Liquid Biopsy to Detect DNA/RNA Based Markers of Small DNA Oncogenic Viruses for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Prediction
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

5-Aminolevulinic Acid Multispectral Imaging for the Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Brain Tumors: A Prospective Observational Study
Fluorescence-guided surgery with five-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is the state-of-the-art treatment of high-grade gliomas. However, intraoperative visualization of 5-ALA under blue light remains challenging, especially when blood covers the surgical field and thereby fluorescence. To overcome this problem and combine the brightness of visible light with the information delivered with fluorescence, we implemented multispectral fluorescence (MFL) in a surgical microscope, a technique that is able to project both information in real-time. We prospectively examined 25 patients with brain tumors. One patient was operated on two...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

High Expression of FAP in Colorectal Cancer Is Associated With Angiogenesis and Immunoregulation Processes
Fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) plays an important role in tissue remodeling and helps tumor cells invade surrounding tissue. We sought to investigate FAP as a prognostic molecular marker in colorectal cancer (CRC) using immunohistochemical and transcriptomic data. FAP expression and clinicopathological information were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas data set. The association of FAP expression and tissue cellular heterogeneity landscape was explored using the xCell method. We evaluated FAP protein expression in a cohort of 92 CRCs and 19 non-tumoral tissues. We observed that FAP was upregulated in tumors...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia With Urinary System Metastasis: A Single Center Experience
Conclusion: GTN with urinary tract metastasis is a rare condition. Patients with different metastatic sites have different CR rates and prognosis. Therefore, individualized strategies should be considered for patients with different metastatic sites. Urinary system metastasis is probably not a prognostic factor in GTN patients. Patients aged ≥40, those who had previous failed multidrug chemotherapy, and presented brain and/or liver metastases showed a significant adverse outcome. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of 9-Core Immune-Related Genes in Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma Prognosis
Conclusion: We established a prognostic immune signature for patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma, which may provide novel targets for prediction and therapy of these patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiomics Analysis of Postoperative Epilepsy Seizures in Low-Grade Gliomas Using Preoperative MR Images
Conclusion: A total of 17 radiomics features were correlated with postoperative epileptic seizures in patients with LGG and one feature was a significant predictor of the time of epilepsy onset. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Common Error Pathways in CyberKnife ™ Radiation Therapy
Conclusion: Most CK incidents led to little or no patient harm and most were related to billing and scheduling issues. Suboptimal human performance appeared to be the most common contributing factor to CK incidents. Additional study is warranted to develop and share best practices to reduce incidents to further improve patient safety. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hazard Ratio Analysis of Laparoscopic Radical Hysterectomy for IA1 With LVSI-IIA2 Cervical Cancer: Identifying the Possible Contraindications of Laparoscopic Surgery for Cervical Cancer
This study aimed to compare the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (LRH) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) for IA1 with lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI)-IIA2 cervical cancer and to analyze the Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) of LRH among the total study population and different subgroups.Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study. The oncological outcomes of LRH (n = 4,236) and ARH (n = 9,177) were compared. The HRs and 95% confidence intervals for the effect of LRH on 5-year OS and DFS were estimated by Cox proportional hazards mo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 8, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of RNA N6-Methyladenosine in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: From the Perspectives of Etiology
N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common RNA internal modification in eukaryotic cells. Its regulatory effects at the post-transcriptional level on both messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and noncoding RNAs have been widely studied; these include alternative splicing, stability, translation efficiency, nucleus export, and degradation. m6A modification is implicated in a series of physiological and pathological activities, such as embryonic stem cell differentiation, immunoregulation, adipogenesis, and cancer development. Recently, the significance of m6A methylation has been identified in both viral hepatitis and non-alcohol fatty ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diagnostic Value of Breast Lesions Between Deep Learning-Based Computer-Aided Diagnosis System and Experienced Radiologists: Comparison the Performance Between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Patients
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of breast lesions between deep learning-based computer-aided diagnosis (deep learning-based CAD) system and experienced radiologists and to compare the performance between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.Methods: From January to December 2018, a total of 451 breast lesions in 389 consecutive patients were examined (mean age 46.86 ± 13.03 years, range 19–84 years) by both ultrasound and deep learning-based CAD system, all of which were biopsied, and the pathological results were obtained. The lesions were diagnosed by two experie...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The High Level of Tertiary Lymphoid Structure Is Correlated With Superior Survival in Patients With Advanced Gastric Cancer
Background: A tertiary lymphoid structure (TLS) is a crucial component of the tumor microenvironment, which reflects the anti-tumor immune response in the host. The aim of the present study was to carry out a histopathological evaluation for TLS and assess its prognostic value in gastric cancer (GC).Methods: A total of 1,033 cases that have received a gastrectomy were reviewed, including 914 in the primary cohort and 119 in the validation cohort. TLS was assessed by optical microscopy and verified by immunohistochemistry. A total of five histopathological evaluation methods were compared in the primary cohort and validated...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Transarterial Chemoembolization Combined With Apatinib for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis
This study was aimed to investigate whether apatinib could improve the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: Between June 2015 and September 2018, 357 patients with HCC at Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C who received the treatment of TACE combining with apatinib (TACE–apatinib) or TACE-alone were included. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was used to reduce the patient selection bias.Results: Ninety pairs of patients were chosen after the PSM analysis. The disease control rates of tumor and a-fetoprotein response in the TACE&...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA RP11-480I12.5 Promotes the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells Through the miR-490-3p-AURKA-Wnt/ β-Catenin Axis
Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that RP11-480I12.5 is associated with tumor progression in BCs. Our findings indicate that the lncRNA RP11-480I12.5 promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of BC cells through the miR-490-3p-AURKA-Wnt/β-catenin axis, which may serve as a therapeutic target in the future. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota Profiling in Patients With HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer Receiving Metronomic Chemotherapy of Capecitabine Compared to Those Under Conventional Dosage
Conclusions: The proof-of-principle study suggested that the gut microbiota of patients receiving metronomic chemotherapy was different in terms of diversity, composition, and function from those under conventional chemotherapy, and the presence of specific bacterial species may act as microbial markers associated with drug resistance monitoring and prognostic evaluation. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor Primary Site and Histology Subtypes Role in Radiotherapeutic Management of Brain Metastases
Randomized controlled trials have failed to report any survival advantage for WBRT combined with SRS in the management of brain metastases, despite the enhanced local and distant control in comparison to each treatment alone. Literature review have revealed important role of primary histology of the tumor when dealing with brain metastases. NSCLC responds better to combined approach even when there was only single brain metastasis present while breast cancer has registered better survival with SRS alone probably due to better response of primary tumor to advancement in surgical and chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, mut...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

STAT3 Contributes to Radioresistance in Cancer
In this study, we will review the radioresistance induced by STAT3 and relative solutions will be discussed. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDO1 Expression Increased After Neoadjuvant Therapy Predicts Poor Pathologic Response and Prognosis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
In this study, we investigated the changes of tumor IDO1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) status in tumor microenvironment (TME) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), respectively. Moreover, the potential predictive value of the changes of tumor IDO1 expression and CD8+TILs status on pathologic response and clinical outcome was further evaluated. By matching propensity scores in 295 patients, a total of 85 ESCC patients with neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery were recruited, including 17 patients with NCRT and...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

OSlgg: An Online Prognostic Biomarker Analysis Tool for Low-Grade Glioma
Glioma is the most frequent primary brain tumor that causes high mortality and morbidity with poor prognosis. There are four grades of gliomas, I to IV, among which grade II and III are low-grade glioma (LGG). Although less aggressive, LGG almost universally progresses to high-grade glioma and eventual causes death if lacking of intervention. Current LGG treatment mainly depends on surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the survival rates of LGG patients are low. Therefore, it is necessary to use prognostic biomarkers to classify patients into subgroups with different risks and guide clinical man...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Angustoline Inhibited Esophageal Tumors Through Regulating LKB1/AMPK/ELAVL1/LPACT2 Pathway and Phospholipid Remodeling
Esophageal cancer is a type of gastrointestinal carcinoma and is among the 10 most common causes of cancer death worldwide. However, the specific mechanism and the biomarkers in the proliferation and metastasis of esophageal tumors are still unclear. Therefore, the development of several natural products which could inhibit esophageal tumors deserve attention. In the present study, different sources of cancer cells were used to select the sensitive cell line (esophageal cancer cell KYSE450) and the proper dose of angustoline, which were utilized in the following cell viability, migration and invasion assays. Then the lipid...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Somatostatin Receptors in Merkel-Cell Carcinoma: A Therapeutic Opportunity Using Somatostatin Analog Alone or in Association With Checkpoint Inhibitors Immunotherapy. A Case Report
Conclusions: SSA could be a valid therapeutic option in patients with MCC with high SR expression. When combined with PD-1/PD-L1 immune-checkpoint inhibition, SSA is likely to enhance antiproliferative activity. Our case report provides the rationale to conduct a prospective trial and translational research to verify the efficacy and safety of combined SSA and checkpoint inhibitors for advanced MCC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lanreotide Induces Cytokine Modulation in Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors and Overcomes Resistance to Everolimus
Somatostatin analogs mantain their major role in the treatment of patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and have multiple modulatory effects on the immune system. Here, we evaluated the effects of lanreotide treatment on expression of Th1, Th2 cytokine patterns in serum of patients with NETs and in bronchial and pancreatic NET cell lines. Our results showed that lanreotide treatment promoted a Th1 cytotoxic immune-phenotype in patients with NETs originated by intestinal sites. Similar results were obtained also in vitro where lanreotide induced expression of Th1 cytokines only in pancreatic and not in bronchi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Disialoganglioside GD2 Expression in Solid Tumors and Role as a Target for Cancer Therapy
Gangliosides are carbohydrate-containing sphingolipids that are widely expressed in normal tissues, making most subtypes unsuitable as targets for cancer therapy. However, the disialoganglioside GD2 subtype has limited expression in normal tissues but is overexpressed across a wide range of tumors. Disialoganglioside GD2 can be considered a tumor-associated antigen and well-suited as a target for cancer therapy. Disialoganglioside GD2 is implicated in tumor development and malignant phenotypes through enhanced cell proliferation, motility, migration, adhesion, and invasion, depending on the tumor type. This provides a rati...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Secondary Malignancy Risk Following Proton vs. X-ray Treatment of Mediastinal Malignant Lymphoma: A Comparative Modeling Study of Thoracic Organ-Specific Cancer Risk
Conclusion: Based on the two prediction models, PRT for malignant mediastinal lymphoma is expected to reduce the risk for radiation-induced secondary malignancies compared with the X-ray-based IMRT. The young age and the long natural history of patients diagnosed with mediastinal lymphoma predisposes them to a high risk of secondary malignancies following curative radiotherapy treatment and, as a consequence, potentially reducing this risk by utilizing advanced radiation therapy techniques such as PRT should be considered. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Array Technique Generating Valuable Risk-Stratification Information for Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Conclusions: SNP-A can help evaluate the prognosis of patients with MDSs and better assess the risk of disease progression for patients with ICUS. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Commentary: Dietary methionine influences therapy in mouse cancer models and alters human metabolism
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Nomogram for Predicting the Overall Survival of Adult Patients With Primary Gastrointestinal Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma: A SEER- Based Study
Conclusion: In summary, the established nomogram was validated to predict OS for adult patients with GI DLBCL. This predictive model could help clinicians identify high-risk patients to improve their prognosis. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of the Air-Way Fluid in Lung Cancer. Detection of Periostin in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL)
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that proteomic analysis of BAL can be used for the study of cancer-associated extracellular proteins in air-way fluid from lung cancer patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

TIPRL, a Novel Tumor Suppressor, Suppresses Cell Migration, and Invasion Through Regulating AMPK/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Gastric Cancer
Invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer after curative resection remain the most common lethal outcomes. However, our current understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying gastric cancer metastasis is far from complete. Herein, we identified TOR signaling pathway regulator (TIPRL) as a novel metastasis suppressor in gastric cancer through genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis using mRNA microarray. Decreased TIPRL expression was detected in clinical gastric cancer specimens, and low TIPRL expression was correlated with more-advanced TNM stage, distant metastasis, and poor clinical outcome. Moreover, TIPRL ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Prostate Cancer in Men With a High Baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS ≥ 15)
Conclusions: SBRT for clinically localized prostate cancer was well-tolerated in men with baseline IPSS ≥ 15 (1). Grade 3 toxicities occurred but resolved with time. Our data suggest that poor baseline urinary function does not worsen following SBRT and may even improve. High baseline IPSS score should not be considered a contraindication to SBRT. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Automated Quality Assurance of OAR Contouring for Lung Cancer Based on Segmentation With Deep Active Learning
Conclusions: The proposed system automatically detected contour errors for QA. It could provide consistent and objective evaluations with much reduced investigator intervention in multicenter clinical trials. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of PARP Inhibitors in Advanced-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Purpose: PARP inhibitors are a novel targeted anti-cancer drug and a large number of clinical studies on PARP inhibitors have been accomplished. This updated meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PARP inhibitors in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer.Methods: Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched to identify the eligible trials up to April 2020. ClinicalTrials.gov was also screened for additional unpublished trials. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed by two independent investigators, respec...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Disseminated Juvenile Xanthogranuloma and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Developed During Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Case Report
The association between acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH), and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), to the best of our knowledge, has not been published to date. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG), as a type of non-LCH, is usually a benign disease limited to the skin. Systemic involvement is rarely reported. The present case report describes a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with disseminated JXG involving skin and bone marrow concurrent with severe symptoms of HLH during ALL therapy. Examination of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in B-cell precursor leukemic blasts and histiocytes...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Low Humoral Immune Response and Ineffective Clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in a COVID-19 Patient With CLL During a 69-Day Follow-Up
Conclusion: In CLL, a neoplastic antigen-specific B-cell clone proliferates, and the progeny cells accumulate and outgrow other B cells, leading to immune deficiency. Considering the low humoral immune response and ineffective clearance of SARS-Cov-2 in CLL patients, the follow-up and home quarantine period should be extended. We need further studies to clarify suspending or continuing CLL therapy during COVID infection. For those patients who are prone to progression to severe disease, administering humoral immunity therapies can help to prevent disease progression and quickly meet the cure criteria. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Screening Strategies for COVID-19 in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies
COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the world health organization. Patients with cancer, and particularly hematologic malignancies may be at higher risk for severe complications due to their malignancy, immune dysregulation, therapy, and associated comorbidities. The oncology community has been proactive in issuing practice guidelines to help optimize management, and limit infection risk and complications from SARS-COV-2. Although hematologic malignancies account for only 10% of all cancers, their management is particularly complex, especially in the time of COVID-19. Screening or early detection of COVID-19 are centr...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Transcriptional Factor Brachyury on Cell Cycle Regulation in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of brachyury on the cell cycle progression and proliferation capability of NSCLC cells. Firstly, we performed RNA-sequence and ChIP-sequence to explore underlying downstream pathways regulated by brachyury. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays were utilized to detect the effect of brachyury on the proliferation ability of two types of lung NSCLC cells: H460 and Calu-1, which represent different brachyury expression levels. Following cell cycle and cell apoptosis assays were used to investigate the mechanism by which brachyury promotes NSCLC grow and progression. R...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2 mRNA-Binding Protein 3 Modulates Aggressiveness of Ewing Sarcoma by Regulating the CD164-CXCR4 Axis
Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is the second most common bone and soft tissue-associated malignancy in children and young adults. It is driven by the fusion oncogene EWS/FLI1 and characterized by rapid growth and early metastasis. We have previously discovered that the mRNA binding protein IGF2BP3 constitutes an important biomarker for EWS as high expression of IGF2BP3 in primary tumors predicts poor prognosis of EWS patients. We additionally demonstrated that IGF2BP3 enhances anchorage-independent growth and migration of EWS cells suggesting that IGF2BP3 might work as molecular driver and predictor of EWS progression. The aim of thi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Real-World Evidence in Glioblastoma: Stupp's Regimen After a Decade
The aim of this retrospective study is to provide real-world evidence in glioblastoma treatment and to compare overall survival after Stupp's regimen treatment today and a decade ago. A current consecutive cohort of histologically confirmed glioblastoma irradiated from 1/2014 to 12/2017 in our cancer center was compared with an already published historical control of patients treated in 1/2003–12/2009. A total of new 155 patients was analyzed, median age 60.9 years, 61% men, 58 patients (37%) underwent gross total tumor resection. Stupp's regimen was indicated in 90 patients (58%), 65 patients (42%) underwent radioth...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 3, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrated Transcriptome Analysis of Human Visceral Adipocytes Unravels Dysregulated microRNA-Long Non-coding RNA-mRNA Networks in Obesity and Colorectal Cancer
Obesity, and the obesity-associated inflammation, represents a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Dysfunctional visceral adipose tissue (AT) is now recognized as key player in obesity-associated morbidities, although the biological processes underpinning the increased CRC risk in obese subjects are still a matter of debate. Recent findings have pointed to specific alterations in the expression pattern of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), such as microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), as mechanisms underlying dysfunctional adipocyte phenotype in obesity. Ne...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mutational Portrait of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Brazilian Patients: Past, Present, and Future of Molecular Profiling in the Clinic
In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the actionable alteration profile of LA in Brazilian patients.Materials and Methods:EGFR driver mutation data were collected from a large Brazilian LA cohort covering an 8-year period of molecular testing in a single institution. Tests were performed using three distinct methods, and demographic and histopathological data were analyzed. For a subset of patients, driver mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF and gene fusions involving TKR genes (before TKI treatment) and EGFR T790M (after TKI treatment) were assessed.Results:EGFR mutations were detected in 25% of 1,316 LAs evaluated, wi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Social Cognition in Patients With Hypothalamic-Pituitary Tumors
Conclusions: This is the first study to show that craniopharyngioma patients with hypothalamic lesions are impaired in some aspects of social cognition, which are of high relevance for everyday social interactions. These deficits suggest a disruption of the normal functionality of hypothalamic-fronto-limbic networks and/or additional areas of the social brain, which are at particular risk by hypothalamic location of the tumor and its treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Network-Based Approach to Identify the Antiproliferative Mechanisms of Bruceine D in Breast Cancer From the Cancer Genome Atlas
In conclusion, these findings revealed potential molecular mechanisms of BD to treat breast cancer by affecting AMIT_SERUM_RESPONSE_40_MCF10A, BILD_HRAS_ONCOGENIC_SIGNATURE, and NAGASHIMA_NRG1_SIGNALING_UP pathways and regulating expression of ZFP36, EGR1, and FOS. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ultraviolet Radiation and Melanomagenesis: From Mechanism to Immunotherapy
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, and nearly 90% of melanomas are believed to be caused by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), mainly from sunlight. UVR induces DNA damage, forming products such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4-pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP) in a wavelength-dependent manner and causes oxidative DNA damage. These DNA lesions lead to DNA mutations and contribute to the formation of melanoma. In this review, we discuss the protective role of melanocytes against UV-induced DNA damage and how genetic variations, including those in p53 and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), or epigenetic histo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 2, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Contribution of Race to Breast Tumor Microenvironment Composition and Disease Progression
Breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women following skin cancer. Despite overall decrease in breast cancer mortality due to advances in treatment and earlier screening, black patients continue to have 40% higher risk of breast cancer related death compared to white patients. This disparity in outcome persists even when controlled for access to care and stage at presentation and has been attributed to differences in tumor subtypes or gene expression profiles. There is emerging evidence that the tumor microenvironment (TME) may contribute to the racial disparities in outcome as well. Here, ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Inhibition of Oxidative Phosphorylation Reverses Bone Marrow Hypoxia Visualized in Imageable Syngeneic B-ALL Mouse Model
Abnormally low level of interstitial oxygen, or hypoxia, is a hallmark of tumor microenvironment and a known promoter of cancer chemoresistance. Inside a solid tumor mass, the hypoxia stems largely from inadequate supply of oxygenated blood through sparse or misshapen tumor vasculature whilst oxygen utilization rates are low in typical tumor's glycolytic metabolism. In acute leukemias, however, markers of intracellular hypoxia such as increased pimonidazole adduct staining and HIF-1α stabilization are observed in advanced leukemic bone marrows (BM) despite an increase in BM vasculogenesis. We utilized intravital fast...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Prediction Tool Based on Large Cohorts to Determine the Cancer-Specific Survival Probability of Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer After Irreversible Electroporation Treatment
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a novel method which was especially suitable for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate probabilities of overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with LAPC after IRE treatment and to construct nomograms to predict survival for these patients. Data of patients were retrospectively collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and medical records of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC). A total of 312 LAPC patients after IRE treatment were included into thi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Automated Radiotherapy Planning for Patient-Specific Exploration of the Trade-Off Between Tumor Dose Coverage and Predicted Radiation-Induced Toxicity —A Proof of Principle Study for Prostate Cancer
Conclusions: A clinically feasible workflow has been proposed for systematic exploration of patient-specific trade-offs between various treatment aims. For each patient, automated planning is used to generate a limited set of treatment plans with well-defined variations in the balances between the aims. For prostate cancer, trade-offs between PTVLow coverage and predicted GI NTCP were explored. With relatively small coverage reductions, significant NTCP reductions could be obtained, strongly depending on patient anatomy. Coverage reductions could also make up for enhanced NTCPs related to diabetes as co-morbidity, again de...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Peripheral Blood Biomarkers Associated With Outcome in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Nivolumab and Durvalumab Monotherapy
Conclusions: PLR and albumin may help in the stratification of high progression and death risk groups in advanced NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab and durvalumab monotherapy. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Development of a Novel, Multi-Parametric, MRI-Based Radiomic Nomogram for Differentiating Between Clinically Significant and Insignificant Prostate Cancer
Objectives: To develop and validate a predictive model for discriminating clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) from clinically insignificant prostate cancer (ciPCa).Methods: This retrospective study was performed with 159 consecutively enrolled pathologically confirmed PCa patients from two medical centers. The dataset was allocated to a training group (n = 54) and an internal validation group (n = 22) from one center along with an external independent validation group (n = 83) from another center. A total of 1,188 radiomic features were extracted from T2WI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and apparent diffusio...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Myb Immunohistochemical Staining and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization in Salivary Rare Basaloid Lesions
Objective: Salivary rare basaloid lesions, including cribriform type basal cell adenoma (cBCA), BCA with incomplete capsule (iBCA), sialoblastoma (SB), and intercalated duct hyperplasia (IDH), could easily be misdiagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC). We aim to identify an approach for differential diagnosis and to establish an optimal workflow concerning the diagnosis of these lesions.Material and methods: A panel of antibodies (MYB, β-catenin, CD117, SOX10, ki67, P63, calponin) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-MYB were utilized to distinguish above salivary basaloid diseases from AdCC.Results: His...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long-Term Inhibition of Notch in A-375 Melanoma Cells Enhances Tumor Growth Through the Enhancement of AXIN1, CSNK2A3, and CEBPA2 as Intermediate Genes in Wnt and Notch Pathways
Notch suppression by gamma-secretase inhibitors is a valid approach against melanoma. However, most of studies have evaluated the short-term effect of DAPT on tumor cells or even cancer stem cells. In the present study, we surveyed the short-term and long-term effects of DAPT on the stem cell properties of A375 and NA8 as melanoma cell lines. The effects of DAPT were tested both in vitro and in vivo using xenograft models. In A375 with B-raf mutation, DAPT decreased the level of NOTCH1, NOTH2, and HES1 as downstream genes of the Notch pathway. This was accompanied by enhanced apoptosis after 24 h treatment, arrest in the G...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - June 30, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research