Extracellular Vesicles for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Toxicity in the Lung
Human stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) provide many advantages over cell-based therapies for the treatment of functionally compromised tissue beds and organ sites. Here we sought to determine whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived EV could resolve in part, the adverse late normal tissue complications associated with exposure of the lung to ionizing radiation. The hESC-derived EV were systemically administered to the mice via the retro-orbital sinus to explore the potential therapeutic benefits following exposure to high thoracic doses of radiation (14 Gy). Data demonstrated that hESC-derived EV treat...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 3, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chidamide Combined With Doxorubicin Induced p53-Driven Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Apoptosis Reverse Multidrug Resistance of Breast Cancer
This study aim to demonstrate the potential of chidamide (CHI) combined with the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) to overcome chemotherapeutic resistance of breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, laying the experimental foundation for the next clinical application. The results showed that, CHI combined with DOX showed significant cytotoxicity to MDR breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo compared with the CHI monotherapy. The cell cycle distribution results showed that CHI caused G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and inhibited cell growth regardless of the addition of DOX. At the same time, annexin V staining and TUNEL staining re...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Predictive Value of Combined Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level and Ki-67 Index in Patients With Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma After Radical Surgery
We present a valid and reproducible nomogram that combined the TNM stage as well as the Ki-67 index and carcinoembryonic antigen levels; the nomogram may be an indispensable tool to help predict individualized risks of death and help clinicians manage patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma.BackgroundTo analyze the long-term outcomes of patients with grade 3 GNEC who underwent curative surgery and investigated whether the combination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and Ki-67 index can predict the prognosis of patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (GNEC) and constructed a nomogram to predict patient...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Nomogram Based on a Multiparametric Ultrasound Radiomics Model for Discrimination Between Malignant and Benign Prostate Lesions
ConclusionsClinical-radiomics combined model can improve the accuracy of PCa predictions both in terms of diagnostic performance and clinical net benefit, compared with evaluating only clinical risk factors or radiomics score associated with PCa. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adipocytes Under Obese-Like Conditions Change Cell Cycle Distribution and Phosphorylation Profiles of Breast Cancer Cells: The Adipokine Receptor CAP1 Matters
ConclusionsThese results indicate that the adipocyte secretome and CAP1 are mechanistically important for the proliferation of both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancer cells, and potential signaling mediators were identified. These studies provide biological insight into how obesity-associated factors could affect breast cancer. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Machine Learning Model Based on PET/CT Radiomics and Clinical Characteristics Predicts ALK Rearrangement Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma
ConclusionsThis study demonstrated that PET/CT radiomics-based machine learning model has potential to be used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to help diagnose ALK mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma patients in the clinic. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Machine Learning-Based Model to Predict Survival After Transarterial Chemoembolization for BCLC Stage B Hepatocellular Carcinoma
ConclusionThe RSF-based model, established herein, can effectively predict survival of patients with BCLC stage B HCC, with better performance than previous Cox proportional hazards models. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

High Expression of CLEC11A Predicts Favorable Prognosis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia
ConclusionCLEC11A may be used as a prognostic biomarker, and could do benefit for AML patients by providing precise treatment indications, and its unique gene pattern should aid in further understanding the heterogeneous AML mechanisms. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic Value of Deep Learning-Mediated Treatment Monitoring in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Immunotherapy
BackgroundCheckpoint inhibitors provided sustained clinical benefit to metastatic lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, prognostic markers in metastatic settings are still under research. Imaging offers distinctive advantages, providing whole-body information non-invasively, while routinely available in most clinics. We hypothesized that more prognostic information can be extracted by employing artificial intelligence (AI) for treatment monitoring, superior to 2D tumor growth criteria.MethodsA cohort of 152 stage-IV non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) (73 discovery, 79 test, 903CTs), who received nivolumab were retros...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effect of Carbon Ion Radiation Induces Bystander Effect on Metastasis of A549 Cells and Metabonomic Correlation Analysis
ConclusionThe bystander effect induced by 2 Gy carbon ion radiation inhibits the metastasis of tumor cells, which indicates that carbon ions may change the metabolites of irradiated cells, so that it may indirectly affect the metabolism of tumor cell growth microenvironment, thus inhibiting the metastasis of malignant tumor cells. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Unbiased Phenotype-Based Screen Identifies Therapeutic Agents Selective for Metastatic Prostate Cancer
