Retraction: Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in the Community Setting —Practice and Outcomes
Retraction: Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in the Community Setting—Practice and Outcomes Frontiers Editorial Office* A Retraction of the Original Research Article Neoadjuvant Therapy for Esophageal Adenocarcinoma in the Community Setting—Practice and Outcomes by Abdo, J., Bertellotti, C. A., Cornell, D. L., Agrawal, D. K., and Mittal, S. K. (2017). Front. Oncol. 7:151. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2017.00151 The journal retracts the 18 July 2017 article cited above. During a recent review by the Creighton University Institutional Review Board that approved this study, it was found th...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Interactions in the (Pre)metastatic Niche Support Metastasis Formation
Ginevra Doglioni1,2†, Sweta Parik1,2† and Sarah-Maria Fendt1,2* 1Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, VIB-KU Leuven Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven, Belgium 2Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven and Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium Metastasis formation is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Thus, understanding and targeting this process is an unmet need. Crucial steps during the establishment of metastases include the (pre)metastatic niche formation. This process relies on the interaction of th...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chasing Zero Harm in Radiation Oncology: Using Pre-treatment Peer Review
Conclusions: Catching errors prior to treatment is the only way to “chase zero” in radiation oncology. Various types of errors may exist in treatment plans and our GCPR model succeeds in preventing many errors of all shapes and sizes in target definition, dose prescriptions, and treatment plans from ever reaching the patients. Background and Introduction Since the release of the seminal report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) titled, “To Err is Human,” in 1999, the importance of patient safety and avoiding medical errors have been recognized and endorsed by the physician community, as we...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Gene Therapy Leaves a Vicious Cycle
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ultrasound for Breast Cancer Screening in High-Risk Women: Results From a Population-Based Cancer Screening Program in China
Conclusions: We found the diagnostic yield of ultrasound screening for breast cancer in high-risk population was satisfactory. Prediction models based on environmental risk factors had limited prediction accuracy and need to be improved in the future. Introduction With an estimate of 2,088,849 newly diagnosed cases in 2018 worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer for women and is also the leading cause of cancer-related deaths (1). In China, the burden of breast cancer increased dramatically for the past decades, with incidence and mortality of 28.77 per 10,000 and 6.35 per 10,000, respectiv...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Whole Exome Sequencing of Cell-Free DNA for Early Lung Cancer: A Pilot Study to Differentiate Benign From Malignant CT-Detected Pulmonary Lesions
Conclusions: This study suggests a potential role for cfDNA for the early identification of lung cancer in patients with CT-detected pulmonary lesions. Importantly, a substantial number of somatic variants in healthy patients with benign pulmonary nodules were also found. Such “benign” variants, while largely unexplored to date, have widespread relevance to all liquid biopsies if cfDNA is to be used accurately for cancer detection. Introduction Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States (1). Most patients present with advanced disease with limited cure potential. The N...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Endothelial Cell-Derived TGF- β Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via CD133 in HBx-Infected Hepatoma Cells
Conclusion: The study indicates that secretory factors like TGF-β from neighboring endothelial cells may enhance expression of CD133 and impart an aggressive EMT phenotype to HBx-infected hepatoma cells in HBV induced HCC. Introduction Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide, representing approximately 4% of all malignancies (1). It has been estimated that more than 50% of HCC cases in the world are associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (2). HBV is a partially double stranded DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnavirus family. The HBV genome is 3.2 kb in size and contains four o...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The CXCR4-LASP1-eIF4F Axis Promotes Translation of Oncogenic Proteins in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
