Investigating the Direction of Causation in Frailty and Cardiovascular Disease
It remains the case that a great deal of aging research these days is purely observational, which is, I think, unfortunate. This is an age in which more than mere observation of aging might be achieved; the first interventions likely to reliably slow or reverse aspects of aging are making their way out of the laboratory and into clinical development. There should be a lesser emphasis in the research community on watching what happens to a population of older individuals who lack effective treatments for aging, and a correspondingly greater emphasis on getting those treatments built and into the clinic. Given this, d...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The World Health Organization Must Consider Rejuvenation Research
Ilia Stambler, historian of our longevity science community, is in illustrious company in the author list for this open access position paper. Regular readers will recall that the World Health Organization (WHO) is among the most conservative and hidebound of institutions when it comes to the development of means to treat aging. The WHO positions on aging studiously avoid any mention of the idea that aging can be changed at all through medical science. This is somewhere between ridiculous and outrageous, given what is going on in the labs and clinical development today. More activist members of the scientific community hav...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, June 18th 2018
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 17, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Not Everyone Feels the Urgent Need for Therapies to Treat Aging, and this is a Sizable Divide in our Broader Community
One of the many important points made by the advocacy community for rejuvenation research is that participants in the mainstream of medical science and medical regulation are not imbued with a great enough sense of urgency. We are all dying, and yet with each passing year the regulatory process moves ever more slowly, rejects an ever greater number of prospective therapies, becomes ever more expensive. The number of new therapies reaching the clinic falls. Regulators continue to reject the idea that treating aging is an acceptable goal in medicine. We live in an age of revolutionary progress in the capabilities of biotechn...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

B Cells May Drive Harmful Inflammation Following Heart Damage
The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in mammals. Damage to heart tissue, such as that resulting from a heart attack, produces a harmful inflammatory response and the formation of scar tissue rather than regeneration. Scarring disrupts normal tissue function, whether in the heart or elsewhere. The research community would like to suppress the unhelpful inflammation and scarring following injury in all types of tissue, but this phenomenon is particular problematic in the heart. Here, researchers demonstrate that the source of this inflammation may be largely the activity of B cells. In a heart attack, b...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Healthy Aging is an Oxymoron
For various historical reasons, none of them justified, researchers seeking to intervene in the aging process have avoided talking about extending human life span. Until comparatively recently, and after a great deal of work on the part of advocates such as those of the Methuselah Foundation and SENS Research Foundation, the leaders of the research and funding communities actively suppressed efforts to discuss or work on the treatment of aging as medical condition. This environment gave rise to euphemisms such as "healthy aging" or "successful aging," and the goal of compression of morbidity: extend the...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Cells as a Therapy for Age-Related Muscle Loss and Frailty
Today's open access review looks over the evidence for senescent cells to contribute to the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, leading to sarcopenia and frailty. Regular readers will know that the research community has found many mechanisms that are arguably important contribution to the characteristic weakness of old age. This part of the field is rife with competing evidence for processes ranging from the comparatively mundane, such as an inadequate dietary intake of protein in older people, to the highly complex, such as the biochemical disarray that causes loss of neuromuscular junctions, and the interactio...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

How Amyloid Disrupts Synaptic Plasticity in Alzheimer's Disease
The research community continues to make progress, slow but steady, in understanding the low-level biochemistry of neurodegenerative conditions. It is a very complex area of study. You might compare the research here, focused on amyloid, with results noted yesterday, focused on α-synuclein. The aging of the brain is accompanied by the aggregation of a number of altered proteins, producing solid deposits and a halo of surrounding changes in cell biochemistry that damage or kill brain cells. Beyond that summary, each is very different in mechanisms and outcome. Regardless, the end result is cognitive decline, a disrupt...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Early Signs of Neurological Damage Observed in Hypertensive Individuals
A fair amount of research on raised blood pressure, hypertension, and its risks has been published of late. Hypertension is a downstream consequence of loss of elasticity in blood vessels. That loss of elasticity arises from the molecular damage at the root of aging, and the resulting hypertension is one of the more noteworthy mediating mechanisms by which that low-level biochemical damage is translated into structural damage to organs. Hypertension causes pressure damage to sensitive tissues, increasing the rate at which small blood vessels rupture, killing the nearby cells. This is particularly important in the brain, wh...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Greater Fitness and Blood Vessel Elasticity Correlates with Slower Cognitive Decline
The quality of the vasculature is an important determinant of the pace of aging in the brain. There are probably several distinct processes involved, all of which tend to correlate with one another as aging progresses. Firstly the brain is an energy-hungry organ, but the network of tiny capillaries in tissues becomes less dense with age. A consequently lower supply of nutrients to cells causes loss of function. The same result may also occur due to the age-related weakening of the muscles of the heart. Secondly, blood vessels lose their elasticity in later life, and this in turn causes a rise in blood pressure as feedback ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

How α-Synuclein Aggregration Kills Neurons in Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's disease is strongly linked to quality control of mitochondria in neurons. The condition is characterized by the loss of a vital population neurons responsible for generating the neurotransmitter dopamine, and it is this loss that produces the tremors and other motor dysfunction observed in patients. Parkinson's disease is also a proteopathy, however, in which α-synuclein clumps together to form solid deposits that harm brain cells. In the research noted here, scientists show that this α-synuclein aggregation kills neurons by damaging mitochondria and triggering mitochondrial mechanisms that produce ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Reminder that Excess Visceral Fat is Harmful
This popular science article takes a high level look at the vast array of research data showing that excess visceral fat causes great harm to long term health. One of the more important mediating mechanisms is an increase in chronic inflammation, a state of dysfunction in the operation of the immune system that disrupts organ function and tissue maintenance, and accelerates the development of all of the common age-related diseases. There are numerous other connections between the pace of aging and the activities of visceral fat tissue, however. Becoming overweight is the path to a shorter life expectancy, greater incidence...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Juvenescence Invests in AgeX Therapeutics
Juvenescence appears to be hitting its stride in initial setup. It will, once further along in its plan, look much like many of the private equity funds that exist in the biotech space, with a portfolio of mutually supporting companies working on therapies for various aspects of aging. We know that at least some of the principals, such as Jim Mellon, are supportive of the SENS rejuvenation research agenda, but it remains to be seen whether or not that will turn out in practice to involve investment in the young companies that have arisen in the SENS community in the past few years. The Juvenescence principals want to be ma...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

For Many People, a Sizable Fraction of Age-Related Hypertension is Self-Inflicted
Secondary aging is, more or less, that part of age-related decline that is driven by lifestyle choices and environmental factors. It adds to the primary aging caused by internal processes that we can presently do comparatively little to address. The mechanisms involved are similar and overlapping. Chronic inflammation, for example, will grow in later life even given an exemplary approach to personal health, and contributes to the progress of all of the common age-related diseases. That is primary aging. But let yourself become overweight and take up a smoking habit, and greater levels of chronic inflammation will result. T...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The LEAF Rejuvenation Roadmap
The Life Extension Advocacy Foundation (LEAF) volunteers have started to maintain a Rejuvenation Roadmap resource. This is intended to be a reference and visual summary of the state of progress in the various lines of research the LEAF staff consider relevant to the treatment of aging as a medical condition. We can always disagree on the details, such as the choice to use the Hallmarks of Aging rather than SENS as a categorization strategy, but I think that this sort of project is very helpful as our community grows. New arrivals benefit greatly from summaries and starting points. In the years ahead the present set of disa...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Alzheimer's Disease is More than a Matter of Amyloid and Tau Aggregation
The open access paper I'll point out today makes the case for raising the profile of mechanisms other than protein aggregation in neurodegenerative conditions. The authors focus on Alzheimer's disease, characterized by the aggregation of amyloid and tau in the brain, but the argument works just as well for most other forms of age-related dementia. That Alzheimer's disease is the result of multiple mechanisms, each of which contributes to pathology to a similar degree, is one of the better explanations for the ongoing failure of clinical trials that focus solely on amyloid clearance. One only has to look at the sizable frac...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Leukotriene Inhibition Reverses Tau Aggregation and Neuroinflammation in Mice
Tauopathies are conditions in which accumulation of tau into neurofibrillary tangles causes dysfunction and cell death in the brain. Alzheimer's disease is the best known of these neurodegenerative conditions. Researchers here demonstrate an approach to reducing both tau aggregation and inflammation in mice, based on inhibition of leukotrienes. Mouse models of neurodegenerative conditions based on protein aggregation are highly artificial, as these forms of aggregation do not naturally occur in that species. This can produce misleading results, or at least results that have to be carefully assessed in the full understandin...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Evolution of Varied Life Spans without Antagonistic Pleiotropy
A successful evolutionary theory of aging must explain how a mix of species with shorter and longer life spans can emerge from a common ancestor with a longer life span. Putting theories of programmed aging to one side for a moment, as in that case one only has to argue that a shorter life span is more optimal for the ecological niche in question, antagonistic pleiotropy is the most readily available explanation for shorter lifespans to arise from natural selection. The theory here is that evolution selects for mechanisms and systems that both (a) ensure reproductive success in early life and (b) damage health in later lif...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, June 11th 2018
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

A Selection of Recent Research in the Alzheimer's Field
Today I'll point out a few recent examples of research into Alzheimer's disease; they are representative of present shifts in emphasis taking place in the field. There is a great deal of reexamination of existing mechanisms, alongside a search for new mechanisms. This is prompted by the continued failure to obtain meaningful progress towards patient improvement via clearance of amyloid, which some are interpreting as a need to look elsewhere for a viable basis for therapy. I believe it probably has more to do with the condition arising from multiple processes that have similarly sized contributions to cognitive decline: am...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Ending Aging Now Translated into Portuguese
Ending Aging is an important book, a concise explanation of the SENS approach to the development of rejuvenation therapies. It is aimed at laypeople, but with enough depth for scientists to use it as a starting point for their own further reading as well. It covers the extensive evidence gathered by the research community over the decades to support the concept that aging is caused by the accumulation of a few classes of molecular damage to cells and tissues. It outlines proposed therapies that could, if fully developed, repair or work around that damage in order to remove its contribution to aging. Since its public...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Immunosenescence and Neurodegeneration
How greatly does the onset of dementia depend on the age-related decline of the immune system? The most evident contributions to neurodegeneration are vascular aging and the accumulation of protein aggregates such as amyloid-β, tau, and α-synuclein. These are only indirectly connected to the aging of the immune system, in the sense that immune function influences in some way near all aspects of tissue function, and its progressive failure tends to make everything at least a little less functional. Chronic inflammation appears to play a direct and important role in the progression of most neurodegenerative condit...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Antibodies Targeting Oxidized Lipids Slow the Development of Atherosclerosis
In the SENS rejuvenation research view of atherosclerosis, a primary cause is the presence of oxidized lipids in the bloodstream. Rising levels of oxidative stress with aging, with mitochondrial dysfunction as a primary cause, means an increasing number of oxidized lipid molecules. Atherosclerosis begins when these lipids irritate the blood vessel walls, attracting macrophage cells to clean up the problem. The normal process involves macrophages ingesting the problem lipids and either breaking them down or handing them off to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles to be carried to the liver where they can be dealt with. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Efforts Continue to Associate Copy Number Variations with Human Longevity
In this study, we investigated the association of CNVs and longevity in Han Chinese by genotyping 4007 individuals obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) database. We have identified a few CNVs, and most of them were new. These CNV regions encode nineteen known genes, and some of which have been shown to affect aging-related phenotypes such as the shortening of telomere length (ZNF208), the risk of cancer (FOXA1, LAMA5, ZNF716), and vascular and immune-related diseases (ARHGEF10, TOR2A, SH2D3C). In addition, we found several pathways enriched in long-lived genomes, including FOXA1 and FOXA ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mortality Following Stroke as an Example of the Importance of Raised Blood Pressure as a Mediating Mechanism of Aging
Raised blood pressure, hypertension, is an important mechanism involved in the transmission of age-related damage from low-level biochemical changes to high level structural damage and organ failure. The importance of blood pressure in this context is why significant reductions in mortality rate can be achieved by means of lowering blood pressure, by overriding cellular reactions or cell signaling, that fail to address any of the underlying root causes of hypertension. These root causes are largely the set of biochemical changes that act to stiffen blood vessels, as hypertension appears to be near entirely a consequence of...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Recent Profile of Unity Biotechnology and its Work on Senolytic Therapies
It was only partially in jest that I recently noted Unity Biotechnology as a financial institution with a sideline in rejuvenation research, specifically the targeted destruction of senescent cells. The principals have raised a truly enormous amount of funding in the past year and a half, and recently filed for IPO. They have not yet presented even preliminary human data. Typically the ordering of these matters tends to be at least a little different; there are some raised eyebrows in the community. But if the Unity Biotechnology founders can raise the funds and use them well to advance the state of the art, then more powe...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Building Useful Worker Devices From Nanoparticles and Cell Components
The medical nanorobots of decades to come will be a close fusion between natural and artificial molecular machinery. They will exist because it is possible to build worker devices that are more effective and efficient at a given task that evolved cells and cellular structures. Today, however, the state of the art involves melding simple cell structures with nanoparticles or other molecular machines. A great deal of innovation and experimentation is taking place, but it isn't always clear which of these many projects will make the leap into commercial development, versus serving as an inspiration or bridge to later efforts ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Why Do Only Some People Suffer Alzheimer's Disease?