In American men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Dissemination of prostate cancer cells to distant organs significantly worsens patients’ prognosis, and currently there are no effective treatment options that can cure advanced-stage prostate cancer. In an effort to identify compounds selective for metastatic prostate cancer cells over benign prostate cancer cells or normal prostate epithelial cells, we applied a phenotype-based in vitro drug screening method utilizing multiple prostate cancer cell lines to test 1,120 different compounds from a commercial drug library. Top drug can...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Heat Shock Protein 90 Triggers Multi-Drug Resistance of Ovarian Cancer via AKT/GSK3 β/β-Catenin Signaling
In conclusion, Hsp90 enhanced the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling to induce multi-drug resistance of ovarian cancer. Suppressing Hsp90 chemosensitized multi-drug resistant ovarian cancer cells via impairing the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling, providing a promising therapeutic strategy for a successful treatment of ovarian cancer. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combined Ultrasound and CT-Guided Iodine-125 Seeds Implantation for Treatment of Residual Hepatocellular Carcinoma Located at Complex Sites After Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization
Conclusions125I seeds implantation under the combined guidance of ultrasound and CT is safe and effective for patients with residual HCC located at complex sites after TACE. This is a promising treatment approach and deserves further discussion. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Patterns and Treatment Strategies of Osimertinib Resistance in T790M-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Pooled Analysis
ConclusionsThe type of EFGR mutation in T790M-positive NSCLC patients prior to treatment can predict the resistance pattern to osimertinib. This finding plays a vital role and theoretical basis in guiding clinicians to formulate treatment strategies at the early stage of treatment and rationally combine drugs to overcome EGFR-TKI resistance. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Perspectives in the Treatment of RAS or BRAF Mutated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Identification and Validation of Two Heterogenous Subtypes and a Risk Signature Based on Ferroptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
ConclusionWe identified and validated two heterogeneous ferroptosis subtypes and a reliable risk signature which used to assess prognosis and immunotherapy. Our results facilitated the understood of ferroptosis as well as clinical management and precise therapy of HCC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinicopathological and Molecular Features of Colorectal Cancer Patients With Mucinous and Non-Mucinous Adenocarcinoma
ConclusionThe genetic alterations are distinct between MAC and NMAC in CRC. Tumor location may have an impact on genetic alterations and patient prognosis in MAC and NMAC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Brain Mapping-Aided SupraTotal Resection (SpTR) of Brain Tumors: The Role of Brain Connectivity
Brain gliomas require a deep knowledge of their effects on brain connectivity. Understanding the complex relationship between tumor and functional brain is the preliminary and fundamental step for the subsequent surgery. The extent of resection (EOR) is an independent variable of surgical effectiveness and it correlates with the overall survival. Until now, great efforts have been made to achieve gross total resection (GTR) as the standard of care of brain tumor patients. However, high and low-grade gliomas have an infiltrative behavior and peritumoral white matter is often infiltrated by tumoral cells. According to these ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Linc00665 Can Predict the Response to Cisplatin-Paclitaxel Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients
ConclusionLinc00665 may be a potential novel predictive biomarker for breast cancer in NAC, especially for HR-positive/HER2-negative patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Use of Salmonella  Bacteria in Cancer Therapy: Direct, Drug Delivery and Combination Approaches
Over the years, conventional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy with only a limited specificity for tumors, have undergone significant improvement. Moreover, newer therapies such as immunotherapy have undergone a revolution to stimulate the innate as well as adaptive immune responses against the tumor. However, it has been found that tumors can be selectively colonized by certain bacteria, where they can proliferate, and exert direct oncolytic effects as well as stimulating the immune system. Bacterial-mediated cancer therapy (BMCT) is now one example of a hot topic in the antitumor field. Salmonella typhimurium is a ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The NEAT1_2/miR-491 Axis Modulates Papillary Thyroid Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Through TGM2/NF κb/FN1 Signaling
NEAT1 (nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1) is an oncogenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that facilitates tumorigenesis in multiple cancers. In papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the molecular mechanism by which NEAT1 affects invasion and metastasis remains elusive. RNA sequencing was used to discover differentially expressed NEAT1_2 downstream genes. Protein and RNA expression analyses and immunohistochemistry detected the expression of NEAT1_2, Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), and microRNA-491 (miR-491) among PTC and non-cancerous tissues. Transwell and wound healing assays, and a mouse model of lung metastasis were used fo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

DRP1 Promotes BRAFV600E-Driven Tumor Progression and Metabolic Reprogramming in Colorectal Cancer
ConclusionIn conclusion, our data suggest that BRAFV600E driven colorectal cancers have fragmented mitochondria which confers glycolytic phenotype and growth advantage to these tumors, and such phenotype is dependent at least in part on PDK1- thus highlighting a potential therapeutic target. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 2, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Changes in Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Vascular Normalization in Breast Cancer Patients After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Their Correlations With DFS
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: Combined CDK4/6 and MEK Inhibition in Refractory CDKN2A and NRAS Mutant Melanoma
There are only limited treatment options for metastatic NRAS mutant melanoma patients with resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Besides activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, they often have additional disturbances in cell cycle regulation. However, unlike BRAF mutant melanoma, no targeted therapy has yet been approved for NRAS mutant melanoma so far. Here we present a NRAS mutant melanoma patient with response to combined binimetinib and ribociclib therapy following characterization of the molecular defects of the tumor by panel sequencing. Next generation sequencing (708 cancer genes) of...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Immune-Related Adverse Events Predict the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Lung Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis
BackgroundImmune-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported to be associated with the efficacy of immunotherapy. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis to demonstrate that irAEs could predict the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in lung cancer patients.MethodsLiterature on the correlation between irAEs and the efficacy of immunotherapy in lung cancer patients were searched to collect the data on objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), or progression-free survival (PFS) of the patients. These data were incorporated into the meta-analysis.ResultsA total of 34 records encompassing 8,115 patie...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

TFEB Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression via Regulating ABCA2-Dependent Lysosomal Biogenesis
This study aimed to identify the role of TFEB in PCa and its potential clinical value. We explored TFEB expression in PCa using public databases and verified its prognostic value using immunohistochemistry in PCa tissue samples. The results revealed that TFEB expression was up-regulated in PCa tissues and was associated with cancer metastasis. Next, overexpression of TFEB promoted PCa cell malignant behavior in in vivo and in vitro experiments. RNA-sequencing and bioinformatics analysis showed high expression of TFEB promoted lysosomal biogenesis and knockdown of TFEB expression decreased the number of lysosomes. Furthermo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Beyond PD-1: The Next Frontier for Immunotherapy in Melanoma
We present the current state of these therapies, including preclinical and clinical data available for these targets under development. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Improving Ablation Safety for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proximal to the Hilar Bile Ducts by Ultrasound-MR Fusion Imaging: A Preliminary Comparative Study
ConclusionsUS-MR fusion imaging may be a non-invasive means for assisting RFA of HCC nodules proximal to the HBDs and ensuring ablation safety. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Best Supportive Care Versus Whole-Brain Irradiation, Chemotherapy Alone, or WBRT Plus Chemotherapy in Patients With Brain Metastases From Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Case-Controlled Analysis
BackgroundWBRT and systemic chemotherapy are the mainstay treatments for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) brain metastases (BM). However, current recommendations are mainly based on evidence from retrospective analyses. A recent randomized trial found no benefits from WBRT compared with best supportive care (BSC) in patients with more than three BM from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we aimed to evaluate the roles of WBRT and chemotherapy further in the management of BM from SCLC.Materials and MethodsThere were 698 patients with BM from SCLC included. Of these, 580 received anti cancer treatment (Group 1), i...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Application of Shear Wave Elastography for Assisting Brain Tumor Resection
BackgroundThe clinical outcomes for brain tumor resection have been shown to be significantly improved with increased extent of resection. To achieve this, neurosurgeons employ different intra-operative tools to improve the extent of resection of brain tumors, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI. Young’s modulus (YM) of brain tumors have been shown to be different from normal brain but the accuracy of SWE in assisting brain tumor resection has not been reported.AimsTo determine the accuracy of SWE in detecting brain tumor residual using post-operative MRI scan as “gold standard”.MethodsThirty-four patients ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinicopathological and Molecular Analysis of 45 Cases of Pure Mucinous Breast Cancer
Pure mucinous breast carcinoma (PMBC) is characterized by clusters of tumor cells floating in abundant extracellular mucin and can be classified into paucicellular (Type A) and hypercellular (Type B) subtypes. However, the clinicopathological and genomic differences between these two subtypes have not been well characterized. We retrospectively investigated the clinicopathologic features of 45 cases of surgically removed PMBC (31 Type A and 14 Type B). We also performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in eight cases of PMBC. We found that Type B PMBC occurs at an older age and shows more aggressive clinical behavior than Type...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - March 1, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Curdione Induces Antiproliferation Effect on Human Uterine Leiomyosarcoma via Targeting IDO1
ConclusionCurdione exhibited an anti-uLMS effect in vitro and in vivo; the underlying mechanism involved in IDO1 mediate apoptosis, autophagy, and G2/M phase arrest. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CT-Based Radiomics Signatures for Predicting the Risk Categorization of Thymic Epithelial Tumors
This study aims to assess the performance of radiomics approaches based on 3D computed tomography (CT), clinical and semantic features in predicting the pathological classification of thymic epithelial tumors (TETs).MethodsA total of 190 patients who underwent surgical resection and had pathologically confirmed TETs were enrolled in this retrospective study. All patients underwent non-contrast-enhanced CT (NECT) scans and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) scans before treatment. A total of 396 hand-crafted radiomics features of each patient were extracted from the volume of interest in NECT and CECT images. We compared three cli...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Oxygen Deprivation Modulates EGFR and PD-L1 in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck
Abundance and signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not only genetically determined but are also subject to the traits of the tumor microenvironment, which has hitherto not been clarified completely. We investigated the impact of hypoxia on the EGFR system and on PD-L1 in six HPV negative HNSCC cell lines in vitro and in FaDu xenografts in vivo. Protein levels of EGFR, AKT, pAKT, ERK1/2, pERK1/2, CA IX, cleaved PARP (apoptosis), LC3B (autophagy), and PD-L1 were quantified by western blot after oxygen d...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Optimizing Adjuvant Stereotactic Radiotherapy of Motor-Eloquent Brain Metastases: Sparing the nTMS-Defined Motor Cortex and the Hippocampus
Brain metastases can effectively be treated with surgical resection and adjuvant stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) has been used to non-invasively map the motor cortex prior to surgery of motor eloquent brain lesions. To date, few studies have reported the integration of such motor maps into radiotherapy planning. The hippocampus has been identified as an additional critical structure of radiation-induced deficits. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of selective dose reduction to both the nTMS-based motor cortex and the hippocampi in SRT of motor-eloquent br...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Clinical Outcomes and Toxicities of Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Plus Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
ConclusionICT followed by CCRT plus ACT did not seemingly enhance DFS and OS in LA-NPC patients compared to the addition of ICT to CCRT (historical controls). In contrast, ICT followed by CCRT plus ACT had more acute adverse events than ICT followed by CCRT. Longer-term clinical studies are required to examine the treatment outcomes and late toxicities. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Volatile Anesthetics Regulate Anti-Cancer Relevant Signaling
Volatile anesthetics are widely used inhalation anesthetics in clinical anesthesia. In recent years, the regulation of anti-cancer relevant signaling of volatile anesthetics has drawn the attention of investigators. However, their underlying mechanism remains unclear. This review summarizes the research progress on the regulation of anti-cancer relevant signaling of volatile anesthetics, including sevoflurane, desflurane, xenon, isoflurane, and halothane in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. The present review article aims to provide a general overview of regulation of anti-cancer relevant signaling and explore potentia...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Volatile Organic Compounds in Human Exhaled Breath to Diagnose Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
ConclusionVOCs can distinguish gastrointestinal cancers from other gastrointestinal diseases, opening up a new avenue for the diagnosis and identification of gastrointestinal cancers, and the analysis of VOCs in exhaled breath has potential clinical application in screening. VOCs are promising tumor biomarkers for GIC diagnosis. Furthermore, limitations like the heterogeneity of diagnostic VOCs between studies should be minded. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

MiR-1-3p Suppresses Colorectal Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis by Inhibiting YWHAZ-Mediated Epithelial –Mesenchymal Transition
ConclusionOur results demonstrated that miR-1-3p suppresses colorectal cancer cell proliferation and metastasis through regulating YWHAZ-mediated EMT, which may support a novel therapeutic strategy for CRC patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Increased Expression of hsa_circ_0002111 and Its Clinical Significance in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Circular RNA (circRNA) is a newly discovered non-coding RNA. Recent reports suggest that circRNAs are key regulators of tumorigenesis because of their special structure. In order to investigate the role of hsa_circ_0002111 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we use quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the expression pattern of hsa_circ_0002111 in 82 paired PTC and adjacent non-cancerous thyroid tissues. Cell counting kit-8, colony formation, and transwell assays were conducted to assess the effect of hsa_circ_0002111 on PTC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. We found that the exp...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Tumor Molecular Features Predict Endometrial Cancer Patients ’ Survival After Open or Minimally Invasive Surgeries
This study aims to investigate the survival impact of surgical approaches on patients with different genetic alterations.Methods473 endometrial cancer patients from TCGA database were selected. To analyze the prognostic impact of surgical approach, survival analyses were conducted in patients with different molecular features. Finally, a simplified molecular stratification model was established to select patients suitable for open or minimally invasive surgery (MIS).ResultsIn our cohort, 291 patients received open surgery and 182 received MIS. Molecular features influenced patients’ survival after different surgical ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor: A Potential Combination Strategy With Immunotherapy in Cancer
The clinical application of immunotherapy is the milestone of cancer treatment. However, some patients have bad reaction. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently expressed in multiple cancer cells and is associated with poor prognosis. It is the key enzyme of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) that has been proved to promote the development, proliferation and metastasis of tumor cells. Recent studies further find the PGE2 in tumor microenvironment (TME) actively triggers tumor immune evasion via many ways, leading to poor response of immunotherapy. COX-2 inhibitor is suggested to restrain the immunosuppression of PGE2 and may enhance ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Analysis of the Immune and Prognostic Implication of COL6A6 in Lung Adenocarcinoma
Collagen type VI alpha 6 chain (COL6A6), a novel collagen, has been considered as a tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in several tumors. However, the functional role of COL6A6 in immune cell infiltration and prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated COL6A6 expression and its impact on survival among LUAD patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and several other databases. COL6A6 was downregulated in LUAD tissues compared to normal tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. COL6A6 expression was negatively associated with pathological stage, tumor stage, and lymph node metas...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Based on Multi-Parametric MRI to Predict Risk of Breast Cancer
ConclusionNomogram could improve the ability of breast cancer prediction preoperatively. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Cancer Vaccination With a Peptide Derived From the Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations Induces Strong Cellular Immune Responses in Patients With CALR-Mutant Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms
ConclusionTherapeutic cancer vaccination with peptide vaccines derived from mutant CALR with montanide as an adjuvant, is safe and tolerable. The vaccines did not induce any clinical responses. However, the majority of patients displayed a marked T-cell response to the vaccine upon completion of the trial. This suggests that vaccines directed against mutant CALR may be used with other cancer therapeutic modalities to enhance the anti-tumor immune response. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Influence of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T and A1298C Polymorphism on High-Dose Methotrexate-Related Toxicities in Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients
PurposeThis retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationships between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T/A1298C and high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-related toxicities in pediatric non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients.Patients and MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 93 NHL patients aged under 18 years who received HD-MTX therapy at the dose of 5 g/m2 with 24-h infusion at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 2014 and 2019.ResultsThere were 61 males and 32 females, with a median age of 8.8 years (0.9–15.8 years). The tumor types included lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 38), Burkitt&...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Upregulation of PEDF Predicts a Poor Prognosis and Promotes Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression by Modulating the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, our results reveal that PEDF is involved in ESCC metastasis and could act as a prognostic factor for ESCC. Our research provides a fresh perspective into the mechanism of ESCC metastasis. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

New Approaches in Oncology for Repositioning Drugs: The Case of PDE5 Inhibitor Sildenafil
The use of already-approved drugs to treat new or alternative diseases has proved to be beneficial in medicine, because it reduces both drug development costs and timelines. Most drugs can be used to treat different illnesses, due their mechanisms of action are not restricted to one molecular target, organ or illness. Diverging from its original intent offers an opportunity to repurpose previously approved drugs to treat other ailments. This is the case of sildenafil (Viagra), a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor, which was originally designed to treat systemic hypertension and angina but is currently commercialized as e...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: Extra-Articular Diffuse Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Temporomandibular Joint
Diffuse tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TSGCT) is a benign but locally destructive tumor of synovium that may involve joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae. Its occurrence in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is extremely rare. The authors reported a case of 48-year-old man with an extra-articular D-TSGCT in the TMJ with medial cranial fossa extension. computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features are described. The lesion was a cystic-solid mass centered at the temporal bone without involvement of the condylar head, and its solid component presented high-density on CT and hypointensity on MRI. No si...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Advances in CpG Island Methylator Phenotype Colorectal Cancer Therapies
With the aging of the population, the incidence of colorectal cancer in China is increasing. One of the epigenetic alterations: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) plays an important role in the incidence of colorectal cancer. Recent studies have shown that CIMP is closely related to some specific clinicopathological phenotypes and multiple molecular phenotypes in colorectal cancer. In this paper, the newest progress of CIMP colorectal cancer in chemotherapeutic drugs, targeted agents and small molecular methylation inhibitors are going to be introduced. We hope to provide potential clinical treatment strategies for per...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - February 26, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research