In this study, we confirm our initial findings from the proteomic screen and demonstrate that LASP1 can interact with both eIF4A and eIF4B. Importantly, the LASP1-eIF4A and LASP1-eIF4B interaction is shown to be CXCL12-dependent. In addition, the ability of CXCR4 to impact the phosphorylation of eIF4F regulatory proteins is provided. Taken together, we hypothesize that activation of CXCR4 can promote eIF4F complex formation and activity through LASP1 and cell signaling. As a result, the translation of oncogenic proteins is promoted thereby mediating an invasive and metastatic phenotype commonly associated with CXCR4. Mate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Endometrial Cytology as a Method to Improve the Accuracy of Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer: Case Report and Meta-Analysis
We report a case of misdiagnosed endometrial cancer by D&C, but with a positive cytopathological finding. Following that, a meta-analysis including 4,179 patients of endometrial diseases with cyto-histopathological results was performed to assess the value of the endometrial cytological method in endometrial cancer diagnosis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the cytological method in detecting endometrial atypical hyperplasia or cancer was 0.91[95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–0.97] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90–0.99), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio was 25...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Overexpression of ASPM, CDC20, and TTK Confer a Poorer Prognosis in Breast Cancer Identified by Gene Co-expression Network Analysis
In conclusion, our WGCNA analysis identified candidate prognostic biomarkers for further basic and clinical researches. Introduction Breast cancer is a frequently diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer death among females around the world, accounting for 24% of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in females. According to Global Cancer Statistics 2018, there will be nearly 2.1 million new cases diagnosed globally, with ~62 thousand deaths. The incident rates of breast cancer increased in most developing countries during last decades, resulting from a combination of social and economic factors, incl...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impacts of Surgery on Symptom Burden and Quality of Life in Pituitary Tumor Patients in the Subacute Post-operative Period
Conclusions: This study demonstrated a rapid improvement of many symptoms in the subacute post-operative period in pituitary tumor patients. Disturbed sleep was identified as the only symptom to worsen post-operatively, encouraging potential prospective interventions to improve sleep, and subsequently improve the QOL in pituitary tumor patients following surgical intervention. Introduction Pituitary tumors are relatively rare primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors in adults (1) but make up 10% of all neurosurgical interventions in the United States (2). They are often an incidental finding in autopsies and brain...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Environmental and Other Extrinsic Risk Factors Contributing to the Pathogenesis of Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma (CTCL)
Conclusions Epidemiological studies have repeatedly helped identify definitive triggers for several diseases. As highlighted in this perspective report, previous studies strongly argue for the interplay between intrinsic factors and putative preventable extrinsic triggers/promoters for CTCL. Given the evidence of geographical regional clustering of CTCL patients, CTCL occurrence in unrelated family members and recent evidence implicating S. aureus in the pathogenesis/progression of CTCL, more research is needed to decipher the precise mechanism by which specific environmental exposures may be driving the pathogenesis of t...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Germline Predisposition and Copy Number Alteration in Pre-stage Lung Adenocarcinomas Presenting as Ground-Glass Nodules
Conclusion: Our data suggests that the precancerous unstable CNVs with potentially predisposing genetic backgrounds may foster the onset of driver mutations and the development of independent SM-GGNs during the local stimulation of mutagens. Introduction The widespread use of advanced chest computed tomography (CT) for lung cancer screening has facilitated the detection of ground-glass nodules (GGNs) (1–3). Recent data indicates that up to 20% of GGN patients (3% of the screening population) are diagnosed with synchronous multiple ground-glass nodules (SM-GGNs) (4). GGNs are like atypical adenomatous hyperplasi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Upregulation of miR-214 Induced Radioresistance of Osteosarcoma by Targeting PHLDA2 via PI3K/Akt Signaling
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of international guidelines and ethical standards with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Kunming General Hospital, China. miRNAs, Plasmids, Transfection, and Irradiation To predict miRNAs with potential binding sites in the 3′UTR of PHLDA2, Targetscan (http://www.targetscan.org/), miRanda (http://www.microrna.org/), and Diana database (http://diana.cslab,ece.nura.gr/) algorithms were u...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Impact of Hepatitis Virus on the Feasibility and Efficacy of Anticancer Agents in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Phase I Clinical Trials
This study was approved by the NCCH institutional review board and performed in compliance with our institutional guidelines. Patients positive for anti-HCV antibody or HBV antigen (HBsAg) were considered to have HCC due to chronic viral hepatitis, whereas those without anti-HCV antibody nor HBsAg were considered to have HCC by another etiology (non-B/non-C). All medical records were reviewed to summarize the patients' clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes based on the status of chronic viral hepatitis. The baseline clinical characteristics included age, gender, ECOG-performance status (PS), treatmen...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Citrullinated Modification of Histone 3 and Its Regulatory Mechanisms Related to IPO-38 Antibody-Labeled Protein
In this study we adopted an all-in-one method. Primers designed according to the two gRNA sequences and the tracRNA-U6 vector sequences were used to produce a gRNA1-tracRNA-U6-gRNA2 fragment. Then the proper fragment was ligated into the lentiCRISPRv2 vector and verified by sequencing. Lentiviral Packaging and Stable Cell Line Screening The constructed eukaryotic expression vector and gene knockdown vector were transfected into the 293T cells with the packaging plasmids psPAX2 and pMD2.G using Lipofectamine 2000 (Thermo Fisher, Massachusetts, USA). The lentivirus was harvested 48 h after transfection, and the lentivirus ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combined Adjuvant of Poly I:C Improves Antitumor Effects of CAR-T Cells
In conclusion, CAR-T treatment combined with intratumoral delivery of poly I:C resulted in synergistic antitumor activity. We thus provide a rationale to translate this immunotherapeutic strategy to solid tumors. Introduction Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be a new way to fight malignancies. In particular, T lymphocytes engineered to express chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) have shown great promise in treating hematological malignancies (1). CD19-targeted CAR-T cells have been approved by FDA to treat relapsed B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multigene Mutation Profiling and Clinical Characteristics of Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Never-Smokers vs. Heavy Smokers (Geno1.3-CLICaP)
Conclusion: Our data supports that never/ever smoker patients with small-cell lung cancer have better prognosis compared to their smoker counterparts. Further, patients with never/ever smoking history who present with small-cell lung cancer have a different mutation profile compared with smokers, including a high frequency of EGFR, MET, and SMAD4 mutations. Further studies are required to assess whether the differential mutation profile is a consequence of a diverse pathological mechanism for disease onset. Introduction Lung cancer is the most common neoplasia worldwide. Aside from the high incidence, lung cancer a...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diverse Mechanisms of BRAF Inhibitor Resistance in Melanoma Identified in Clinical and Preclinical Studies
Conclusion Although treatment with BRAF inhibitors provides rapid response in most patients, treatment resistance persists. The few clinical studies of BRAF inhibitor resistance in patients indicate that genetic alterations that activate MAPK/Erk make up half of resistance mechanisms. Preclinical studies of BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma support the mechanisms observed in patients and indicate that the development of resistance is more complex than single mutations. In vitro models may be very helpful in studying mechanisms in the other half of patients with no known genetic driver of BRAF inhibitor resistance. Ove...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Functional Organ Preservation Surgery in Head and Neck Cancer: Transoral Robotic Surgery and Beyond
Conclusions In the span of a very short time—less than a decade—robotic head and neck surgery has transformed the management of the head and neck cancer, and it seems clear that the future of treatment for these cancers lies in a multimodal approach in which TORS is likely to play an important role. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that the current indications for TORS are limited and long-term data on the safety and oncological outcomes are needed to better understand the true role of TORS in treatment of head and neck cancer. Nonetheless, the emergence of ever more advanced robotic instruments i...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Randomized Phase II Study of S-1 Adjuvant Chemotherapy With or Without Hochu-ekki-to, a Japanese Herbal Medicine, for Stage II/III Gastric Cancer: The KUGC07 (SHOT) Trial
