Erratum: Body Composition Parameters May Be Prognostic Factors in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Treated by Radical Nephroureterectomy
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Harnessing Lactate Metabolism for Radiosensitization
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Alterations in the lactate pathway have been characterized in diverse cancers, correlate with outcomes, and lead to many downstream effects, including decreasing oxidative stress, promoting an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, lipid synthesis, and building chemo- or radio-resistance. Radiotherapy is a key modality of treatment for many cancers and approximately 50% of patients with cancer will receive radiation for cure or palliation; thus, overcoming radio-resistance is important for improving outcomes. Growing research s...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ME2 Promotes Proneural –Mesenchymal Transition and Lipogenesis in Glioblastoma
Malic enzyme 2 (ME2) catalyzes the formation of pyruvate from malic acid and is abnormally expressed in some tumors. However, the exact effects of ME2 on proneural–mesenchymal transition (PMT) and lipogenesis in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remain unexplored. Here, we found that ME2 expression was significantly higher in GBM than in normal brain tissues and negatively correlated with overall survival of patients with GBM. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ME2 was positively correlated with mesenchymal features in GBM and promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Moreover, ME2 upregulated the e...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Dihydroartemisinin Induces Growth Arrest and Overcomes Dexamethasone Resistance in Multiple Myeloma
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

PSMB7 Is a Key Gene Involved in the Development of Multiple Myeloma and Resistance to Bortezomib
In this study, we used weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to analyze the gene expression of the dynamic process from normal plasma cells (NPC) to malignant profiling PC, and found that the abnormal gene expression was mainly concentrated in the proteasome. We also found that the expression of one of the proteasomal subunits PSMB7 was capable of distinguishing the different stages of PC dyscrasia and was the highest in ISS III. In the bortezomib (BTZ) treated NDMM patients, higher PSMB7 expression was associated with shorter survival time, and the expression of PSMB7 in the BTZ treatment group was signific...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Proteome Analysis of USP7 Substrates Revealed Its Role in Melanoma Through PI3K/Akt/FOXO and AMPK Pathways
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Companion Diagnostic With Significant Clinical Impact in Treatment of Breast and Gastric Cancer
The development of trastuzumab (Herceptin®) was one of the most significant cancer drug development projects of the 20th century. Not only was it a scientific and medical achievement but it also paved the way for the drug-diagnostic codevelopment model, where a predictive biomarker assay is developed in parallel to the drug. One of the challenges in the development of trastuzumab was to select the right patient population likely to respond and here, it was critical to have access to an accurate, robust and reliable assay for detection of HER2 overexpression in tumors. In the clinical development of trastuzumab, a clini...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Blood Circulating miRNA Pairs as a Robust Signature for Early Detection of Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor in the digestive system which is often diagnosed at the middle and late stages. Noninvasive diagnosis using circulating miRNA as biomarkers enables accurate detection of early-stage EC to reduce mortality. We built a diagnostic signature consisting of four miRNA pairs for the early detection of EC using individualized Pairwise Analysis of Gene Expression (iPAGE). Profiling of miRNA expression identified 496 miRNA pairs with significant relative expression change. Four miRNA pairs consistently selected from LASSO were used to construct the final diagnostic model. The perfor...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Mixed Photon and Carbon-Ion Beam Radiotherapy in the Management of Non-Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
ConclusionMixed treatment of IMRT plus CIRT boost provides an excellent disease control and a favorable toxicity profile for patients with non-metastatic NPC. Further follow-up is necessary to evaluate the long-term survivals and toxicities more accurately. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Multi-Omic Analyses of the m5C Regulator ALYREF Reveal Its Essential Roles in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
The ALYREF protein acts as a crucial epigenetic regulator in several cancers. However, the specific expression levels and functional roles of ALYREF in cancers are largely unknown, including for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In a pan-cancer tissue analysis that included HCC, we assessed the expression of ALYREF compared to normal tissues using The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Associations between ALYREF gene expression and the clinical characteristics of HCC patient samples were assessed using the UALCAN database. Kaplan-Meier plots were performed to assess HCC patient prognosis, and the TIMER database was used to explo...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Targeting NUFIP1 Suppresses Growth and Induces Senescence of Colorectal Cancer Cells
