Increased Physical Activity in High Risk Groups Reduces Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality
Greater physical activity has been quite comprehensively demonstrated to correlate with reduced mortality in later life. The epidemiological study noted here shows that this relationship also holds up in people who have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, due to factors such as type 2 diabetes or hypertension. The researchers examined outcomes in patients who improved their level of physical activity between two time points, finding a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in comparison to those who did not improve. This is consistent with other studies of the role of physical activity in reducing the risk of cardi...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 23, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The EU Green Paper on Aging Ignores the Role of Medical Research in the Future of Aging
Governments and large international entities have in many cases published quite expensive and detailed positions on aging. They commonly urge individual and collective action based on the impending collapse of entitlement systems due to changing demographics. The growing number of older people relative to the size of the population as a whole makes pensions, government-run health systems, and the like, increasingly unsustainable in their present form. Something must change. That change must be the development and widespread deployment of therapies to treat the underlying mechanisms of aging, so as to slow and reverse the p...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 23, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeting the cGAS-STING pathway to Sabotage Chronic Inflammation
Chronic inflammation is a major issue in aging. The immune system reacts inappropriately to rising levels of molecular damage, spurred on by the pro-inflammatory signaling of growing numbers of senescent cells, and enters a state of continual overactivation. This broadly disrupts cell and tissue function throughout the body in many ways. Present approaches to reducing inflammation, largely deployed as treatments of autoimmune conditions, involve the brute force sabotage of important inflammatory signaling pathways such as those involving tumor necrosis factors. This can achieve the goal of reducing chronic inflammation, bu...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Are Some Amyloid Plaques Protective in Old Age and Alzheimer's Disease?
Researchers here provide evidence to suggest that some of the amyloid-β deposits in the brain that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease are in fact beneficial and protective, the efforts of immune cells to remove harmful amyloid-β from contact with cells and deposit it in elsewhere. This may or may not help to explain why amyloid clearance therapies have so far failed to produce benefits in patients: it is always hard to say just how large a contribution any one given mechanism has to disease progression. It seems likely that amyloid-β aggregates are either a moderately but not severely harmful side-eff...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Nanomaterial Incorporating TNF Epitopes Reduces Inflammation
The inflammatory cytokine TNF is the target of many efforts to find ways to reduce inflammation in conditions characterized by excessive inflammatory activity of the immune system, such as autoimmune diseases. It is a blunt approach, as it reduces not only inappropriate activity, but also the needed activity of the immune system, such as defense against pathogens and destruction of potentially cancerous and senescent cells. The methods of targeting TNF are becoming ever more sophisticated, as this example demonstrates. It is nonetheless the case that better and different classes of treatment will be needed in order to avoi...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reducing Measured Epigenetic Age by a Few Years with Diet and Lifestyle Changes
Epigenetic clocks assess changing patterns of DNA methylation at CpG sites on the genome that correlate well with chronological age, and to some degree with biological age. People who age more rapidly, as judged by a range of factors such as presence or risk of age-related conditions, tend to have a higher assessed epigenetic age. It remains unclear as to which processes of aging are reflected by any given set of DNA methylation markers, however. For example, the early clocks are insensitive to exercise and fitness. Sedentary people and fit people at any given age tend to measure the same epigenetic age. Today's open ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reprogramming Astrocytes into Neurons Enhances Stroke Recovery in Mice
Reprogramming cells in order to change their cell type directly has shown some promise in animal studies as a way to generate new neurons in the brain, enabling regeneration. There are many more supporting cells in the brain, various types collectively known as glial cells, than there are neurons. These supporting cells are somewhat more fungible and replaceable, as they are not storing the data of the mind. A gene therapy that turns some small percentage of glial cells into neurons capable of integrating into existing neural circuits could prove to have numerous advantages over the cell therapy approach of growing patient...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Tabula Muris Senis: A Single Cell Transcriptome Database by Tissue and Age in Mice
Researchers here announce the publication of a database of 300,000 single cell transcriptomes across cell types, tissues, and ages in mice. This and similar vaults of data will no doubt keep factions within the research community busy for years to come, refining their efforts to produce useful, verified biomarkers of aging. The most important thing that can be achieved with such biomarkers of aging is the comparatively rapid assessment of different approaches to rejuvenation. At present all too much of the field is focused on projects that cannot possible do all that much good in terms of lengthening healthy life span. Red...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Aged Bone Marrow Niche Impedes Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function