Conclusions: TJ-41 does not increase relative dose and completion rate of S-1 significantly. J-41 may reduce toxic effects, but our findings do not support routine use of TJ-41 after gastrectomy. Introduction The standard treatment for advanced gastric cancer is surgical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in Eastern countries, where gastric cancer is common, while perioperative chemotherapy or chemoradiation is preferred in Western countries (1–3). Adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 for 1 year yields a 5-year survival rate of 72%, reducing the risk of death by 33% compared to surger...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Unique Family of Neuronal Signaling Proteins Implicated in Oncogenesis and Tumor Suppression
Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PGC1 β Regulates Breast Tumor Growth and Metastasis by SREBP1-Mediated HKDC1 Expression
Conclusions: PGC1β regulates breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis by SREBP1-mediated HKDC1 expression. This provides a novel therapeutic strategy through targeting the PGC1β/HKDC1 signaling pathway for breast cancer treatment. Introduction Breast cancer is a very common cancer with significant premature mortality in women. Around 12% of women in USA will have chance to be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lifetimes (1, 2). The development of breast cancer is regulated by many factors, and even as average survival rates have increased significantly as a result of many advanced treatments, the ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Sanguinarine Induces Apoptosis Pathway in Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines via Inhibition of the JaK2/STAT3 Signaling
In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of SNG in a panel of MM cell lines (U266, IM9, MM1S, and RPMI-8226). SNG treatment of MM cells resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability through mitochondrial membrane potential loss and activation of caspase 3, 9, and cleavage of PARP. Pre-treatment of MM cells with a universal caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, prevented SNG mediated loss of cell viability, apoptosis, and caspase activation, confirming that SNG-mediated apoptosis is caspase-dependent. The SNG-mediated apoptosis appears to be resulted from suppres...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characterization of Pancreatic Cancer Tissue Using Multiphoton Excitation Fluorescence and Polarization-Sensitive Harmonic Generation Microscopy
In this study, all tumors were adenocarcinomas that originate from ducts or ductules but infiltrate to involve all components of the pancreas. Other tumors that originate in pancreas may have different properties and a future study of in situ tumor is likely needed to determine whether the tumor tissue retains a structural remnant of its originating tissue. Methods and Materials Histology Sample Preparation Samples of normal human pancreas from five patients and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissue samples from ten patients were obtained with informed consent and institutional approval (University Health Network Toro...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prediction of Metabolic Syndrome for the Survival of Patients With Digestive Tract Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Dan Hu1†, Meijin Zhang2†, Hejun Zhang1, Yan Xia1, Jinxiu Lin2, Xiongwei Zheng1, Feng Peng2* and Wenquan Niu3* 1Department of Pathology, Fujian Cancer Hospital & Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, China 2Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China 3Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China Background and Objectives: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome confers a differential risk for the development and progression of many types of cancer, especially in the digestive t...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 17, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Chemotherapy in Combination With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for the First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review and Literature-Based Meta-Analysis
Alfredo Addeo1*, Giuseppe Luigi Banna2, Giulio Metro3 and Massimo Di Maio4 1Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland 2Division of Medical Oncology, Cannizzaro Hospital, Catania, Italy 3Medical Oncology, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera di Perugia, Perugia, Italy 4Department of Oncology, Ordine Mauriziano Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Background: Checkpoint inhibitors plus platinum-based chemotherapy have shown superiority compared to chemotherapy alone as first-line therapy in advanced non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). To ev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial: Cancer Metabolism: Current Knowledge and Perspectives
Leonardo Freire-de-Lima1*, Lucia Mendonça-Previato1* and Luciana Boffoni Gentile2* 1Laboratorio de Glicobiologia, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2Laboratório de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Hospital Universitário de Medicina Veterinária Professor Firmino Mársico Filho (Huvet), Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Editorial on the Research Topic Cancer Metabolism: Current Knowledge and Perspectives Over the first half of the twentieth century, it has been d...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

CAR-Based Approaches to Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Conclusions The major challenges in the development of adoptive cell therapy for T cell tumors, as mentioned above, remain fratricide, T cell aplasia and the potential for leukemic transduction or poor T cell function if used in the autologous setting. Approaches to overcome fratricide include the genetic modification and deletion of the T cell antigen in the case of long-term CAR-T cell persistence or regulated CAR-T expression. To ensure restoration of T cell immunity, transient CAR expression can be achieved incorporation of a CAR suicide gene, transient CAR expression using mRNA electroporation, or short-lived NK cell...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Synthesis and Anticancer Activity Evaluation of Novel Phenanthridine Derivatives
Minghui Wan†, Lei Zhang†, Yiming Chen, Qiang Li, Wenli Fan, Qingxia Xue, Fang Yan* and Weiguo Song* School of Pharmacy, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China Based on the structure of sanguinarine, fourteen phenanthridine derivatives were designed and synthesized in the current study. The cytotoxic activities of synthesized compounds were evaluated against five human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, PC3, Hela, A549, and HepG2 cell lines) via MTT assay. Among all the compounds tested, molecule 8a exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells with a IC50 value of 0.28 μM. A following u...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Locally Advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: The Case for Radiation Dose De-escalation in the Management of the Mediastinum
Viacheslav Soyfer1* and Benjamin W. Corn2 1Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 2Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel Outcomes for patients with locally-advanced Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) remain poor. In the context of definitive (as opposed to neoadjuvant) treatment, radiation oncologists have traditionally embraced dose escalation as a means to improve control of the primary tumor as well as draining nodal regions for this clinical problem. Yet we wonder: is it optimal—or even rational—to treat the primary and the medi...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of Genetic Mutations in Cancer: Challenge and Opportunity in the New Era of Targeted Therapy
Conclusions In the new era of targeted therapy, treatment options are increasingly based on the precise molecular and genetic profiling of tumor cells (58). Currently, the main challenge for further novel drug development in targeted therapy is the clarification of specific molecular mechanisms underlying the varied forms of tumors in clinic. It has been acknowledged that cancer is caused by a set of driver mutations. In this regard, it is of great significance to: (1) identify and validate key mutant genes and proteins in cancers as new targets; (2) identify patients most likely and unlikely to benefit from certain targe...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Turning the Tide Against Regulatory T Cells
In this study, T cells deficient in TRAF6 display enhanced T cell activation, CD28-indpendent stimulation and resistance to Treg cell-mediated suppression (176). Although TLR signaling can promote T cell resistance to Treg cells, the precise molecular mechanism remains yet to be elucidated. It is worth noting that TLR stimulation of T cells increases cytokine production (173, 177), thus future studies should delineate the effect of TLR-MyD88 signaling vs. subsequently induced cytokines in generating resistance to Treg cells. Lastly, it is also crucial to evaluate the effect of TLR signaling on regulatory T cells which also...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Non-coding and Coding Transcriptional Profiles Are Significantly Altered in Pediatric Retinoblastoma Tumors
Swetha Rajasekaran1,2,3†, Lakshmi Dhevi Nagarajha Selvan4†, Kathleen Dotts1,2,3†, Ranjith Kumar4, Pukhraj Rishi5, Vikas Khetan5, Madhoolika Bisht1,2,3, Karthikeyan Sivaraman6, Subrmanian Krishnakumar7, Debashis Sahoo8, Moray J. Campbell9, Sailaja V. Elchuri4* and Wayne O. Miles1,2,3* 1Department of Molecular Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States2The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, United States3Center for RNA Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States4Department of Nanobiotechnology, Vision Research Foundation, Sank...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor as a Promoter of Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer
In conclusion, our results of bioinformatic analysis, in vitro and in vivo functional analysis suggested that REST may serve as a promoter of metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Introduction Pancreatic cancer, ranked fourth in cancer-related mortality, is characterized by its rapid progression and early metastasis (1). Patients are hardly cured by surgical resection due to the existing local invasion and distant metastasis (2). Elevating the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer requires further elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanism of its metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), especially...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pretreatment Level of Red Cell Distribution Width as a Prognostic Indicator for Survival in a Large Cohort Study of Male Laryngeal Squamous Carcinoma
Conclusion: Higher pretreatment RDW levels were demonstrated to be associated with poor clinical outcome in male LSCC patients and might be novel markers for patient stratification in LSCC management. Introduction Laryngeal cancer is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck, of which the estimated crude incidence and mortality rates in China were 1.86/100,000 and 1.01/100,000, respectively (1). This disease has a male predominance with a male-to-female ratio of 20 to 30:1 in China (2). The most commonly observed histological type of laryngeal cancer is laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC), accounting for ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay Could Not Predict Benefit of Post-mastectomy Radiotherapy in T1-2 N1mic ER-Positive HER2-Negative Breast Cancer
Conclusion: This study showed that the 21-gene RS assay was not able to predict the benefit of PMRT for OS in women with T1-2 N1mic ER-positive HER2-negative breast cancer. However, further prospective larger sample-size trials are warranted to determine if a benefit exists. Introduction According to the latest Global Cancer Statistics 2018, breast cancer is still the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females worldwide (1). It is estimated that there will be about 2.1 million newly diagnosed female breast cancer cases and 627,000 cancer death in 2018 (1). The use of screening tests for ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Establishment and Verification of a Bagged-Trees-Based Model for Prediction of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis for Early Breast Cancer Patients
Conclusions: Our model is more reliable and stable to assist doctors predict the SLN metastasis in breast cancer patients before operation. Introduction The incidence of breast cancer is the first in female malignant tumors, in which the highest incidence of breast cancer has been reported in Europe and the United States, however, in recent years, the incidence of breast cancer in China has annually increased (1, 2). Based on surgery as an important step in the treatment of breast cancer, in recent years, different individuals have never stopped exploration of a novel and optimum approach. Besides, NSABP-04, ASCOG-...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression of the Neuroblastoma-Associated ALK-F1174L Activating Mutation During Embryogenesis Impairs the Differentiation of Neural Crest Progenitors in Sympathetic Ganglia
In this study, we investigated the impact of the human ALK-F1174L mutation in vivo on sympathetic neuroblast differentiation using Sox10-Cre;LSL-ALK-F1174L mice. The aim was to improve our understanding of the implication of ALK deregulated signaling in the initial steps of NB genesis. Results ALK-F1174L Causes Embryonic Lethality When Expressed in NCCs Prior to SA Lineage Commitment To assess the impact of the human ALK-F1174L activating mutation on the development and differentiation of the SNS, Sox10-Cre;LSL-ALK-F1174L embryos were generated. This model allowed to restrict the expression of the ALK-F1174L variant to ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Discovery of Novel and Clinically Relevant Markers in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Esophageal Cancer Specimen
Joe Abdo1, Christopher S. Wichman2, Nicholas E. Dietz1,3, Pawel Ciborowski4, John Fleegel1, Sumeet K. Mittal1,5 and Devendra K. Agrawal1* 1Department of Clinical and Translational Science, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, United States 2Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States 3Department of Pathology, CHI Health Creighton University Medical Center, College of Medicine, Omaha, NE, United States 4Department of Pharmacology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, United States 5Norton Thoracic Institute, St....
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma With Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelopathy as the Initial Symptom: A Case Report
Conclusions DLBCL, the most common type of NHL, occurs primarily in middle-aged or elderly patients. The median age at the time of diagnosis is in the 7th decade (1). Gastrointestinal tract is the most common site of lymphoma. NHL confined to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, or eyes without evidence of systemic involvement, is called primary CNS lymphoma. Primary CNS lymphoma is rare and aggressive, accounting for 1% of all lymphomas (3). If the spinal cord is involved, primary CNS lymphoma is often found to have occult systemic involvement (4). Therefore, it is very rare for systemic NHL to present with acute exten...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Vemurafenib Treatment of Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma in a Child With Down Syndrome
In conclusion, we have shown the safety and efficacy of Vemurafenib in a pediatric patient with DS affected by PXA. Ethics Statement This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the Internal Review Board of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Internal Review Board of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. Informed Consent The authors declare that written informed consent was obtained from the pat...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Basket Trials for Intractable Cancer
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epigeneti-What? Approaches on Translating Research for Primary Breast Cancer Prevention
Conclusion In conclusion, neither the bottom-up nor top-down strategy should be used in isolation. While utilizing the bottom-up approach researchers are likely to see effects rather quickly, but these effects will likely be limited to small pockets of populations, and potentially not very long lasting. Utilizing the top-down approach is likely to yield much larger dividends, but it also comes with a much longer time commitment, and no guarantee of success after years of advocacy work. To maximize return-on-investment, breast cancer prevention researchers should seek to translate their findings simultaneously along both o...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Efficacy of CyberKnife Radiosurgery for Adult Brainstem Glioma: 10 Years Experience at Tianjin CyberKnife Center and Review of the Literature
Conclusion: The efficacy of brainstem gliomas—treated with CyberKnife is efficacious with mild toxicity. Introduction Brainstem gliomas (BSGs) account for 5–15% of brain tumors and more likely happen in children (1). BSGs constitute at least 20% of childhood brain neoplasms (2), and the peak age is 7–9 years. In contrast, BSGs is rare in the adult population and account for only 1.5–2.5% of brain glioma, with a peak age of 40–70 years (1). Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma(DIPG) was the most common type of BSG is that could invade the whole brainstem including midbrain, pons as well as me...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

High Expression of DEPDC1 Promotes Malignant Phenotypes of Breast Cancer Cells and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients With Breast Cancer
In this study, the immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that DEPDC1 was high-expressed in breast cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal breast tissues, and its tendency at protein level was consistent with mRNA level from TCGA data. Moreover, DEPDC1 mRNA level revealed the strongest association with poor prognosis and development in breast cancer. In vitro assays showed that DEPDC1 overexpression resulted in significant promotion of proliferation by regulating cell cycle in MCF-7 cells, whilst an opposite effect was found in the MDA-MB-231 cells with DEPDC1 deletion. Notably, further investigation ind...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Dosiomics: Extracting 3D Spatial Features From Dose Distribution to Predict Incidence of Radiation Pneumonitis
In conclusion, the spatial features of dose distribution extracted by the dosiomics method effectively improves the prediction ability. Introduction Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is one of the major toxicities of thoracic radiation therapy. The clinical symptoms range from fever, cough to pulmonary function failure, which may occur during the first 6 months after irradiation. Reducing the prescription dose could lower the risk of RP incidence, but also impairs tumor control. An accurate RP predictor (or prediction model) is desired to “safely” irradiate the tumor target without increasing the risk of RP in...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Potential Use of DCE-MRI Texture Analysis to Predict HER2 2+ Status
Conclusion: The texture analysis for breast DCE-MRI proposed in this study demonstrated potential utility in HER2 2+ status discrimination. Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an orphan tyrosine kinase receptor. It is reported that HER2 is overexpressed in 15–20% of breast cancers. Overexpression of HER2 in breast cancer correlates with shortened disease-free survival. Compared with HER2-negative patients, patients with HER2-positive breast cancers have a poor prognosis, a high probability of lymph node metastasis and a high risk of recurrence (1–3). However, previous studies h...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Approach to Preoperative Risk Stratification in Endometrial Cancer: The Added Value of Immunohistochemical Markers
Vit Weinberger1, Marketa Bednarikova2, Jitka Hausnerova3, Petra Ovesna4, Petra Vinklerova1, Lubos Minar1, Michal Felsinger1, Eva Jandakova3, Marta Cihalova3 and Michal Zikan5* 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Brno and Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia2Department of Internal Medicine – Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital in Brno and Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia3Department of Pathology, University Hospital in Brno and Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia4Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia5Institute of Biostati...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 12, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Skin Directed Therapy in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Erica S. Tarabadkar† and Michi M. Shinohara*† Division of Dermatology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States Skin directed therapies (SDTs) serve important roles in the treatment of early stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL)/mycosis fungoides (MF), as well as managing symptoms and improving quality of life of all stages. There are now numerous options for topical therapies that demonstrate high response rates, particularly in early/limited MF. Phototherapy retains an important role in treating MF, with increasing data supporting efficacy and long-term safety of both UVB and PUVA as ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - April 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research