NUFIP1 is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) in the messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP). We previously showed that NUFIP1 was upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC), but how the protein may contribute to the disease and patient prognosis is unknown. Here we combine database analysis, microarray, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry of patients’ samples to confirm our previous findings on NUFIP1 overexpression in CRC, and to reveal that increased expression of NUFIP1 in CRC tissues correlated with worse overall, recurrence-free, event-free and disease-f...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Analysis of Immune-Related Signatures Related to CD4+ T Cell Infiltration With Gene Co-Expression Network in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
ConclusionWe constructed a novel four-gene signature to predict the prognosis of Stages III and IV PDAC patients by applying WGCNA and CIBERSORT algorithm scoring to transcriptome data different from traditional methods of filtrating for differential genes in cancer and healthy tissues. The findings may provide reference to predict survival and was beneficial to individualized management for advanced PDAC patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of HER2-Enriched Subtype Predicting the Pathological Complete Response Within HER2-Positive Breast Cancer in Patients Who Received Neoadjuvant Treatment
BackgroundThis meta-analysis aimed to better elucidate the predictive value of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-enriched subtype of pathological complete response (pCR) rate within HER2-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment.MethodsWe identified prospective trials that evaluated the correlation between an HER2-enriched subtype and pCR rate in HER2-positive breast cancer. Pooled odds ratio (OR) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed.ResultsFifteen studies comprising 2,190 patients met the inclusion criteria. The HER2-enriched subtype was associated with increased odd...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effects of Inflammation on the Immune Microenvironment in Gastric Cancer
ConclusionFinally, a risk model of the inflammatory response in gastric cancer was established, and the inflammation-related genes used to construct the model were found to be directly related to immune infiltration. This model can improve the gastric cancer prognosis prediction. Our findings contribute to the development of immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer patients. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

GMFG Has Potential to Be a Novel Prognostic Marker and Related to Immune Infiltrates in Breast Cancer
A growing amount of evidence has indicated immune genes perform a crucial position in the development and progression of breast cancer microenvironment. The purpose of our study was to identify immunogenic prognostic marker and explore potential regulatory mechanisms for breast cancer. We identified the genes related to ImmuneScore using ESTIMATE algorithm and WGCNA analysis, and we identified the differentially expressed gene (DEGs). Then, Glia maturation factor γ (GMFG) was determined as a predictive factor by intersecting immune-related genes with DEGs and survival analysis. We found the expression of GMFG was low...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Late Morbidity and Dose –Volume Parameter of Rectum in Combined Intracavitary/Interstitial Cervix Cancer Brachytherapy: A Mono-Institutional Experience
ConclusionOur study proved that D1cm3 andD0.1cm3were considered as useful dosimetric parameters for predicting the risk of grade1–4 and grade2–4 LRC at 1-year, and D1cm3might be an indicator for predicting grade2-4 LRC at 3/5years. The patients with rectal D1cm3>66.37–74.18 GyEQD2 should be closely observed for grade2–4 LRC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 23, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Review of Current In Silico Methods for Repositioning Drugs and Chemical Compounds
Drug repositioning is a new way of applying the existing therapeutics to new disease indications. Due to the exorbitant cost and high failure rate in developing new drugs, the continued use of existing drugs for treatment, especially anti-tumor drugs, has become a widespread practice. With the assistance of high-throughput sequencing techniques, many efficient methods have been proposed and applied in drug repositioning and individualized tumor treatment. Current computational methods for repositioning drugs and chemical compounds can be divided into four categories: (i) feature-based methods, (ii) matrix decomposition-bas...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Nomogram Based on Log Odds of Metastatic Lymph Nodes to Predict Overall Survival in Patients With Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma After Surgery
ConclusionsLODDS is a strong independent prognostic factor, and the nomogram has a great ability to predict OS, which helps assist clinicians to conduct personalized clinical practice. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Wnt/ β-Catenin Inhibition Disrupts Carboplatin Resistance in Isogenic Models of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
In this study, we used carboplatin-resistant in vivo patient-derived xenograft and isogenic TNBC cell-line models and detected enhanced Wnt/β-catenin activity correlating with an induced expression of stem cell markers in both resistant models. In accordance, the activation of canonical Wnt signaling in parental TNBC cell lines increases stem cell markers’ expression, formation of tumorspheres and promotes carboplatin resistance. Finally, we prove that Wnt signaling inhibition resensitizes resistant models to carboplatin both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the synergistic use of Wnt inhibitors and carboplatin ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Sorafenib Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Sorafenib is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be a first-line chemotherapy agent for patients with advanced HCC. A portion of advanced HCC patients can benefit from the treatment with sorafenib, but many patients ultimately develop sorafenib resistance, leading to a poor prognosis. The molecular mechanisms of sorafenib resistance are sophisticated and indefinite. Notably, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which include long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), are critically participated in the ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Research on the Mechanisms Underlying Immune Checkpoints and Tumor Metastasis
This study highlights aspects of the latest clinical research conducted on the relationship between immune checkpoints and tumor metastasis. The overview of each immune checkpoint is divided into the following three sections: 1) structure and expression; 2) immune mechanism related to tumor metastasis; and 3) clinical research related to tumor metastasis. This review expands on the immunological mechanisms of 17 immune checkpoints, including TIM-3, CD47, and OX-40L, that mediate tumor metastasis; evidence shows that most of these immune checkpoints are expressed on the surface of T cells, which mainly exert immunomodulator...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging of the Breast
Artificial intelligence (AI) has invaded our daily lives, and in the last decade, there have been very promising applications of AI in the field of medicine, including medical imaging, in vitro diagnosis, intelligent rehabilitation, and prognosis. Breast cancer is one of the common malignant tumors in women and seriously threatens women’s physical and mental health. Early screening for breast cancer via mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can significantly improve the prognosis of patients. AI has shown excellent performance in image recognition tasks and has been widely studied in breast can...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Protein Tyrosine Kinase 7 Regulates EGFR/Akt Signaling Pathway and Correlates With Malignant Progression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
ConclusionThis study identified PTK7 as a potential marker of worse prognosis in TNBC and revealed PTK7 promotes TNBC metastasis and progression via EGFR/Akt signaling pathway. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Recurrent Cryptic MED14-HOXA9 Rearrangement in an Adult Patient With Mixed-Phenotype Acute Leukemia, T/myeloid, NOS
To define the fusion genes in T/myeloid mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (T/M MPAL), we performed transcriptome sequencing of diagnostic bone marrow samples from 20 adult patients. Our analysis identified a second instance of a recurrent MED14-HOXA9 chimeric gene resulting from the in-frame fusion of exon 23 of MED14 and exon 1 of HOXA9, the first in an adult patient. The MED14-HOXA9 fusion gene was detected in both the diagnostic and relapsed blasts with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. The patient received combined conventional chemotherapy but suffered relapse at 11 months and died of...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Adenosquamous Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Population-Based Analysis
BackgroundDue to the rarity of adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix (ASCC), studies on the incidence, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of ASCC remain scarce. Therefore, we performed a retrospective population-based study to systematically investigate the characteristics of ASCC patients.MethodsPatients with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of ASCC were enrolled from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database between 1975 and 2016. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to identify the potential predictors of cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with A...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Analysis of Adaptive Olaparib Resistance Effects on Cisplatin Sensitivity in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Poly-(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and platinum-based drugs are promising therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) with BRCA1 or BRCA2 loss. PARPi(s) show better efficacies when combined with platinum-based therapy, however, acquisition of PARPi resistance has been linked with co-resistance to platinum-based drugs. Here, we show that TNBCs with constitutively hyperactivated PARP-1 display greater tolerances for the PARPi olaparib and cisplatin, and respond synergistically to olaparib/cisplatin combinations with increased cytotoxicity. Regardless of BRCA1 and PARP-1 activity status, upon gaining olap...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: Successful Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy in Haploidentical-Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Patients With Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder
ConclusionThe present results demonstrated that patients with EBV-PTLD may benefit from CAR-T therapy and that the toxicity is manageable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Application of CT-Based Radiomics in Discriminating Pancreatic Cystadenomas From Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Using Machine Learning Methods
ConclusionsRadiomics-based machine learning methods might be a noninvasive tool to assist in differentiating pancreatic cystadenomas and PNETs. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of Radiomic Features in a Diverse Cohort of Patients With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas
ConclusionsThis pilot study identified several textural radiomics features associated with poor overall survival among African Americans with PDAC, independent of other prognostic factors such as grade. Our findings suggest that CT radiomic features may serve as surrogates for underlying biological factors and add value in predicting clinical outcomes when integrated with other parameters in ongoing and future studies of cancer health disparities. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prediction of EGFR Mutation Status Based on 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging Using Deep Learning-Based Model in Lung Adenocarcinoma
ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to develop a deep learning-based system to automatically predict epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant lung adenocarcinoma in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT).MethodsThree hundred and one lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutation status were enrolled in this study. Two deep learning models (SECT and SEPET) were developed with Squeeze-and-Excitation Residual Network (SE-ResNet) module for the prediction of EGFR mutation with CT and PET images, respectively. The deep learning models were trained with a training data se...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Application Progress of Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models After Cholangiocarcinoma Surgeries
Surgical treatment is the only possible cure for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) at present. However, the high recurrence rate of postoperative CCA leads to a very poor prognosis for patients, effective postoperative chemotherapy is hence the key to preventing the recurrence of CCA. The sensitivity of CCA to cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs and targeted drugs varies from person to person, and therefore, the screening of sensitive drugs has become an important topic after CCA surgeries. Patient-Derived tumor Xenograft models (PDX) can stably retain the genetic and pathological characteristics of primary tumors, and better simulate the...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Quantitative Prediction of Microsatellite Instability in Colorectal Cancer With Preoperative PET/CT-Based Radiomics
ObjectivesMicrosatellite instability (MSI) status is an important hallmark for prognosis prediction and treatment recommendation of colorectal cancer (CRC). To address issues due to the invasiveness of clinical preoperative evaluation of microsatellite status, we investigated the value of preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT radiomics with machine learning for predicting the microsatellite status of colorectal cancer patients.MethodsA total of 173 patients that underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before operations were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The microsatellite status for each patient was identified as microsatellite ins...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Management of Apatinib-Related Adverse Events in Patients With Advanced Osteosarcoma From Four Prospective Trials: Chinese Sarcoma Study Group Experience
Four prospective trials have reported apatinib-related efficacy in osteosarcoma, with a high response rate of 43.2%. Currently, Adverse Events (AEs) have increasingly gained attention, as treatment with multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is potentially lifelong. For this reason, a consensus meeting of the Chinese Sarcoma Study Group (CSSG), which is a multidisciplinary panel composed of pediatric, medical and surgical oncologists specializing in sarcoma, nurse specialists, oncological senior pharmacists and gastroenterologists, was held to develop comprehensive guidelines on AEs emerging due to apatinib treatment t...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Expression of HER2 and Mismatch Repair Proteins in Surgically Resected Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma
ConclusionMMR protein deficiency and HER2 overexpression were observed in a small subset (1.3% and 13.9%, respectively) of GBCs without simultaneous occurrence of deficient MMR protein expression and HER2 overexpression. The presence of Crohn-like lymphoid reaction may help identify cases with HER2 amplification, by using hematoxylin-stained slides. Although the proportion of MMR protein-deficient- and HER2-overexpressing GBCs was small, applying immunotherapy to MMR protein-deficient GBCs and herceptin to HER2-overexpressing GBCs may provide alternative treatment options for patients with GBC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: A Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma Patient Who Responded to Neoadjuvant Immunochemotherapy but Died From Anastomosis Leakage or/and irAEs: Immune Microenvironment and Genomic Features Changes
We report the case of a 62-year-old male patient diagnosed with stage IIIA squamous cell lung carcinoma (SQCC) who responded to neoadjuvant and adjuvant nivolumab combined chemotherapy but died from anastomosis leakage or/and irAEs. In the pretreatment tumor biopsy, PD-L1 expression was negative and a few T cells, NK cells, and macrophages had infiltrated the tumor. Wild-type EGFR/STK11, mutant TP53, microsatellite stability, and low tumor mutational burden were also found at baseline. After neoadjuvant immunochemotherapy, the tumor was significantly reduced, PD-L1 expression levels were increased by 50%, and more CD8+ and...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

c-Src Increases the Sensitivity to TKIs in the EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinoma
c-Src and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are key apical kinases that govern cell responses to microenvironmental cues. How c-Src affects EGFR-related signaling and targeted therapy remains elusive. Initially, caspase-8 phosphorylated at tyrosine 380 by c-Src predominantly enhancing c-Src activation to facilitate metastasis through attaining epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in lung adenocarcinoma. Mechanistically, the linkage of c-Src SH2 domain with phosphotyrosine 380 of caspase-8 and SH3 domain with “PDEP” motif of caspase-8 overactivates c-Src as compared with other c-Src-partne...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Geometric and Dosimetric Changes in Tumor and Lung Tissue During Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer With Atelectasis
ConclusionsFor most patients, regression of the atelectasis occurred, and the volume of the ipsilateral lung tended to increase while the tumor volume decreased, and the COM and boundary of the tumors shifted toward mediastinum, which caused an insufficient dose to the target and an overdose to the lungs. Regression or expansion may occur for any fraction, and it is therefore recommended that CBCT be performed at least every other day. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: End-Stage Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated With a New Noninvasive Non-Contact Oncomagnetic Device
Alternating electric field therapy has been approved for glioblastoma (GBM). We have preclinical evidence for anticancer effects in GBM cell cultures and mouse xenografts with an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) generating device. Here we report OMF treatment of end-stage recurrent glioblastoma in a 53-year-old man who had undergone radical surgical excision and chemoradiotherapy, and experimental gene therapy for a left frontal tumor. He experienced tumor recurrence and progressive enlargement with leptomeningeal involvement. OMF for 5 weeks was well tolerated, with 31% reduction of contrast-enhanced tumor volume and redu...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

IDO Inhibition Facilitates Antitumor Immunity of V γ9Vδ2 T Cells in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
In this study, we found that IDO1 and PD-L1 were highly expressed in TNBC patients. Analysis of the clinical samples demonstrated that Vγ9Vδ2 T cells became exhausted in triple-negative breast cancer patients. And Vγ9Vδ2 T cells combined with αPD-L1 could not further enhance their antitumor responses in vitro and in vivo. However, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells combined with IDO1 inhibitor 1-Methyl-L-tryptophan (1-MT) or Lindrostat showed substantial inhibitory effects on MDA-MB-231 tumor cells. Finally, we found that IDO1 inhibitor promoted T cell’s cytotoxicity by enhancing perforin produc...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Editorial: Genomics and Epigenomics of Cancer Immunotherapy: Challenges and Clinical Implications
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 22, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

RBM10 Deficiency Is Associated With Increased Immune Activity in Lung Adenocarcinoma
ConclusionOur study demonstrates that RBM10 deficient LUADs show higher HLA expression and immune cell infiltration, and some immune checkpoint molecules are also highly expressed. In brief, RBM10 deficiency could enhance anti-tumor immunity in LUAD. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Melphalan as a Promising Treatment for BRCA-Related Ovarian Carcinoma
ConclusionsOur study represents the largest cohort of heavily-pretreated EOC patients receiving melphalan treatment. Here, we report a considerable clinical activity of melphalan chemotherapy, more evident in a subset of BRCA1/2 mutated patients. Prospective studies to validate these findings are warranted. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Ferroptosis-Related Pathway for Regulating Immune Checkpoints in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
In conclusion, these findings suggest that ferroptosis is correlated with tumor immunity. The TAZ/WNT10B axis may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for immunotherapy in ccRCC. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Impact of lncRNAs and miRNAs on Apoptosis in Lung Cancer
Apoptosis is a coordinated cellular process that occurs in several physiological situations. Dysregulation of apoptosis has been documented in numerous pathological situations, particularly cancer. Non-coding RNAs regulate apoptosis via different mechanisms. Lung cancer is among neoplastic conditions in which the role of non-coding RNAs in the regulation of apoptosis has been investigated. Non-coding RNAs that regulate apoptosis in lung cancer have functional interactions with PI3K/Akt, PTEN, GSK-3β, NF-κB, Bcl-2, Bax, p53, mTOR and other important cancer-related pathways. Globally, over-expression of apoptosis-...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Artificial Intelligence in the Imaging of Gastric Cancer: Current Applications and Future Direction
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Precise diagnosis and evaluation of GC, especially using noninvasive methods, are fundamental to optimal therapeutic decision-making. Despite the recent rapid advancements in technology, pretreatment diagnostic accuracy varies between modalities, and correlations between imaging and histological features are far from perfect. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, particularly hand-crafted radiomics and deep learning, have offered hope in addressing these issues. AI has been used widely in GC research, b...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Defining Unmet Need Following Lenalidomide Refractoriness: Real-World Evidence of Outcomes in Patients With Multiple Myeloma
BackgroundThe treatment paradigm for multiple myeloma (MM) continues to evolve with the development of novel therapies and the earlier adoption of continuous treatments into the treatment pathway. Lenalidomide-refractory patients now represent a challenge with inferior progression free survival (PFS) reported to subsequent treatments. We therefore sought to describe the natural history of MM patients following lenalidomide in the real world.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort review of patients with relapsed MM who received lenalidomide-based treatments in the U.K. Data were collected for demographics, subsequent therap...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Application of Data Science in Circulating Tumor DNA Detection: A Promising Avenue Towards Liquid Biopsy
The circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), as a promising biomarker of liquid biopsy, has potential clinical relevance on the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. However, the trace concentration level of ctDNA in the peripheral blood restricts its extensive clinical application. Recently, high-throughput-based methodologies have been leveraged to improve the sensitivity and specificity of ctDNA detection, showing a promising avenue towards liquid biopsy. This review briefly summarizes the high-throughput data features concerned by current ctDNA detection strategies and the technical obstacles, potential solutions, and cl...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Genetic Changes of Hepatoblastoma
Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant liver cancer in childhood. The etiology of hepatoblastoma remains obscure. Hepatoblastoma is closely related to genetic syndromes, hinting that hepatoblastoma is a genetic predisposition disease. However, no precise exposures or genetic events are reported to hepatoblastoma occurrence. During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the understanding of etiology leading to hepatoblastoma, and several important genetic events that appear to be important for the development and progression of this tumor have been identified. Advances in our understanding of the genet...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The Role of Circulating Tumor DNA in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionEarly reduction of ctDNA was associated with improved OS, PFS and ORR in advanced NSCLC patients treated with ICIs.Systematic Review Registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, CRD42021226255. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Abiraterone In Vitro Is Superior to Enzalutamide in Response to Ionizing Radiation
This study also aimed to compare and investigate a biological rationale for the selection of Abiraterone versus Enzalutamide in combination with radiotherapy as currently selection is based on consideration of side effect profiles and clinical experience. We report that AR suppression with Enzalutamide produces a synergistic effect only in AR-sensitive prostate models. In contrast, Abiraterone displays synergistic effects in combination with radiation regardless of AR status, alluding to potential alternative mechanisms of action. The underlying mechanisms governing this AR-based synergy are based on the reduction of key A...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - July 21, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research