Alzheimer's disease might be argued to be a lifestyle condition, but it is not as much of a lifestyle condition as type 2 diabetes - it is not as reliably connected to lifestyle choices. Not everyone who lets themselves go, becoming fat and sedentary, winds up with a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, despite it being clear from the data and what is known of the mechanisms involved that both of those environmental circumstances are contributing risk factors. So why do only some people with the risk factors suffer Alzheimer's disease? Why do some people without the risk factors suffer from Alzheimer's disease? Is there anyth...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Can a Reasonable Argument be Made for Variations in Human Longevity to be Significantly Driven by DNA Repair?
As I'm sure you are all aware, we humans do not exhibit a uniform pace of aging. Setting aside mortality caused by anything other than aging, the vast majority of recorded life spans at the present time fall within a range of three decades, 65-95. A comparatively tiny number of exceptional outliers age to death at younger or older ages. Some of this variation can be attributed to secondary aging, which is to say the way in which circumstances and lifestyle choices interact with the biology of aging. Visceral fat tissue and smoking cause greater chronic inflammation, accelerating all of the common age-related conditions, fo...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Another Potential Approach to Remineralization of Lost Tooth Enamel
It seems that the research community has made some progress in recent years towards methods of rebuilding tooth enamel. This would in principle allow for reconstruction rather than replacement of damaged teeth, and let dental caries be regrown rather than drilled and patched. I noted one possible approach earlier this year, and the work here is the basis for another. These are fairly low-level methodologies, depending on the fine molecular details of mineralization in living organisms. The open access paper makes for interesting reading, albeit rather heavy going for anyone not up to speed on the chemistry involved. It rem...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Arguing for Nicotinamide Riboside to Improve Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function
Researchers here argue for enhanced levels of NAD+ to boost stem cell function through improved mitochondrial function. This is an area of metabolism that has gained increasing attention of late, a second pass at the whole topic of sirtuins, mitochondrial function, and metabolism in aging. I'd say the jury is still out on whether it is worth pursing aggressively in human medicine. One or two early trials seem promising, in the sense of obtaining benefits that look similar to those derived from exercise, but the magnitude and reliability of those benefits is the important question. The bone marrow stem cell populatio...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Oisin Biotechnologies CSO John Lewis at Undoing Aging
Oisin Biotechnologies is one of a number of companies to have emerged from our community in recent years, from the network of supporters and researchers connected to the Methuselah Foundation and SENS Research Foundation. The Oisin principals are working with a platform capable of selectively destroying cells based on the internal expression of specific proteins. Their initial targets are senescent cells, one of the root causes of aging, and cancerous cells, one of the consequences of aging. They will be taking a therapy for cancer into clinical trials initially, as it is somewhat less challenging to move viable cancer tre...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Why is Alzheimer's Disease Peculiarly Human?
Recent (and not yet fully accepted) evidence suggests that chimpanzees and dolphins might suffer Alzheimer's disease, or at least a condition that is similar enough to be comparable. Other than possibly those two species, humans are the only mammals to experience Alzheimer's, the aggregation of amyloid-β and tau proteins into solid deposits that alter brain biochemistry for the worse. Why is this the case? What is it about our particular evolutionary path that resulted in this outcome? Might that teach us anything that could be used to suppress the development of the condition? In this article, Alzheimer's is p...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Interview with Jim Mellon, and Update on Juvenescence
This interview with Jim Mellon opens with an update on some of the recent investment activities of Juvenescence, founded last year in order to participate in the enormous market opportunity afforded by the development of the first working rejuvenation therapies. It is in Mellon's self-interest to help educate the world about the size of this market, and draw in other, larger entities that will help to carry his portfolio companies to the finish line. So he is doing just that, and in doing so benefits us all. His advocacy will help all fronts in fundraising for research and development in this field. That advocacy co...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, June 4th 2018
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Lower Levels of KIFC3 Observed in Aging are Involved in the Decline of Autophagy
Autophagy is the name given to the collection of cellular processes that recycle broken and unwanted proteins and cell structures. More autophagy is a good thing, and many of the methods demonstrated in the laboratory to modestly slow aging in flies, worms, and mice involve enhanced autophagy. You might look at a recent experiment demonstrating a 10% gain in mouse life span via a narrowly targeted method of increasing autophagy, for example. Calorie restriction, the gold standard in reliability when it comes to slowing aging, depends upon autophagy: it doesn't work when autophagy is disabled. Unfortunately, autophag...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A New Target Mechanism for Lowering Blood Pressure in Cases of Hypertension
Hypertension, high blood pressure, is caused by arterial stiffness, which is in turn caused by a combination of mechanisms such as the accumulation of persistent cross-links that alter the structural properties of tissue, and chronic inflammation produced by senescent cells that alters the behavior of cells in blood vessel walls. Hypertension damages fragile tissues, causes the muscle of the heart to become larger and weaker, and ultimately interacts with the corrosive effects of atherosclerosis on blood vessel walls to produce a fatal rupture, leading to a stroke or heart attack. The work noted here is representati...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Higher Blood Pressure Correlates with Higher Healthcare Costs
Risk factors associated with age-related disease and mortality tend to also associate with higher medical costs. Obesity, for example, both shortens life span and increases lifetime medical costs thanks to the impact it has on health. High blood pressure, the condition known as hypertension, is another measure that reliably predicts a higher risk of mortality and poor health in later life. Here researchers run the numbers to show that it also results in higher medical costs, much as expected. Hypertension isn't too far removed from the root causes of aging. High blood pressure is a direct result of arterial stiffeni...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Example of the Importance of Gut Microbiota to Aging in Flies
If we paint with very broad strokes, we can say that flies generally die from intestinal failure in the same way that humans generally die from cardiovascular failure. For flies, the intestine is at the center of the mechanisms determining the pace and manifestations of aging in that species, and the cause of a majority of deaths. While being far from the only organ to consider in fly aging, it does appear to take center stage. Bear this in mind while looking at the research noted here. All in all, it isn't too surprising to hear that researchers have been able to demonstrate a 60% life extension in flies through a ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Beclin-1 Mutant Mice Live 10% Longer Due to Enhanced Autophagy
Autophagy is the name given to a collection of cellular housekeeping processes responsible for recycling damaged or unwanted proteins and cellular structures, preventing them from causing further harm within the cell. Many of the methods of modestly slowing aging in laboratory species are observed to involve increased levels of autophagy. For some, such as calorie restriction, there is evidence to demonstrate that functional autophagy is required for aging to be slowed. Researchers have long been interested in developing pharmaceutical means to enhance autophagy as a form of therapy. This is arguably even more the c...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Researchers Create Bioprinted Human Corneas
The cornea is a good target for tissue engineering efforts in these early years of the field. It is small, easily accessible, comparatively simple in structure, and the processes for corneal transplantation are already well established. Many older people suffer from corneal damage or degeneration of one form or another, and these patients might benefit from the cost-effective availability of corneas generated from their own cells. Bioprinting is one approach to reducing the cost of building such patient-matched tissue sections, and as noted here, researchers have recently reported success in rapidly printing corneas in thi...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Do FOXA2-Related Changes in the Nuclear Lamina Contribute to Liver Aging?
The structure of the cell nucleus is determined by the nuclear lamina, protein filaments that support the nuclear membrane and anchor the important components within the nucleus. Correct function of the lamina and its component parts are required in order for the cell to carry out vital functions such as nuclear DNA maintenance and repair, gene expression, and cell replication. In a cell with faulty nuclear lamina, the nucleus is misshapen and all these processes run awry. Such cells tend to become senescent in response to internal dysfunction, and cause damage to surrounding tissue via their inflammatory secretions if the...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

No Cardiovascular Health Benefits Result from Most Common Dietary Supplements
It is well known within the research community that dietary supplements as a class achieve next to nothing for basically healthy people, those lacking any specific deficiency or medical condition that might cause that deficiency. In fact the evidence strongly suggests that some supplements, antioxidants for example, may even be modestly harmful over the long term. This scientific consensus has to compete with the marketing budget of the supplement industry, which seems to be doing fairly well for a community focused on selling a mix of largely useless and mildly harmful products. So studies such as this one continue to rol...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Long Non-Coding RNA in the Aging Brain
The first step of gene expression, the process of producing proteins from the genetic blueprint of DNA, is the production of an RNA molecule. This RNA is then used as an intermediary working model from which the final protein is produced. Non-coding RNA molecules are those that do not translate into a protein, but otherwise serve one of a wide variety of purposes in the cell. Many of these non-coding RNA molecules are in some way involved in regulating gene expression; the production of proteins in a cell is a highly complex, many-layered, and dynamic collection of processes. It is also far from being completely mapped in ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

When I am Eighty-Five
I will be 85 somewhere in the mid 2050s. It seems like a mirage, an impossible thing, but the future eventually arrives regardless of whatever you or I might think about it. We all have a vision of what it is to be 85 today, informed by our interactions with elder family members, if nothing else. People at that age are greatly impacted by aging. They falter, their minds are often slowed. They are physically weak, in need of aid. Perhaps that is why we find it hard to put ourselves into that position; it isn't a pleasant topic to think about. Four decades out into the future may as well be a science fiction novel, a far awa...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Exploring the Utility of Decellularized Muscle Grafts in Animal Models
In this open access paper, researchers explore the utility of decellularized muscle grafts to repair severe injury. Decellularization is the process by which a donor tissue is cleared of cells, leaving behind the extracellular matrix. This intricate structure includes capillary networks and chemical cues to guide cells, line items that the research community has yet to reliably recreate when building tissue from scratch. Over the past decade, researchers have demonstrated the ability to repopulate decellularized tissue with patient-derived cells, a capacity that in principle allows for the production of patient-matched don...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Discussing the Dog Aging Project with Matt Kaeberlein
The Life Extension Advocacy Foundation volunteers recently interviewed Matt Kaeberlein on the topic of the Dog Aging Project, a venture that aims to try in dogs some of the more credible and safe interventions shown to modestly slow aging in mice. When initially proposed, senolytics to clear senescent cells were not in that list, but we might hope to see that change in the years ahead. I'm not overly optimistic about the performance of the other possibilities, such as mTOR inhibitors and other candidate calorie restriction mimetic or exercise mimetic pharmaceuticals. In some cases the evidence is good for these items to wo...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Support for Longevity Science is the Most Effective Form of Philanthropy
The members of the effective altruism community are interested in rationally identifying the most cost-effective ways to make the world a better place, involving both the usual metrics by which we might judge "better," but also an analysis of whether or not those usual metrics are in fact helpful. Tear it all down and build it up again from first principles. Particularly at the large scale, a great deal of the status quo in philanthropy is wasted effort, virtue signaling, or even actively counterproductive. There are many ostensibly charitable organizations that, at best, do no good, and at worst exacerbate the p...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Can Present Stem Cell Therapies Improve Vaccine Response in the Elderly?
Mesenchymal stem cell therapies fairly reliably reduce chronic inflammation for some period of time following the transplantation of cells. The cells don't survive long in the patient, and this effect is mediated by the signals they produce while present. Chronic inflammation causes many issues, including a disruption of tissue maintenance and regeneration. It contributes directly to the progression of numerous age-related conditions, including the components of frailty syndrome, but it is an open question as to the degree to which it is required to maintain the current state of those conditions. If inflammation is suppres...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Commentary on Senolytic Gene Therapies to Target p16 Overexpression
This short commentary discusses the utility of Oisin Biotechnologies' initial strategy for destroying senescent cells, which is to use p16 expression as the determining sign of senescence. Oisin's implementation involves delivering dormant DNA machinery indiscriminately to all cells, and then triggering it only in cells with high levels of p16. This particular implementation is one of many possibilities in the gene therapy space, and thus various other groups are working on their own p16-based approaches as senolytic development as a treatment for aging grows in funding and popularity. It isn't just senescence and a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs