Investigating 18F-FDG PET/CT Parameters as Prognostic Markers for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review
Conclusion:18F-FDG PET/CT parameters alone or combined with other variables can serve as prognostic markers to identify DTC patients with poor outcomes, especially in the setting of an elevated Tg and a negative WBS. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and to examine the prognostic value of PET/CT parameters for DTC patients, considering the heterogeneity in PET/CT parameters, unclear information of patients, and PET/CT-adapted treatment modifications. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 14, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Individualized Nomogram for Predicting Survival in Patients with Brain Metastases After Stereotactic Radiosurgery Utilizing Driver Gene Mutations and Volumetric Surrogates
It is well-known that genomic mutational analysis plays a significant role in patients with NSCLC for personalized treatment. Given the increasing use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases (BM), there is an emerging need for more precise assessment of survival outcomes after SRS. Patients with BM and treated by SRS were eligible in this study. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Cox regression models were used to identify independent prognostic factors. A survival predictive nomogram was developed and evaluated by Concordance-index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC), and calibration curve. ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Doxorubicin-Induced Cognitive Impairment: The Mechanistic Insights
Chemotherapy can significantly prolong the survival of patients with breast cancer; Nevertheless, the majority of patients receiving chemotherapy such as doxorubicin may have cognitive deficits that manifest as impairments in learning, reasoning, attention, and memory. The phenomenon of chemotherapy-induced cognitive decline is termed as chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) or chemo-brain. Doxorubicin (DOX), a commonly used drug in adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with breast cancer, has been reported to induce chemo-brain through a variety of mechanisms including DNA damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, d...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrated Analysis of ceRNA Network Reveals Prognostic and Metastasis Associated Biomarkers in Breast Cancer
ConclusionIn the present research, we identified 3 RNAs (hsa-miR-105-5p, BCAR1 and PANX2) might associated with prognosis and metastasis of breast cancer, which might be provide a new perspective for metastasis of breast cancer and contributed to the treatment of breast cancer. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of Cardiac Imaging in the Diagnosis of Immune Checkpoints Inhibitors Related Myocarditis
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have constituted a paradigm shift in the management of patients with cancer. Their administration is associated with a new spectrum of immune-related toxicities that can affect any organ. In patients treated with ICI, cardiovascular toxicities, particularly myocarditis, occur with a low incidence (
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: High-Level MET Amplification as a Resistance Mechanism of ROS1-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in ROS1-Rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
We report a case of a 62-year-old man diagnosed with ROS1-rearranged metastatic lung adenocarcinoma, who received first-line treatment with crizotinib for 19 months. During the course of disease, the primary lung tumor was under control while the brain metastasis progressed despite the treatment with lorlatinib. The biopsy and genetic tests of the metastatic brain tumor showed a high level of MET amplification (32 copies). However, fluorescence in situ hybridization of the primary cancer showed no MET amplification, suggesting that MET amplification may be associated with an acquired resistance to ROS1-TKIs.SummaryThis cas...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Age-Associated Changes in Adverse Events Arising From Anti-PD-(L)1 Therapy
BackgroundImmune-related adverse events (irAEs) may complicate the immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) therapy. The effect of age on these irAEs is not elucidated. The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of irAEs in different age groups.MethodsPatients with lung cancer receiving anti-programmed death- (ligand)1 (PD-(L)1) were selected from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Immune cell infiltration data set was obtained from TIMER 2.0 web server. The patients were stratified for age as follows:
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Establishment and Initial Experience of Clinical FLASH Radiotherapy in Canine Cancer Patients
FLASH radiotherapy has emerged as a treatment technique with great potential to increase the differential effect between normal tissue toxicity and tumor response compared to conventional radiotherapy. To evaluate the feasibility of FLASH radiotherapy in a relevant clinical setting, we have commenced a feasibility and safety study of FLASH radiotherapy in canine cancer patients with spontaneous superficial solid tumors or microscopic residual disease, using the electron beam of our modified clinical linear accelerator. The setup for FLASH radiotherapy was established using a short electron applicator with a nominal source-...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA SNHG1 Activates Autophagy and Promotes Cell Invasion in Bladder Cancer
This study aimed to explore the effect of lncRNA on autophagy in bladder cancer. The findings showed high expression of SNHG1 in the bladder cancer cells and tumor tissues. The high expression of SNHG1 was positively correlated with bladder cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and autophagy. This finding implies that SNHG1 promotes bladder cancer cell invasion and proliferation via autophagy. Further analysis of the mechanism of action of SNHG1 showed that it functions as a sponge of miRNA-493 in bladder cancer. miRNA-493 binds on the 3’ -UTR of ATG14 mRNA thus affecting ATG14 protein expression, which is implicated ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Case Report: 18F-PSMA PET/CT May Improve the Clinical Management of Penile Metastases From Prostate Cancer
Metastases from prostate cancer (PCa) to the penis are extremely rare, and few case reports exist in the literature. Because most patients usually present with multiple distant metastases at diagnosis, the prognosis is very poor. With the wide application of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT, penile metastases may be detected at an early stage. Thus, questions regarding whether early diagnosis and precise treatment will equate to a survival advantage have recently been raised. In the present study, we reported 3 cases of penile metastasis from castration-resistant PCa. Moreover, a patient with asymptomatic p...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Ancient Adversary – HERV-K (HML-2) in Cancer
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV), ancient integrations of exogenous viruses, make up 8% of our genome. Long thought of as mere vestigial genetic elements, evidence is now accumulating to suggest a potential functional role in numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, and multiple cancers. The youngest member of this group of transposable elements is HERV-K (HML-2). Like the majority of HERV sequences, significant post-insertional mutations have disarmed HERV-K (HML-2), preventing it from producing infectious viral particles. However, some insertions have retained limited coding ca...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification and Validation of a Prognostic Immune-Related Alternative Splicing Events Signature for Glioma
ConclusionOur research presented all immune-related AS events in glioma, identified an immune-related prognostic AS events risk model and a nomogram was constructed to predict the prognosis individually and more precisely. Tight connection was verified between this signature and clinical characteristics. Also, immune cells infiltration and immune checkpoints expression level were proved to link to risk scores, which enhanced the understanding of relationship between AS events and glioma immune microenvironment, firstly revealing the potential role of AS in immunotherapy of glioma. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Awareness of Cancer-Related Malnutrition and Its Management: Analysis of the Results From a Survey Conducted Among Medical Oncologists
Cancer is a global major public health problem, particularly in Western countries, where it represents the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease. Malnutrition is common in cancer patients and differs from starvation-related malnutrition, as it results from a combination of anorexia and metabolic dysregulation, caused by the tumor itself or by its treatment, and causing cachexia. Cancer-associated malnutrition can lead to several negative consequences, including poor prognosis, reduced survival, increased therapy toxicity, reduced tolerance and compliance to treatments, and diminished response to antine...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Relevance of ABCB1, ABCG2, and ABCC2 Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Treated With Nilotinib
In conclusion, MDR-transporters SNPs may significantly affect the achievement and loss of molecular response in CML patients treated with nilotinib. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combined Radiochemotherapy: Metalloproteinases Revisited
Besides cytotoxic DNA damage irradiation of tumor cells triggers multiple intra- and intercellular signaling processes, that are part of a multilayered, treatment-induced stress response at the unicellular and tumor pathophysiological level. These processes are intertwined with intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms to the toxic effects of ionizing radiation and thereby co-determine the tumor response to radiotherapy. Proteolysis of structural elements and bioactive signaling moieties represents a major class of posttranslational modifications regulating intra- and intercellular communication. Plasma membrane-located...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Combination Therapies in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia for Potential Treatment-Free Remission: Focus on Leukemia Stem Cells and Immune Modulation
Although tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), patients are not cured with the current therapy modalities. Also, the more recent goal of CML treatment is to induce successful treatment-free remission (TFR) among patients achieving durable deep molecular response (DMR). Together, it is necessary to develop novel, curative treatment strategies. With advancements in understanding the biology of CML, such as dormant Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs) and impaired immune modulation, a number of agents are now under investigation. This review updates such agents that target ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Carnosol Is a Novel Inhibitor of p300 Acetyltransferase in Breast Cancer
This study further confirms carnosol as a promising anti-breast cancer therapeutic compound and identifies it as a novel natural p300 inhibitor that could be added to the existing panel of inhibitors. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Serum hsa_tsr016141 as a Kind of tRNA-Derived Fragments Is a Novel Biomarker in Gastric Cancer
BackgroundGastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors globally and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Currently, the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic markers for GC are low, so it is urgent to find new biomarkers with higher sensitivity and specificity. tRNA-derived small RNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs derived from tRNAs. It is abundant in cancer cells and body fluids. Our goal is to find the differentially expressed tRNA-derived small RNAs in GC to explore their potential as a GC biomarker.MethodsQuantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression level of hsa_t...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Cancer Cell Cluster Marked by LincRNA MEG3 Leads Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Metastasis
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly devastating disease with poor prognosis and rising incidence worldwide. Late detection and particularly aggressive characteristics are the major challenges that lead to therapeutic failure of this disease. A well described gene program and core regulators are yet to be discovered to drive the metastasis of the PDAC cells. As the development of single cell omics technologies including single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), detailed characterization of the cellular composition of solid tumors and their microenvironments are well elaborated. In the current study, we accesse...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Characterization of the Immune Cell Infiltration Profile in Pancreatic Carcinoma to Aid in Immunotherapy
In this study, a high ICI score referred to elevated PD-L1/TGF-β levels, increased activation of cell cycle pathway and DNA repair pathway, as well as reduced expression of immune-activation-related genes. We also demonstrated that three metabolic pathways were suppressed in the low ICI score group. These data may explain why a high ICI score equates to a poor prognosis. Based on our analysis, the ICI score can be used as an effective predictor of PC prognosis. Hence, establishing an ICI profile, based on a large patient population, will not only enhance our knowledge of TME but also aid in the development of immunoth...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Nomogram for Predicting Multiple Metastases in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Large Population-Based Study
ConclusionsWe developed a new nomogram to predict the risk of multiple metastases. The nomogram shows the good prediction effect and can provide assistance for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Pelvic Plexus Block Versus Periprostatic Nerve Block for Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Meta-Analysis
BackgroundTo relieve prostate biopsy-related pain, various local anesthetic methods have been used. The best approach was periprostatic nerve block (PNB) in the past decade. Recently, pelvic plexus block (PPB) was employed to ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Compared with the PNB, the PPB may block a more extensive area. Therefore, PPB may be more effective in relieving prostate biopsy-related pain. However, several prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PPB and PNB drew conflicting conclusions, so we compared the difference of pain control between PPB and PNB for prostate biopsy.MethodsThe following d...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phenotypic Plasticity Conferred by the Metastatic Microenvironment of the Brain Strengthens the Intracranial Tumorigenicity of Lung Tumor Cells
In this study, the results of bioinformatic conjoint analysis revealed that the metastatic microenvironment in the brain conferred lung tumor cell phenotypic plasticity, characterized by neural cell-like and embryonic–stem cell-like features. Meanwhile, the metabolic phenotype of the educated tumor cells underwent transition characterized by oxygen-related metabolism. The results of the experiments demonstrated that the downregulation of HOXB9 weakened the tumorigenicity of lung tumor cells. Bioinformatic prediction analysis also determined that many cell cycle-associated factors were potentially transcribed by HOXB9...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras for BTK Efficiently Inhibit B-Cell Receptor Signaling and Can Overcome Ibrutinib Resistance in CLL Cells
In conclusion, our results indicate that targeting BTK using the PROTAC strategy could be a potential novel therapeutic approach for CLL. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Identification of a Prognostic Clinical Score for Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Treated With Systemic Therapy Including Cetuximab
Cetuximab-based chemoimmunotherapy has been the standard of care for recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (r/m SCCHN) for more than a decade. To date, no predictive or prognostic biomarkers have been established to further guide the systemic treatment with cetuximab-based chemoimmunotherapy in r/m SCCHN. Against this background, we retrospectively analyzed clinical and blood-based parameters from 218 r/m SCCHN patients treated with chemoimmunotherapy including cetuximab. Multivariate Cox-regression models were used to assess their prognostic or predictive value. Eastern Co-operative Oncology...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 13, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Dysregulation of miR-375/AEG-1 Axis by Human Papillomavirus 16/18-E6/E7 Promotes Cellular Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Cervical Cancer
(Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Additional Value of PET/CT-Based Radiomics to Metabolic Parameters in Diagnosing Lynch Syndrome and Predicting PD1 Expression in Endometrial Carcinoma
PurposeWe aim to compare the radiomic features and parameters on 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) between patients with endometrial cancer with Lynch syndrome and those with endometrial cancer without Lynch syndrome. We also hope to explore the biologic significance of selected radiomic features.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective cohort study, first using the 18F-FDG PET/CT images and clinical data from 100 patients with endometrial cancer to construct a training group (70 patients) and a test group (30 patients). The metabolic ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Calcium Channel Protein ORAI1 Mediates TGF- β Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Cells
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ORAI1 could mediate TGF-β-Induced EMT by promoting Ca2+ entry and calpain activity in Colorectal Cancer Cells. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Integrated Analysis of Whole Genome and Epigenome Data Using Machine Learning Technology: Toward the Establishment of Precision Oncology
With the completion of the International Human Genome Project, we have entered what is known as the post-genome era, and efforts to apply genomic information to medicine have become more active. In particular, with the announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by U.S. President Barack Obama in his State of the Union address at the beginning of 2015, “precision medicine,” which aims to divide patients and potential patients into subgroups with respect to disease susceptibility, has become the focus of worldwide attention. The field of oncology is also actively adopting the precision oncology approach, wh...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Small Molecular Antibody, HER2-Nanobody, Inhibits Tumor Proliferation in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
In this study, we constructed and screened HER2-nanobody and verified its tumor-suppressive effect in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. HER2-nanobody was established, filtrated, purified, and was demonstrated to inhibit cell total number, viability, colony formation and mitosis, and promote cell apoptosis in HER2-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Treated with HER2-nanobody, tumor growth was significantly inhibited by both intratumor injection and tail intravenous injection in vivo. The phosphorylation of ERK and AKT was restrained by HER2-nanobody in HER2-positive breast cancer cells. RAS-RAF-MAPK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR a...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genomic and Pathological Characterization of Multiple Renal Cell Carcinoma Regions in Patient With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Case Report
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder characterized by facial angiofibromas, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and tumor formation in multiple organs, including the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in 2%–4% of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, often developing multiply and bilaterally. Renal cell carcinoma associated with this genetic disorder may include complex tumor heterogeneity caused by the spatially different mutational landscape. Herein, we report the case of a female patient with tuberous sclerosis complex who developed multiple renal tumors. A 44-year-old female patient with tuberous ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy of Oxaliplatin, Fluorouracil, and Leucovorin With or Without Sorafenib as Initial Treatment for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
PurposeOur previous study showed that hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFOX) plus sorafenib provided a significant survival benefit over sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, it is unclear whether the survival benefit should be attributed to the synergism between HAIC and sorafenib or just HAIC alone. We aim to compare HAIC using FOLFOX plus sorafenib with HAIC alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective study including 225 eligible patients treated with HAIC using FOLFOX (HAIC alon...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognostic and Clinicopathological Value of Human Leukocyte Antigen G in Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Meta-Analysis
ConclusionElevated HLA-G expression indicates a poor prognosis for GI cancer patients, and screening for this marker could allow for the early diagnosis and treatment of GI cancers to improve survival rates. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

AnnexinA5 Might Suppress the Phenotype of Human Gastric Cancer Cells via ERK Pathway
This study aims to explore the influence of annexinA5 on human gastric cancer cells and whether it has the potential to be an auxiliary treatment to gastric cancer. In this study, the role of annexinA5 was detected from both the endogenous and the exogenous aspects on the gastric cancer cell lines MGC-803 and MKN-45. The cells were divided into a knockdown group in which RNA interference technique was used to suppress annexinA5 expression and a protein-supplementing group in which annexinA5 protein was added in the culture supernatant. After the suppression ratio of RNA interference was determined and the IC50 of annexinA5...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Novel Validated Recurrence Stratification System Based on 18F-FDG PET/CT Radiomics to Guide Surveillance After Resection of Pancreatic Cancer
objectiveDespite the heterogeneous biology of pancreatic cancer, similar surveillance schemas have been used. Identifying the high recurrence risk population and conducting prompt intervention may improve prognosis and prolong overall survival.MethodsOne hundred fifty-six resectable pancreatic cancer patients who had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT from January 2013 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were categorized into a training cohort (n = 109) and a validation cohort (n = 47). LIFEx software was used to extract radiomic features from PET/CT. The risk stratification system was based on predictive fa...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Analysis of Clinical Trials on Therapies for Prostate Cancer in Mainland China and Globally from 2010 to 2020
This study aimed to provide insights on the future direction of drug development in PC, thus supplying essential supportive data for stakeholders, including researchers, patients, investors, clinicians, and pharmaceutical industry. The details of the clinical trials of drug therapies for PC during January 1, 2010, to January 1, 2020, were collected from Pharmaprojects. A total of 463 clinical trials on different therapies with 132 different drugs were completed. The long-acting endocrine therapy with few side effects, radiotherapy combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors, gene-targeted chemotherapeutics, and novel immuno...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Clinical Implementation of Proton Therapy Using Pencil-Beam Scanning Delivery Combined With Static Apertures
Proton therapy makes use of the favorable depth-dose distribution with its characteristic Bragg peak to spare normal tissue distal of the target volume. A steep dose gradient would be desired in lateral dimensions, too. The widespread spot scanning delivery technique is based, however, on pencil-beams with in-air spot full-widths-at-half-maximum of typically 1 cm or more. This hampers the sparing of organs-at-risk if small-scale structures adjacent to the target volume are concerned. The trimming of spot scanning fields with collimating apertures constitutes a simple measure to increase the transversal dose gradient. The c...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 12, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Fecal Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis –Peptostreptococcus stomatis–Parvimonas micra Biomarker for Noninvasive Diagnosis and Prognosis of Colorectal Laterally Spreading Tumor
ConclusionsFecal microbiome signature (ETBF–P. stomatis–P. micra) can diagnose LSTs with high accuracy. ETBF, P. stomatis, and P. micra were related to malignant LST and P. stomatis exhibited high predictive value on the adenoma recurrence after resection of LSTs. The fecal microbiome signature of LST may provide a noninvasive alternative to early detect LST and predict the adenoma recurrence risk after resections of LSTs. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Treatment-Related Serious Adverse Events of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review
BackgroundImmune Checkpoint Inhibitors (ICI) have been progressively used in cancer treatment and produced unique toxicity profiles. This systematic review aims to comprehend the patterns and occurrence of treatment-related adverse events (trAEs) based on ICI.MethodsPICOS/PRISMA methods were used to identify published English-language on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from 2015 to 2020. Published clinical trials on ICI monotherapy, combined ICIs, and ICI plus other treatment with tabulated data on grade≥3 trAEs were included. Odds ratio (OR), χ2 tests were used to analyze for effect size and associations.Results...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A Comparison Between Chemo-Radiotherapy Combined With Immunotherapy and Chemo-Radiotherapy Alone for the Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionOur results suggests that immunotherapy can be safely combined with standard of care chemo-radiotherapy without significant increase in grade 3 to 5 SAE; however, there is no statistically significant increase in overall survival or progression free survival with the combination therapy. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Genomic Heterogeneity and Clonal Evolution in Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer Revealed by Single Cell DNA Sequencing
This study is the first of this kind to use single cell DNA sequencing to determine genomic variations and clonal evolution related to lymph node metastasis. Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) and bulk exome sequencing were performed to detect single cell copy number variations (CNVs) and single nucleotide variations (SNVs) respectively. Four GEJ cancer patients were enrolled with two (Pt.3, Pt.4) having metastatic lymph nodes. The most common mutation we found happened in the TTN gene, which was reported to be related with the tumor mutation burden in cancers. Significant intra-patient hete...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Conceptual Analogies Between Multi-Scale Feeding and Feedback Cycles in Supermassive Black Hole and Cancer Environments
Adopting three physically-motivated scales (“micro” – “meso” – “macro”, which refer to mpc – kpc – Mpc, respectively) is paramount for achieving a unified theory of multiphase active galactic nuclei feeding and feedback, and it represents a keystone for astrophysical simulations and observations in the upcoming years. In order to promote this multi-scale idea, we have decided to adopt an interdisciplinary approach, exploring the possible conceptual similarities between supermassive black hole feeding and feedback cycles and the dynamics occurring in human cancer m...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Death Risk in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Patients Treated With Chemotherapy: A Registry-Based Cohort Study
ConclusionPCNSL patients with chemotherapy are associated with lower CVD risk. Our findings may provide new foundations for that chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for PCNSL patients, according to a cardiovascular risk perspective. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Prognosis and Immune Infiltration of Chromobox Family Genes in Sarcoma
ConclusionsThe results from the present study indicated that CBXs were significantly associated with prognosis and immunological status in sarcoma. These data suggest that CBXs could serve as potential biomarkers for prognosis and immune infiltration in human sarcoma. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Carcinoma: Comparison Between Primary Tumor, Lymph Node and Liver Metastases
There is emerging evidence suggesting that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) play an important role in colorectal carcinoma (CRC), but their exact role remains controversial. Our aim was to analyze the miR-200 family as EMT markers and their target genes expression at invasive tumor front and in nodal and liver metastases. Sixty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 19 patients with CRC were included. Using a micropuncture technique, tissue was obtained from central part and invasive front of the primary tumor, and nodal and liver metastases. Expression...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Down-Regulating the Expression of miRNA-21 Inhibits the Glucose Metabolism of A549/DDP Cells and Promotes Cell Death Through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/HIF-1 α Pathway
miRNA-21 is a single-stranded non-coding RNA that is highly expressed in a variety of tumor cells. It participates in tumor cell proliferation, metabolism, metastasis, and drug resistance. Here, we tested the potential mechanism of miRNA-21 in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer A549/DDP (human lung adenocarcinoma drug-resistant cell line) cells. A549 and A549/DDP RNAs were sequenced to show that miRNA-21 was highly expressed in the latter, and this was verified by qRT-PCR. In addition, we found that miRNA-21 combined with cisplatin can significantly inhibit glycolysis and glycolysis rate-limiting enzyme protein...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Recurrent Somatic MAP2K1 Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Colorectal Cancer
In conclusion, this is the first comprehensive report of MAP2K1 somatic mutations prevalence in PTC and CRC from this ethnicity. The mutually exclusive nature of MAP2K1 and MAPK mutations suggests that each of these mutation may function as an initiating mutation driving tumorigenesis through MAPK signaling pathway. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Using Population-Based Cancer Registration Data and Period Analysis to Accurately Assess and Predict 5-Year Relative Survival for Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern China
ConclusionPeriod analysis tended to provide the up-to-date and precise survival estimates for lung cancer patients, which is worth further application, and provides important evidence for prevention and intervention of lung cancer. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Deep Neural Network for Differentiation of Brain Tumor Tissue Displayed by Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy
ConclusionsWe trained a residual network model that allows automated, on site analysis of resected tumor specimens based on CLE image datasets. Further in vivo studies are required to assess the clinical benefit CLE can have. (Source: Frontiers in Oncology)
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Percutaneous Microwave Ablation Versus Open Surgical Resection for Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis
PurposeTo compare the therapeutic outcomes between open surgical resection (OSR) and percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA) for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) ≤3 cm.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 200 consecutive patients with 306 CRLMs were reviewed. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local tumour progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence, and extrahepatic metastasis were analysed to compare the therapeutic efficacy. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to identify the prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Major complications and postoperative hospital stay were also asse...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - May 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research