behind Vaccine Incentives
NPR's Ari Shapiro talks with Katy Milkman, professor at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, about which vaccine incentives work best and why. (Source: NPR Health and Science)
Source: NPR Health and Science - May 26, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Ari Shapiro Source Type: news

Low on antibodies, blood cancer patients can fight off COVID-19 with T cells
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Antibodies aren't the only immune cells needed to fight off COVID-19 -- T cells are equally important and can step up to do the job when antibodies are depleted, suggests a new Penn Medicine study of blood cancer patients with COVID-19 published in Nature Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Game on: Game-based program boosts physical activity among diabetes patients
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Researchers showed that adding gamification with either competition or support increased physical activity for patients with Type 2 diabetes (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 24, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Total deaths due to COVID-19 underestimated by 20% in US counties
(Boston University School of Medicine) More than 15 months into the pandemic, the U.S. death toll from COVID-19 is nearing 600,000. But COVID-19 deaths may be underestimated by 20%, according to a new, first-of-its-kind study from Boston University School of Public Health (BUSPH), the University of Pennsylvania, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Penn doubles the percentage of Black participants in cancer clinical trials
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) A five-year community outreach and engagement effort by the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania to increase enrollment of Black patients into cancer clinical trials more than doubled the percentage of participants, improving access and treatment for a group with historically low representation in cancer research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 20, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Penn nursing-led Philly team awarded $1.4 million NIH grant to expand COVID-19 outreach
(University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing) Jos é A. Bauermeister, PhD, and Antonia M. Villarruel, PhD, are leading one of 10 new research teams from across the country that received National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants totaling $14 million to extend the reach of the NIH's Community Engagement Alliance (CEAL) Against COVID-19 Disparities. The Philly CEAL team was awarded $1.4 million from the NIH with additional support from Penn Nursing and The University of Pennsylvania, bringing the total for the alliance to $1.53 million. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 19, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Hepatitis C screening doubles when tests ordered ahead of time
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) By sending eligible patients a screening order along with the usual reminder, researchers showed they could double hepatitis C screening rates (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - May 18, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

A gentler strategy for avoiding childhood dental decay
(University of Pennsylvania) By targeting the bonds between bacteria and yeast that can form a sticky dental plaque, a new therapeutic strategy could help wash away the build-up while sparing oral tissues, according to a new study by a team from the University of Pennsylvania. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 18, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A new theory for what's happening in the brain when something looks familiar
(University of Pennsylvania) Research from University of Pennsylvania neuroscientist Nicole Rust and colleagues presents a new theory for what's happening in the brain when something looks familiar. The work brings the field one step closer to understanding how memory functions. Long-term, it could have implications for treating diseases like Alzheimer's. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - May 18, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What happens in the brain when we imagine the future?
(University of Pennsylvania) What happens in the brain when people think about the future? Research from University of Pennsylvania neuroscientist Joseph Kable finds that two sub-networks play a role. One focuses on creating the new event. Another evaluates whether that event is positive or negative. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - May 18, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Treating the COVID-19 'infodemic' as an epidemic
(Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania) A group of science communication researchers proposes to treat the Covid-19 misinformation " infodemic " with the same methods used to halt epidemics: real-time surveillance, accurate diagnosis, and rapid response. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - May 13, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Rapid COVID-19 diagnostic test delivers results within 4 minutes with 90 percent accuracy
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) A low-cost, rapid diagnostic test for COVID-19 developed by Penn Medicine provides COVID-19 results within four minutes with 90 percent accuracy. A paper published this week in Matter details the fast and inexpensive diagnostic test, called RAPID 1.0. Compared to existing methods for COVID-19 detection, RAPID is inexpensive and highly scalable, allowing the production of millions of units per week. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 12, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Newly described horned dinosaur from New Mexico was the earliest of its kind
(University of Pennsylvania) With a frilled head and beaked face, Menefeeceratops sealeyi lived 82 million years ago, predating its relative, Triceratops. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 11, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PARP inhibitor shrinks tumors in pancreatic cancer patients with mutations
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) More than two-thirds of pancreatic cancer patients harboring genetic mutations saw their tumor stop growing or shrink substantially after being switched from intensive chemotherapy to the PARP inhibitor rucaparib as a maintenance therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 10, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Researchers use arcuate organoids to study development and disease of the hypothalamus
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) For the first time, researchers at Penn Medicine created organoids of the arcuate nucleus (ARC),providing an atlas of cell types in the human hypothalamus, which will be a blueprint to further understanding the development of brain disorders, such as certain causes of obesity and autism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 10, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Smartphone breath alcohol testing devices vary widely in accuracy
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) The latest generation of personal alcohol breath testing devices pair with smartphones. While some of these devices were found to be relatively accurate, others may mislead users into thinking that they are fit to drive, according to a new study from Penn Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Blocking viruses' exit strategy
(University of Pennsylvania) The Marburg virus, a relative of Ebola, likewise causes a dangerous and often fatal disease. In a study co-led by the University of Pennsylvania's Ronald Harty, an experimental antiviral drug, which prevents the virus from exiting host cells and spreading to new cells, showed promising results. The researchers are also encouraged by similarities in the drug's response against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 6, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news