Stem cell activity declines with age for a variety of reasons. Damage in the stem cells, damage in the supporting cells of the stem cell niche, as well as altered behavior in stem cells and niche cells, a reaction to signaling changes such as increased inflammation. In some populations, such as muscle stem cells, the evidence suggests that reactions to signaling are a much more important factor than intrinsic damage. Those stem cells can in principle be put back to work in an aged individual. For hematopoietic stem cells, responsible for generating blood and the immune system, the evidence is less clear. In very late life ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Hypertension Alters Artery Structure, Accelerating the Development of Atherosclerosis
The raised blood pressure of hypertension is well known to accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis. It certainly makes it more likely for blood vessels weakened by atherosclerotic lesions to rupture, or for the lesions themselves to fragment and cause blockages. Beyond that, however, mechanisms are at work in the environment of high blood pressure to accelerate the growth of these lesions. The major consequences of atherosclerosis, stroke and heart attack, are the cause of death for a sizable fraction of all people, and this is why blood pressure control produces a meaningful reduction in mortality risk, by slowing t...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Neutrophils May Be Involved in the Transmission of Cellular Senescence in Aged Tissues
Researchers here provide evidence suggesting that one of the mechanisms by which senescent cells encourage nearby cells to also become senescent is via recruitment of neutrophil cells, a somewhat more complicated process than the direct signaling investigated to date. In its role as a suppressor of cancer, it makes sense for the state of cellular senescence to be transmissible to nearby cells, as that raises the chances of successfully preventing cancer from arising in a localized environment of cell damage. In aging, it makes things worse, however. Excessive numbers of lingering senescent cells cause harm to their surroun...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Calorie Restriction as an Adjuvant Cancer Treatment
Calorie restriction and intermittent fasting have been extensively studied in the context of aging, and most of the age-slowing interventions so far tested in animal studies are derived in some way from a knowledge of the stress response mechanisms triggered by a lowered calorie intake. The long term effects of calorie restriction and fasting in short-lived species are quite different from those in long-lived species: only the short-lived species exhibit a meaningful extension of life span, as much as 40% in mice. Yet the short-term effects on metabolism and cellular mechanisms are very similar. The beneficial response to ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Tau Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's Disease is Proving to be as Challenging as Amyloid Immunotherapy
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the aggregation of first amyloid-β and then tau protein in later stages. It took many years and many attempts to produce immunotherapies capable of clearing amyloid-β from the brain, only to find that this doesn't in fact help patients to any great degree. Amyloid-β may be a side-effect of the causative mechanisms - such as infection, or chronic inflammation - or only important in the earliest stages of the development of Alzheimer's. By the time tau aggregation happens, a different disease process has become dominant. One of the next options is to target tau protein w...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Worse Oral Microbiome Correlates with Some Metrics Indicating Alzheimer's Risk
There has been some evidence for the oral microbiome, particularly the harmful bacterial species responsible for gingivitis, to contribute to systemic inflammation throughout the body. This in turn raises the risk of suffering from dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms look plausible, but the epidemiological evidence is mixed, suggesting that this is a small contribution to overall risk. Alzheimer's is a condition characterized by a long slow buildup of amyloid, and a later and more damaging aggregation of tau protein. Researchers here find that the presence of harmful microbial species in the oral microb...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, April 19th 2021
In conclusion, airway pressure treatment and adherence are independently associated with lower odds of incident AD diagnoses in older adults. Results suggest that treatment of OSA may reduce risk of subsequent dementia. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 18, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

It is Faintly Ridiculous to Propose that Human Life Span Cannot be Increased by Altering Metabolism
Today's open access commentary is, I think, an overreaction to present challenges in engineering greater longevity via metabolic manipulation. I would be the first to say that altering the operation of metabolism is not a good path forward, at least if the goal is to engineer greater healthy longevity in our species. Cellular metabolism and its intersection with aging is ferociously complex and poorly understood in detail. Those details matter greatly: there are many feedback loops and switches based on protein levels that will change from beneficial to harmful for reasons that only become apparent after years of painstaki...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Treating Sleep Apnea Lowers Dementia Risk By 20-30%
In conclusion, airway pressure treatment and adherence are independently associated with lower odds of incident AD diagnoses in older adults. Results suggest that treatment of OSA may reduce risk of subsequent dementia. Link: https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsab076 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Lysosomal Dysfunction and the Death of Neurons via Ferroptosis
Here find supporting evidence for the SENS view of lipofuscin and lysosomal dysfunction in aging. Lysosomes are the recycling units of the cell, packed with enzymes to break down unwanted structures and molecules into raw materials. Over time, long-lived cells such as the neurons of the central nervous system are negatively affected by the build up of resilient metabolic waste that is challenging to break down. Collectively this waste is called lipofuscin, but it contains many different problem compounds, and overall is poorly catalogued. Lysosomes in old neurons are observed to be bloated and dysfunctional, leading to cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Gene Therapy Platform Applied to Skin Rejuvenation
MRBL is one of the many projects relevant to the treatment of aging that is in George Church's orbit. This is a collection of gene therapy technologies intended for delivery of vectors to areas of skin directly, coupled with analysis of age-related and disease-related gene expression changes in skin cell populations to provide targets. It is a viewed as a basis for approaches in cell reprogramming that could make aged skin cells behave in a more youthful fashion, overriding their response to the age-damaged local environment. In terms of mechanisms known to be of interest in aging, upregulation of collagen productio...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Yuva Biosciences as an Example of the Cosmeceuticals Path to Development of Aging Interventions
Yuva Biosciences is attempting to treat skin aging by improving mitochondrial function, and they are taking a cosmeceutical approach. It is far faster and less costly to bring treatments to market via the cosmetics regulatory pathway than via the Investigational New Drug pathway. One has to accept considerable restrictions over what sort of approaches can be used, meaning that one is largely constrained to using combinations of known compounds, taken from a list of those that have been well characterized already. This in turn means that effect sizes tend not to be large. Historically this has been an industry in whi...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

COVID-19 Data Shows the Importance of Thymic Atrophy in Aging
The decline of the immune system is of great importance in aging. Vulnerability to infection, a decreased surveillance of senescent cells and cancerous cells, and growing chronic inflammation all take their toll. A sizable fraction of this problem stems from the diminished supply of new T cells of the adaptive immune system. T cells begin life as thymocytes in the bone marrow, then migrate to the thymus where they mature. Unfortunately, the thymus atrophies with age, a process known as thymic involution, in which active tissue is replaced by fat. The T cell supply falters, and as a result the existing T cell population bec...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Nicotinamide Riboside Supplementation Beginning in Mid-Life Slows Osteoporosis in Mice
In today's open access paper, researchers report that long-term supplementation with nicotinamide riboside in mice, starting from mid-life and continuing into old age, slows the pace of osteoporosis. The extracellular matrix of bone tissue is constantly remodeled over time, broken down by osteoclasts and built up by osteoblasts. Osteoporosis is caused by a growing imbalance between these two processes that favors destruction over creation. Bones lose mass and become brittle as a result, eventually becoming a serious health issue. Many mechanisms are proposed to contribute to osteoporosis. Chronic inflammation, for e...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Noting the Work of Jim Mellon to Advance the Longevity Industry and Related Research
In the past few years Jim Mellon, high net worth investor and philanthropist, has put in a great deal of time and effort to help push forward the development of a biotech industry focused on intervention in human aging. He has donated to non-profits in the aging research space, set up aging-focused conference series, founded and raised funding for a sizable biotech company in the space, invested in other biotech startups personally, and in general has been very personable and helpful to his fellow travelers and advocates. Would that there were more people with the resources and will to dive into advancing the state of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

In Horses, the Gut Microbiome Interacts with Mitochondria to Improve Function
The study here is carried out in horses, but it is reasonable to expect to find very similar mechanisms in other mammals. The beneficial populations of the gut microbiome provide metabolites that steer cell function and exist in symbiosis with the host animal. Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, are the evolved descendants of ancient symbiotic microbes, now an integral part of cellular processes. It is reasonable to think that the one can influence the other directly via signaling processes, as researchers discuss in these materials and elsewhere. In humans, for example, researchers have found that propionate gener...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Does the Gut Microbiome Contribute to Age-Related Anabolic Resistance
The gut microbiome is a highly varied collection of microbial populations that acts in symbiosis with the body to process food and provide needed metabolites. With age, there is a detrimental shift in these populations. Those generating useful metabolites, such as butyrate, diminish in number. Those capable of infiltrating tissue, generating inflammatory compounds, or otherwise interacting with the immune system to provoke chronic inflammation increase in number. Researchers have demonstrated that this is a meaningful process in short-lived species by transplanting a youthful gut microbiome into older individuals. In killi...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Loss of Neurogenesis with Age is in Part Mediated by Inflammatory Signaling in the Brain
The immune system is intimately involved in tissue function throughout the body, but particularly so in the brain. The immune system of the brain is distinct from that of the rest of the body, the two separated by the blood-brain barrier, and the immune cells of the brain participate in a range of activities necessary to the function of neurons, as well as the creation, destruction, and maintenance of synaptic connections between neurons. It isn't surprising to find links between immune aging, inflammatory signaling, and dysfunction of many systems in the brain. The focus in the commentary noted here is on age-related loss...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeting Cell Maintenance Processes to Improve Mitochondrial Function and Slow Aging
We present genetic and pharmacological interventions that effectively extend health- and life-span by acting on specific mitochondrial and pro-autophagic molecular targets. In the end, we delve into the crosstalk between autophagy and mitochondria, in what we refer to as the mitochondria-proteostasis axis, and explore the prospect of targeting this crosstalk to harness maximal therapeutic potential of anti-aging interventions. Link: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.656201 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Future of Cryopreservation
The ability to cryopreserve and thaw organs via vitrification, without ice formation and significant tissue damage, allowing for indefinite storage time, would go a long way towards simplifying the logistics and reducing the costs of present organ donation and future tissue engineering of organs for transplantation. Cryopreservation via vitrification also offers the possibility of indefinitely storing the terminally ill and recently deceased until such time as medical science advances to the point of restoration. This has been practiced for several decades by the small cryonics industry. Cryonics is a long shot, but...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Model to Demonstrate the Excessive T Cell Expansion and Differentiation of an Aged Immune System Produces Chronic Inflammation in Tissues
Researchers here use a novel model to demonstrate that T cells made to exhibiting the greater replication and differentiation characteristic of an aged immune system, leading to cellular senescence, cause chronic inflammation in heart tissue in young animals. The age-related decline of the adaptive immune system is thus sufficient to cause this sort of issue in and of itself, independently of other contributing causes, leading to tissue dysfunction. Clearing out harmful immune cells via senolytic drugs or other targeted approaches is one option, but a source of replacement T cells is also needed. A large part of the dysfun...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cap-Independent Translation of mRNA as a Common Mechanism of Longevity
Researchers here show that increased levels of cap-independent translation (CIT) of messenger RNA (mRNA) take place in a diverse set of interventions known to modestly slow aging in mice, suggesting it to be a common phenomenon in these shifts of metabolism towards a slower pace of aging. CIT is a process that in part drives the movement of mRNA, produced from genetic blueprints, into ribosomes for the production of proteins. Since protein levels determine cell behavior, the way in which translation of mRNA into proteins takes place is important. The work here makes a compelling case to link altered CIT levels to mTORC1 in...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, April 12th 2021
In conclusion, the MR exhibited the protective effects against age-related behavioral disorders, which could be partly explained by activating circulating FGF21 and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, and consequently suppressing the neuroinflammation and oxidative damages. These results demonstrate that FGF21 can be used as a potential nutritional factor in dietary restriction-based strategies for improving cognition associated with neurodegeneration disorders. Senescent T Cells Cause Changes in Fat Tissue that are Harmful to Long-Term Health https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2021/04/senescent-t-cells-cause-...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 11, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

The Latest Data from the Interventions Testing Program: Nicotinamide Riboside has No Effect on Mouse Life Span
The Interventions Testing Program (ITP) at the National Institute on Aging runs very rigorous, costly life span studies in large numbers of mice, picking a few interventions to test each year. The usual outcome is that a treatment with some interesting past results is found to have absolutely no effect on life span when run through the rigor of the ITP process. We should all bear this in mind whenever modest life span extension in mice is reported by researchers elsewhere in the community. Based on past ITP data, a great many such results are the result of chance or poor experimental design. Will the ITP ever get ar...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Extracellular Vesicles Slow the Accelerated Aging of Progeroid Mice
Researchers here show that, in a progeroid mouse model that exhibits high levels of cellular senescence and accelerated manifestations of aging, delivering extracellular vesicles harvested from mesenchymal stem cells has much the same effect as delivering the cells as a therapy. This illustrates the point that many of these first generation approaches to stem cell therapy produce benefits via a brief period of signaling of the transplanted cells. The cells themselves die quite quickly and near entirely fail to integrate into patient tissue. Extracellular vesicles are more easily produced, stored, quality controlled, and us...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction Predicts Progression of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease
Cerebral small vessel disease is characterized by the accumulation of small volumes of damaged tissue in the brain, the results of the rupture or blockage of tiny blood vessels. Researchers here show that the state of the blood-brain barrier predicts the pace at which this damage grows over time. The blood-brain barrier functions to ensure that only certainly molecules and cells can move back and forth from brain and bloodstream, but like all tissues it becomes dysfunctional with age. This contributes to chronic inflammation in the brain, as unwanted substances find their way into the central nervous system. It may be case...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Recent Thought on Alzheimer's Disease as a Lifestyle Condition
The overwhelming majority of type 2 diabetes patients suffer their condition because they became significantly overweight. Being significantly overweight clearly produces the metabolic syndrome that leads to type 2 diabetes, and the more visceral fat tissue, the worse off you are. In this sense type 2 diabetes is a lifestyle condition, a choice. Attempting to explain Alzheimer's disease in the same way runs into an immediate challenge, in that there is no such very clear cause and effect. Too large a fraction of significantly overweight people do not develop Alzheimer's, and being overweight doesn't appear to correlate wit...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Better Diet and Regular Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Health in Later Life
A sensible diet and adherence to a program of regular exercise have a meaningful effect on late life health, as illustrated by this epidemiological study. Therapies that target the mechanisms of aging are still in the early stages of development, and few have shown impressive results in mice, let alone humans. Exercise and the practice of calorie restriction outperform near all such treatment for which robust animal or human data has been established. This will change in years ahead, but it will never be a good idea to neglect the basics of good health. Following a routine of regular physical activity combined wit...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Non-Invasive Biomarker to Measure the Effectiveness of Senolytic Drugs
In this study, mice were given chemotherapy which induces widespread senescence, followed by a senolytic drug. The biomarker was only detected in the blood and urine of mice treated with both chemotherapy and the senolytic, but not with either on its own, confirming specificity for senolysis. Link: https://www.buckinstitute.org/news/the-first-non-invasive-biomarker-to-track-and-verify-efficacy-of-senolytic-drugs/ (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A View of Early Modern Trends in Longevity Derived from Data on European Scholars
In this study, we present data that overcome such weaknesses and use these data to reanalyze the timing of mortality improvements among the European elite. Furthermore, using information about relative status within the elite, we investigate whether differences in socioeconomic position were already influencing mortality when secular changes in mortality first started, or whether this pattern is more recent. Finally, we exploit information about the scientific fields in which the scholars in our database were working to examine whether there were leaders or laggards by discipline. A particular focus of our analysis is on m...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Regular Exercise Reduces Measures of Immunosenescence in Old Individuals
Regular exercise improves many aspects of health in later life. It reduces incidence of age-related disease and mortality risk by a significant degree. It improves near all aspects of metabolism, and reverses the downward decline of many metrics of health and aging. Hunter-gatherer populations that sustain high levels of physical activity into later life exhibit a fraction of the cardiovascular disease of populations in wealthier parts of the world. The work here illustrates another known relationship: that active older individuals have a better immune function than their less active peers, as exercise improves the measure...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Senescent T Cells Cause Changes in Fat Tissue that are Harmful to Long-Term Health
There is a much greater awareness in the scientific community of the importance of cellular senescence to aging. Senescent cells are influential in the progression of many facets of aging and age-related disease, and a new industry is working to produce senolytic therapies to clear senescent cells from old tissues. Further, there is funding and interesting for investigations of the many specific ways in which senescent cells cause harm. The open access paper noted here is an example of this sort of research, which the inflammatory signaling of senescent T cells is implicated as a contributing cause of detrimental age-relat...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Delivery of Recombinant Serum Albumin Extends Life Span in Old Mice
An interesting result is reported in today's open access preprint paper. The authors find that the life span of mice is extended by 20% or so after treatment every few weeks with serum albumin, beginning in mid-life. The researchers base their approach on noting that aging is characterized by modification of circulating serum albumin molecules, and theorize that a significant fraction of the issues arising with age are reactions to that damaged albumin. By delivering unmodified serum albumin, the damaged fraction of albumin is reduced, and the harmful reactions diminish. This is, in effect, sabotaging one of the many feedb...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Methionine Restriction Greatly Reduces Measures of Cognitive Decline in Mice
In conclusion, the MR exhibited the protective effects against age-related behavioral disorders, which could be partly explained by activating circulating FGF21 and promoting mitochondrial biogenesis, and consequently suppressing the neuroinflammation and oxidative damages. These results demonstrate that FGF21 can be used as a potential nutritional factor in dietary restriction-based strategies for improving cognition associated with neurodegeneration disorders. Link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101940 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

7.2% of All Deaths Worldwide are Attributable to Physical Inactivity
Humans evolved in an environment of physical exertion, and our biochemistry requires physical exertion in order to trigger mechanisms of cell maintenance and metabolic regulation. Populations that exercise vigorously into late old age, such as the Tsimane in Bolivia, exhibit very much lower levels of cardiovascular disease. Further, living a sedentary lifestyle shortens life expectancy and increases disease risk when compared to people who exercise even the moderate amount that is the present recommended level. The dose-response curve data for physical activity suggests that the recommended level should be a good deal high...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A New Model Suggests a Higher Burden of Death Due to Particulate Air Pollution
This study demonstrates that the fossil fuel component of PM2.5 contributes a large mortality burden. The steeper concentration-response function slope at lower concentrations leads to larger estimates than previously found in Europe and North America, and the slower drop-off in slope at higher concentrations results in larger estimates in Asia. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - April 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Feedback Loop Between Chronic Inflammation and Pressure Sensing Drives Osteoarthritis
Researchers here present an interesting view of how chronic inflammation affects cartilage tissue to cause the progression of osteoarthritis. A feedback loop is established between mechanisms of inflammation and mechanisms of pressure sensing, leading to the outcome of cartilage degeneration. Novel points of intervention will no doubt arise as the result of this work, with researchers seeking to break the feedback loop. The best approach still appears to be prevention of the chronic inflammation of aging, given the degree to which rising inflammation contributes to myriad age-related conditions. An unfortunate bio...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Measuring Gene Expression Changes in the Brain as a Result of Heart Failure
Heart failure causes harm to the brain by reducing the supply of blood, and thus the supply vital nutrients and oxygen, to brain cells. The precise details of how this leads to cognitive decline are yet to be fully mapped. Researchers here assess changes in gene expression the brains of mice suffering from heart failure, as a starting point for further investigation of specific mechanisms. The best path forward for this class of contribution to neurodegenerative conditions is to prevent or reverse vascular aging, which has numerous components. There is the narrowing of blood vessels via atherosclerosis; the failure of smoo...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, April 5th 2021
In this study, the research team designed a way to identify small molecules that improve the function of ABCA1 in the body while avoiding unwanted effects to the liver. The researchers honed in on a specific small molecule, CL2-57, due to its ability to stimulate ABCA1 activity with positive effects on liver and plasma triglycerides. The use of this compound showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced weight gain, among other beneficial effects. Age-Related Upregulation of Autophagy as a Possible Contribution to Bat Longevity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2021/04/age-rela...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 4, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Chronic Infection Contributes to Age-Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Dysfunction
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resident in the bone marrow, are at the base of a complicated tree of descendant progenitor cells that collectively produce immune cells and red blood cells. With age, the HSC population becomes damaged and dysfunctional. The number of competent stem cells diminishes, while mutational damage followed by clonal expansion causes issues such as myeloid skew in the hematopoietic populations, in which too many myeloid cells are produced at the expense of needed lymphoid cells. This all contributes to an age-related decline in immune system function. Given the importance of the immune system to h...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 2, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Tau Knockout in Normal Mice Improves Mitochondrial Function and Slows Cognitive Decline
Tau is involved in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies; it is one of the few proteins in the body capable of becoming naturally altered in ways that encourage aggregation of the protein into solid deposits that are toxic to cells. Tau is highly expressed in nerve cells, and helps in the function of the microtubule network of the cell. It also has roles in other processes peculiar to nerve cells, such as synaptic transmission. Mice lacking tau exhibit issues with regulation of insulin metabolism and behavior. That isn't preventing the exploration of lowered tau levels as a basis for therapies to treat Alzheimer's dise...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 2, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Long Term Consequences of Brain Ischemia in the Development of Alzheimer's Disease
Transient ischemia is the loss of blood supply to tissue followed by its restoration, leading to cell death, tissue damage, and harmful cell signaling. While the paper here is focused on connecting the significant ischemia of stroke with the later development of Alzheimer's disease, it is also the case that aging brains undergo many unnoticed, tiny ischemic events over the years. These minuscule strokes have the same root cause as large, evident strokes, meaning the rupture or blockage of a blood vessel in the brain, but much smaller vessels and surrounding volumes of tissue are involved. That damage likely adds up over ti...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 2, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs