Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 18th 2019

This study provides a possible reason why genes carrying health risks have persisted in human populations. The second found evidence for multiple variants in genes related to ageing that exhibited antagonistic pleiotropic effects. They found higher risk allele frequencies with large effect sizes for late-onset diseases (relative to early-onset diseases) and an excess of variants with antagonistic effects expressed through early and late life diseases. There also exists other recent tangible evidence of antagonistic pleiotropy in specific human genes. The SPATA31 gene has been found under strong positive genomic selection. Long-lived individuals carry fewer SPATA31 copy numbers. On the other hand, its overexpression in fibroblast cells leads to premature senescence, this being the case in people having multiple copies of the gene. During human evolution, more copies of this gene have likely been favored since this protein is important in sensing and repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Unfortunately, the cost is cell senescence and premature aging. Austad and Hoffmann: Response to genes that improved fitness also cost modern humans: evidence for genes with antagonistic effects on longevity and disease Byars and Voskarides, responding to our review of empirical support for the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of the evolution of aging, feel that we have 'failed to acknowledge' recent human studies supporting the theory. Indeed, we mentioned no human studies ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Related Links:

Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Friederike Matheus, Ejona Rusha, Rizwan Rehimi, Lena Molitor, Anna Pertek, Miha Modic, Regina Feederle, Andrew Flatley, Elisabeth Kremmer, Arie Geerlof, Valentyna Rishko, Alvaro Rada-Iglesias, Micha DrukkerSummaryThe neural crest (NC) gives rise to a multitude of fetal tissues, and its misregulation is implicated in congenital malformations. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms pertaining to NC-related symptoms in Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS), a developmental disorder linked to mutations in the Polycomb group factor Additional sex com...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Fani Papagiannouli, Cameron Wynn Berry, Margaret T. FullerSummaryTissue homeostasis and repair relies on proper communication of stem cells and their differentiating daughters with the local tissue microenvironment. In the Drosophila male germline adult stem cell lineage, germ cells proliferate and progressively differentiate enclosed in supportive somatic cyst cells, forming a small organoid, the functional unit of differentiation. Here we show that cell polarity and vesicle trafficking influence signal transduction in cyst cells, with pro...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Yefim Zaltsman, Sayaka Masuko, Joshua J. Bensen, Laura L. KiesslingSummaryLeveraging the extraordinary potential of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) requires an understanding of the mechanisms underlying cell-fate decisions. Substrate elasticity can induce differentiation by signaling through the transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP). Cells cultured on surfaces mimicking brain elasticity exclude YAP from their nuclei and differentiate to neurons. How YAP localization is controlled during neural differentiation has bee...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Elieser de Araújo, Rafael Marinho Bandeira, Marcos Dorigão Manfrinato, Jéferson Aparecido Moreto, Roger Borges, Sandra dos Santos Vales, Paulo Atsushi Suzuki, Luciana Sgarbi RossinoAbstractThe aim of this work was to study the influence of thermochemical treatment of ionic plasma nitriding on the resistance to micro-abrasive wear and to the corrosion process of AISI 316L and AISI 470 stainless steels. The thermochemical treatment was performed at different times and temperatures with a gas mix...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Raphael Fialho Tomaz, Dagoberto Brandão Santos, Kenji Camey, Ronaldo Barbosa, Margareth Spangler Andrade, Diana Pérez EscobarAbstractMicroalloyed steels are required to have good strength and toughness, properties that are mostly influenced by microstructure and phase distribution in the steel, obtained by controlling the thermomechanical processing. High temperature processing (HTP) Steels, with lower manganese content, has been recently developed in order to reduce segregation, but reduction of Mn ...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Journal of Materials Research and TechnologyAuthor(s): Naseri Azari Golnaz, Taghizadeh Tabrizi Arvin, Hossein AghajaniAbstractEnhancing the copper-based composites with oxide nanoparticles attracts more attention and many routes are proposed. In this investigation, stoichiometric Cu–TiO2 nanocomposite is synthesized through the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, and the effect of additional Cu contents of 10, 20, 30 wt% on mechanical and physical features of this composite was evaluated. To investigate the obtained properties of specimens, scannin...
Source: Journal of Materials Research and Technology - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
DiscussionIt is feasible for those with schizophrenia to use their own smartphones to complete cognitive assessments and other measures related to their mental health. While we did not investigate the correlations between these cognitive assessments and other smartphone captured metrics like step count or self-reported symptoms, the potential to longitudinally assess cognition in the context of patients' environments outside of the clinic presents unique opportunities for characterizing cognitive burden in schizophrenia.
Source: Schizophrenia Research: Cognition - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is common and can be profoundly debilitating. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) —the delivery of high-frequency stimulation via electrodes to neural targets—is safe and effective for the treatment of refractory OCD (1,2). DBS has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of Parkinson's disease since 2002 and OCD since 2009. Although this treatment is effective on a group level, why specific patients respond but others less so remains an open question.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Authors: Conte SC, Spagnol G, Biolo M, Confalonieri M Abstract The conventional-trans bronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) has been the first procedure for sampling hilar/mediastinal lymph node for the diagnosis/staging of lung cancer. In the last decade the endobronchial ultrasound trans bronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was introduced in clinical practice and became the first-choice exam in diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy (DA), sensitivity and adequacy of c-TBNA and EBUS-TBNA. It was a retrospective and observational multicenter study. The f...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research
Publication date: 18 April 2019Source: Cell, Volume 177, Issue 3Author(s): Ali Torkamani, Eric TopolObesity is one of the most serious health challenges of our time. In this issue of Cell, Khera and co-authors demonstrate the striking ability of genetics, in the form of a polygenic risk score, to identify those individuals at high risk for obesity. This genetic risk expresses itself early as childhood obesity, reinforcing the notion that early prevention is essential to combatting the obesity epidemic.
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
More News: Accidents | Alzheimer's | Antidoxidants | Biochemistry | Biology | Brain | Brain Cancers | Calcium | Canagliflozin | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Carbohydrates | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Cholesterol | Clinical Trials | Colon Cancer | Colorectal Cancer | Coronary Heart Disease | Cytomegalovirus | Dementia | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 2 | Diets | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Epilepsy | Epithelial Cancer | Fatty Liver Disease (FLD) | Fortamet | Gastroschisis Repair | Genetics | Guinea Health | Heart | Heart Disease | Heart Transplant | Hematology | High Fat | Hormones | Inflammatory Bowel Disease | Insulin | Invokana | Iron | Japan Health | Kidney Cancer | Kidney Transplant | Kidney Transplantation | Laboratory Medicine | Lessons | Liver | Liver Disease | Liver Transplant | Lung Transplant | Men | Metformin | Mitochondria | Mitochondrial Disease | Molecular Biology | Neurology | Neuroscience | Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases (NAFLD) | Nutrition | Obesity | Obstructive Sleep Apnea | Orthopaedics | Pancreas | Pancreatic Cancer | Papua New Guinea Health | Parkinson's Disease | Pathology | PET Scan | Research | Science | SGLT2 Inhibitors | Sleep Apnea | Sleep Disorders | Sleep Medicine | Smokers | Sports Medicine | Statistics | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Study | Toxicology | Training | Transplant Surgery | Transplants | Universities & Medical Training | Urology & Nephrology | Venture Capital | Weight Loss