Cellular Senescence in the Development of Cataracts
The ability to selectively destroy senescent cells through the use of senolytic therapies doesn't make greater understanding of the biochemistry of senescent cells irrelevant, but it does mean that we don't have to wait around for that greater understanding to arrive in order for the development of therapies to get started. Destroy the bad cells now, benefit the patients now, and let the ongoing research proceed at its own pace. The open access paper here is an example of that ongoing research, an exploration of the proteins that might be important in cellular senescence in cataracts, a prominent cause of age-related blind...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Another Cholesterol-Lowering Variant that Reduces Heart Disease Risk, but This One Has Unfortunate Side Effects
In recent years, researchers have discovered a number of human gene variants or mutations that significantly lower blood cholesterol, and this also the risk of heart disease, such as DSCAML1, ANGPTL4, and ASGR1. Why does this work? Oxidized cholesterol contributes to the development of atherosclerosis with advancing age, by causing macrophages to falter in their work of removing cholesterol from blood vessel walls, become inflammatory, transform into foam cells, and die, leaving debris that grows the lesions the cells are trying to repair. Reducing overall cholesterol works because it reduces oxidized cholesterol as well. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Changes in T Cell Populations that Characterize the Progression of Immunosenescence
Immunosenescence is the name give to the age-related decline in effectiveness of the immune system. Some authors consider this to be distinct from inflammaging, the growth in chronic inflammation due to overactivation of the immune system in response to molecular damage and the presence of senescent cells, while others consider that chronic inflammation to be an aspect of immunosenescence. In today's open access paper, researchers review immunosenescence from the perspective of the adaptive immune system, here meaning detrimental changes in T cell populations. The contributing causes of these changes are given as (a) the a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Impaired Insulin Signaling and Chronic Inflammation in the Alzheimer's Brain
In past years, there has been considerable discussion of Alzheimer's disease as a type 3 diabetes (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - May 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

VCAM1 Levels Correlate with Parkinson's Disease Severity
Levels of VCAM1 in the bloodstream increase with age, and it appears to be an important signal molecule in at least the brain. Its expression is upregulated by inflammatory cytokines, and so is a marker of inflammatory disease. Chronic inflammation of course increases with age. Researchers have shown that blocking VCAM1 can prevent suppression of neurogenesis due to delivery of old blood plasma into young mice, which is an interesting result, as one might not expect detrimental reactions to inflammatory signaling to have such a narrow bottleneck of regulation. Would a method of interfering with VCAM1 assist in tissue maint...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, May 20th 2019
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 19, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Is α-synuclein, Like Tau, Driven to Aggregate by the Activities of Inflammatory Microglia?
What are the important steps in the progression of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the presence of protein aggregates? These aggregates are misfolded or otherwise altered proteins that precipitate to form solid deposits. This means α-synuclein in the case of Parkinson's disease, or amyloid-β and tau in the cause of Alzheimer's disease, to pick the best known examples. A growing body of evidence is pointing to dysfunction and inflammation in the immune cells known as microglia, a type of macrophage resident in the central nervous system. Like macrophages elsewhere in the body, microglia are responsibl...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Nematodes are Probably Not Useful Models of Mitochondrial Aging
Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, carry their own DNA, encoding a few proteins essential to mitochondrial operation. Mutational damage to these genes can result in broken mitochondria that take over cells and cause the export of oxidizing molecules, contributing to the progression of aging. Not all mitochondrial DNA damage is the same, however: point mutations versus deletion mutations, for example. Researchers have struggled to produce consistent data in mice and nematodes with increased levels of mitochondrial DNA damage of various sorts. Some mice engineered to have greater mutation rates in mitochondrial DNA ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Function and the Association Between Health and Intelligence
Intelligent people tend to have a longer life expectancy. Is this because they also tend to have more education, be wealthier, and make better lifestyle choices? This web of correlations is hard to untangle. Might there also be underlying physical mechanisms that contribute to this well known association between intelligence and long-term health, however? Are more intelligent people a little more physically robust, on average? There is some evidence for this sort of effect to be present in other species, and some genetic studies suggest that common variants affect both traits, while twin studies also add evidence in favor ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 17, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Poor Sense of Smell Correlates with Increased Mortality in Older Individuals
It is quite easy to find correlations between the many varied aspects of aging. People age at different rates, largely due to differences in lifestyle choices: exercise, calorie intake, smoking, and so forth. Genetics are less of an influence. While there is tremendous interest in the genetics of aging, I have to think that this is something of a case of a hammer in search of a nail. This is an era of genetic technologies and genetic data, in which the cost of the tools has fallen so low and the scope of the capabilities has expanded so greatly that everyone is tempted to use it in every possible circumstance. Yet outside ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The DNA Damage Response Falters in Old Stem Cells
Efficient DNA repair is necessary to prevent cells from becoming dysfunctional or senescent in response to stochastic nuclear DNA damage. This is particularly important in stem cell populations, as there is no outside source to replace their losses, or repair persistent dysfunction. Researchers here note that the DNA damage response fails to trigger sufficiently in old intestinal stem cell populations, and this may be an underlying contributing cause of higher levels of cellular senescence in these cells. Aging is related to disruption of tissue homeostasis, which increases the risks of developing inflammatory bow...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Aging, Metabolic Rate, and the Differences Between Birds and Mammals
There is a strong association in mammalian species between metabolic rate, size, and life span. When pulling in bird species to compare, however, it is observed that they tend to have higher metabolic rates and longer life spans at a given size. So the question here is what exactly is going on in bird metabolism that allows for this more heated operation of cellular metabolism, necessary to meet the demands of flight, without the consequences to life span observed in mammalian species. The open access paper here is illustrative of research in this part of the comparative biology of aging field. Is there anything in this on...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Towards Restoration of Neural Stem Cell Function in the Old
Every tissue in the body supported by its own specialized small stem cell populations. The vast majority of cells in the body, known as somatic cells, are limited in the number of times they can divide. Their telomeres shorten with each cell division, and they become senescent or self-destruct when reaching the Hayflick limit on replication, triggered by short telomeres. Stem cells have no such limitation, and use telomerase to maintain telomere length regardless of the number of divisions they undergo. They divide asymmetrically to generate daughter somatic cells with long telomeres that can replace lost somatic cells in ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Rejuvenate Bio to Launch a Gene Therapy Trial for Heart Failure in Dogs
One of the many possible paths towards developing a new medical technology is to first focus on veterinary use. It is considerably less costly in time and resources to develop a therapy for dogs, say, than it is to develop a therapy for humans. Later, given robust success in veterinary medicine, the therapy can be brought into the sphere of human medicine. This is the approach taken by Rejuvenate Bio for their class of regenerative gene therapies. As noted here, the company is moving forward to trials in companion animals, starting later this year. Back in 2015, the Church lab at Harvard began testing a variety of...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Dysfunction as a Contributing Cause of Osteoporosis
Bone is constantly remodeled throughout life through the actions of osteoblasts, cells that build bone, and osteoclasts, cells that break down bone. The proximate cause of osteoporosis, the age-related loss of bone mass and strength, is a growing imbalance between these cell types that favors osteoclasts. Why does this happen? Chronic inflammation generated by the presence of senescent cells appears to be one cause, as cells react to inflammation in ways that favor osteoclast ativity over osteoblast activity. Researchers here provide evidence for the age-related decline in mitochondrial function to be important as well, an...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Anethole Trithione is a Mitochondrial ROS Blocker
Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a side effect of the energetic operations needed to package fuel supplies used by cellular processes. While ROS are necessary signals in many physiological circumstances, such as the beneficial reaction to exercise, excessive ROS generation can be harmful. Excessive ROS generation is also observed in aging. Suppressing that excessive ROS flux at its source, without affecting the beneficial signaling roles, has been demonstrated to be beneficial in disease states characterized by inflammation and high degrees of oxidative stress. It may al...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

An Analysis of Six Decades of Change in the Variability of Human Life Span
Inequality is something of a fixation these days; all too many people think that addressing inequality via forced reallocation of the wealth that exists is more important than generating more wealth for all through technological progress. That way lies only ruins. The growth of capabilities and wealth provided by technological progress must be the most important goal, above all others, particularly if we are to develop and benefit from rejuvenation biotechnologies. Still, all too many people focus on inequality to the exclusion of progress, and inequality, not progress, is the hot button topic of the moment. Thus th...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Evidence for the Mutation Accumulation Hypothesis of the Origin of Aging
Researchers here examine the growing vaults of genomic data for evidence to support the theory that aging evolves because evolutionary selection is inefficient when it comes to genes variants that have harmful effects in later life. Selection acts most readily on variants that aid reproductive success in early life. Thus variants that are damaging in late life accumulate, reinforcing an age-related decline of health and robustness. This is closely related to the concept of antagonistic pleiotropy, which refers to genes and biological systems that are beneficial in youth but become harmful in later life. These will tend to ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Goal of Fixing the Power Plants of the Cell
The power plants of the cell are, of course, the mitochondria. Every cell has a herd of hundreds of mitochondria roaming its cytoplasm, working to generate ever more copies of the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate that is used power cellular processes. Mitochondria are the distant descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria. Like bacteria they replicate by division, but also tend to fuse together and promiscuously pass around component parts. Since the original symbiosis, mitochondria have evolved into component parts of the cell. They have their own remnant DNA, but much of the original genome has migrat...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

MicroRNA-199 Produces Significant Heart Regeneration in Pigs
This is one of the more promising animal studies of heart regeneration that I recall seeing in recent years, particularly given that it is accomplished in pigs, which are a good match in size for human tissues. The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in the mammalian body, and damage, such as that resulting from a heart attack, results in scar tissue and loss of function rather than healing. Here, researchers used a microRNA in order to provoke native cells into regenerative activities that would not normally take place. One of the major goals of the regenerative medicine community over the past two decades has t...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Unity Biotechnology's Locally Administered Senolytic Trials
Unity Biotechnology has raised an enormous amount of funding from investors and the public markets in order to advance a pipeline of small molecule senolytic drugs. They are presently somewhat ahead of the numerous other senolytic startup biotechnology companies in terms of the road to the clinic. Senolytic compounds are those that can selectively destroy senescent cells in old tissues, thereby removing the contribution of these cells to the aging process. This is literally rejuvenation, albeit quite narrowly focused on just one of the many causes of aging. It is disappointing that Unity Biotechnology principals are...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, May 13th 2019
In this study, a significant (30%) increase in maximum lifespan of mice was found after nonablative transplantation of 100 million nucleated bone marrow (BM) cells from young donors, initiated at the age that is equivalent to 75 years for humans. Moreover, rejuvenation was accompanied by a high degree of BM chimerism for the nonablative approach. Six months after the transplantation, 28% of recipients' BM cells were of donor origin. The relatively high chimerism efficiency that we found is most likely due to the advanced age of our recipients having a depleted BM pool. In addition to the higher incorporation rates, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 12, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Targeted Destruction of B Cells Rejuvenates the Immune System, but Other Obstacles Still Block Improvement of Immune Function
B cells are an important part of the adaptive immune system, using antibodies to coordinate the T cell response to pathogens and other targets of opportunity that immune cells should attack. As is the case for all aspects of the immune system, B cell function degenerates with age. Growing numbers of what are known as age-associated B cells emerge. These are known to contribute to autoimmunity at the very least, by inappropriately rousing the immune system to attack a patient's own tissues. What to do about this? Getting rid of the problem cells seems like a good idea. It was some years ago that researchers first dem...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 10, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

LRS as a Negative Regulator of Muscle Regeneration
Myostatin is perhaps the best known suppressor of muscle growth and regeneration. Myostatin loss of function mutants, both natural and artificial, and in a number of mammalian species, are heavily muscled as a result of differences in regulation of muscle growth. Researchers here report on the discovery of another protein that suppresses muscle regeneration, and which can be targeted to increase the pace and quality of regeneration. This may or may not fall into the same network of regulation as is governed by myostatin, but it is usually the case that any given regulatory system in cellular biochemistry is quite complex a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 10, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Source of Extracellular Vesicles for Therapy
First generation stem cell therapies largely reduce chronic inflammation and, less reliably, increase regeneration via the effect of intracellular signals delivered by the transplanted cells. The transplanted cells die quite rapidly rather than surviving to integrate into tissues. Arguably a majority of intracellular signaling is carried by forms of extracellular vesicle, membrane-wrapped packages of molecules that pass between cells to influence their behavior. The contents of these vesicles are not well cataloged, but that isn't an obstacle to efforts to replace cell therapies with vesicle therapies, the vesicles harvest...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 10, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Bioprinting Engineered Tissues Containing Intricate Small-Scale Vascular Networks
The generation of appropriately dense and small-scale capillary networks remains the major roadblock in the progression of tissue engineering, and this has been the case for many years now. Researchers have established the recipes needed to generate functional tissue structures for many organs, from lungs to liver, but in order to grow more than millimeter-thick tissue sections, blood vessels are needed to carry nutrients and oxygen to the inner cells. Unfortunately, growing blood vessels is a very challenging problem, and up until quite recently no-one was even getting close to a viable solution that didn't involve taking...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 9, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Can the Retina be Persuaded to Regenerate?
Some highly regenerative species, such as zebrafish, are capable of repairing nervous system tissue such as the retina. As in all investigations of the comparative biology of regeneration, the question remains as to whether or not these underlying mechanisms of adult regeneration also exist in mammals, turned off beneath a layer of suppressive regulation. If so, then perhaps there is a comparatively simple path towards regrowth of injury and, possibly, repair of age-related damage. It seems the field is still some way distant from a definitive answer as to whether or not this is the case, however, and we should probably no...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 9, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Finding Only Limited Correlation Between Immunosenescence and Skin Senescence
Lingering senescent cells accumulate with age, and are one of the causes of aging. They secrete a potent mix of inflammatory signals that, while necessary to regeneration, suppression of cancer, and other requirements in the short term, are very damaging when sustained over the long term. Fortunately, most senescent cells are quickly destroyed, either by their own programmed cell death processes or by the immune system - though this degree of clearance is never perfect and seems to break down with age. It is thought that senescent cell levels climb quickly in later life because the immune system becomes dysfunctional, less...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 9, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Interview with Jim Mellon of Juvenescence at Undoing Aging 2019
The Life Extension Advocacy Foundation was not the only group conducting numerous interviews at the recent Undoing Aging conference in Berlin. Representatives of the German Party for Health Research were also set up with a camera and interviewer. The video here is their interview with billionaire Jim Mellon, one of the founders of Juvenescence. He is notable in our community for being one of the first high net worth individuals to fully and publicly back the SENS view of aging in both word and deed. SENS tells us that aging is caused by molecular damage, and that periodically repairing that damage is the way to produce rej...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Ribosomal Biogenesis in Aging
The ribosome is an important type of cell structure, the location of protein synthesis. Like most cell structures, ribosomes are recycled and rebuilt on a regular basis, and their construction takes place in the nucleolus. The paper here considers the evidence for altered rates or disruptions in the manufacture of ribosomes to relate to aging. There are clear associations, particularly for calorie restriction, which both slows aging and the pace at which new ribosomes are produced. The nucleolus has gained prominent attention in molecular research over the past two decades, due to its emerging role in various cell...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Bone Marrow Transplant from Young to Old Mice Extends Remaining Life Span
In this study, a significant (30%) increase in maximum lifespan of mice was found after nonablative transplantation of 100 million nucleated bone marrow (BM) cells from young donors, initiated at the age that is equivalent to 75 years for humans. Moreover, rejuvenation was accompanied by a high degree of BM chimerism for the nonablative approach. Six months after the transplantation, 28% of recipients' BM cells were of donor origin. The relatively high chimerism efficiency that we found is most likely due to the advanced age of our recipients having a depleted BM pool. In addition to the higher incorporation rates, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Repair Biotechnologies Raises a $2.15M Seed Round to Fight Age-Related Diseases
As many of you know, Bill Cherman and I founded Repair Biotechnologies in 2018 with the intent of developing promising lines of rejuvenation research into clinical therapies. There are many opportunities given the present state of the science and far too few people working on them. This remains true even as large amounts of venture funding are entering the space; our field needs more entrepreneurs. I'm pleased to note that we're making progress in our pipeline at Repair Biotechnologies, and have recently closed a seed round from notable investors in order to power us through to the next phase of our work. What does ...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Investment Source Type: blogs

Amyloid- β Aggregation Accelerates Age-Related Activation of Microglia
This open access paper is illustrative of present work on the role of microglial dysfunction and chronic inflammation in Alzheimer's disease. The central nervous system immune cells called microglia become inappropriately inflammatory with age. A new consensus on Alzheimer's disease is that initial amyloid-β accumulation causes far greater than usual chronic disarray and inflammatory signaling in the supporting cells of the brain, such as microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This in turn leads to the much more damaging tau aggregation and consequent damage and death of neurons. Alzheimer's disease (AD...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Oligodendrocyte Cells as a Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease
The accumulation of lingering senescent cells is one of the root causes of aging. These cells secrete signal molecules that rouse the immune system to a state of chronic inflammation, resulting in disarray of tissue function and the progression of age-related disease. Recent studies in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease have shown that senescent microglia and astrocytes are important in the generation of neuroinflammation and tau pathology in this condition. The use of senolytics to remove these cells results in a significant reduction in pathology. Here, researchers provide further evidence to show that accumulati...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Rejuvenation Therapies Will Also Have Cycles of Hope and Disillusionment
Every new class of rejuvenation therapy, and there will be many of them in the decades ahead, will follow a cycle consisting of a few years of rapidly growing hype, followed by a sharp crash of disappointment, and then, ultimately, long years of slow and steady success. People attach great hopes to the early stages of every new technology, unrealistic expectations for sweeping, immediate change and benefit. Those expectations are usually possible to realize in the long term, but they can only be met in the later stages of development, perhaps several decades after the advent of the new approach to rejuvenation. Producing a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Giving a Name to Age-Related TDP-43 Proteopathy
Much of the spectrum of age-related neurodegenerative conditions is associated with, and at least partly caused by, the accumulation of abnormal proteins or protein aggregates in the brain. These include the α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, the amyloid-β and tau of Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. This sort of condition, in which malformed proteins are a contributing cause, is termed a proteopathy. A more recently recognized neurodegenerative proteopathy involves the TDP-43 protein, and the evidence for its relevance to age-related dementia has reached the point at which researchers and adminis...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Boosting Levels of NAD+ May Make Senescent Cells More Aggressively Inflammatory
Enhancing levels of NAD+ in mitochondria via delivery of various precursor compounds as supplements is growing in popularity as an approach to boost faltering mitochondrial function and thus modestly slow the progression of aging. A human trial demonstrated improved vascular function as a result of nicotinamide riboside supplementation, for example. Researchers here show that increased NAD+ will likely make worse the inflammatory signaling of senescent cells, however. Senescent cells accumulate with age, and are an important cause of the chronic inflammation of aging that drives the progression of many age-related diseases...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, May 6th 2019
This study shows that mRNA levels of the aging related lamin A splice variant progerin, associated with premature aging in HGPS, were significantly upregulated in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Moreover, our data revealed a significantly positive correlation of BMI with progerin mRNA. These data provide to our knowledge for the first-time evidence for a possible involvement of progerin in previously observed accelerated aging of overweight and obese individuals potentially limiting their longevity. Our results also showed that progerin mRNA was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). This might suggest an as...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 5, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Increased Levels of Progerin Observed in Overweight Individuals
This study shows that mRNA levels of the aging related lamin A splice variant progerin, associated with premature aging in HGPS, were significantly upregulated in subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Moreover, our data revealed a significantly positive correlation of BMI with progerin mRNA. These data provide to our knowledge for the first-time evidence for a possible involvement of progerin in previously observed accelerated aging of overweight and obese individuals potentially limiting their longevity. Our results also showed that progerin mRNA was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP). This might suggest an as...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Fibrosis as a Consequence of Processes of Aging
Fibrosis is a malfunction of tissue maintenance and regeneration in which scar-like collagen deposits form, disrupting tissue structure and function. It almost always occurs in later life, even in fibrotic conditions clearly caused by environmental factors, such as smoking in the case of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Why is this? The authors of the open access paper noted here consider the mechanistic reasons as to why fibrosis is age-related, enumerating the processes associated with aging that are thought to have the greatest influence over fibrosis. There is presently little that can be done to turn back...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Senoinflammation: an Expanded View of Age-Related Chronic Inflammation
The ability to selectively destroy a sizable fraction of senescent cells in many tissues in old animals has led to the understanding that these errant cells and their secretions are an important cause of the chronic inflammation characteristic of old age. The accumulation of senescent cells is far from the only mechanism involved, but the contribution is sizable. Removing senescent cells can turn back numerous inflammatory age-related conditions in animal models. The open access paper here proposes a view of age-related chronic inflammation that pulls together this and all of the other discoveries of the past decade relate...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Presenting the SASP Atlas for the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype
The presence of growing numbers of lingering senescent cells is one of the root causes of aging. Vast numbers of cells become senescent every day, but near all are quickly removed, either via programmed cell death or the actions of the immune system. A tiny number survive, however, and that alone would eventually be enough to cause age-related disease and death. While senescent cells never rise to very large fractions of all of the cells in a given tissue, they cause considerable harm via a potent mix of secreted signals known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP. The SASP causes chronic inflammation a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 2, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

GATA3 Macrophages as a Contributing Cause of Cardiac Fibrosis
The innate immune cells called macrophages are deeply involved in both inflammation and regeneration. They adopt different phenotypes, or polarizations, depending on circumstances, such as the M1 polarization (inflammatory, aggressive in pursuit of pathogens) and M2 polarization (pro-regenerative, anti-inflammatory). The simple view of macrophage polarization in aging tissues is that problems arise with an excess of M1 macrophages, and this is a part of the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of aging. It is well known that inflammation, when maintained over the long term, is highly disruptive of tissue function, a...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 2, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

On Alzheimer's Disease Research, Both Appropriate and Inappropriate Pessimism
This is a pessimistic popular science article on the state of Alzheimer's disease research. I think the tone appropriately pessimistic where it examines the present dominant approach to building therapies, which is to say clearing amyloid-β from the brain via immunotherapy. I think it inappropriately pessimistic for the near future, however, given the various projects currently under development. Take, for example, the brace of approaches based on restored drainage of molecular wastes in cerebrospinal fluid, or filtration of cerebrospinal fluid to achieve much the same outcome. Further, and closer to widespread availa...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 2, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Potential Approach to Tackling CEL and CML Advanced Glycation End Products
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) form in tissues as a side-effect of the normal operation of cellular metabolism where it touches on the processing of sugars. There are many types of AGEs, most short-lived, but some persistent and challenging for our biochemistry to break down. These persistent AGEs lead to cross-links, binding together molecules in the extracellular matrix and thereby altering the structural properties of tissues. This is perhaps most harmful where it reduces tissue elasticity, and is thus an important contributing cause of skin and vascular aging. While sugars are involved, it is much debate...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Exercise Rapidly Improves Memory Function in Older Adults
Over the long term, regular exercise is correlated with improved cognitive function in later life, a slower decline of that function with aging. This is well established. The work here is interesting for showing that even in the very short term, exercise produces improvements in specific aspects of cognitive function, such as memory. One might add these results to the very long list of good reasons to avoid a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise cannot add a large number of years to life span, and indeed in mice it has no effect on overall life span, but given that it is essentially free and produces highly reliable benefits to h...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Pericyte Cell Therapy Promotes Muscle Regrowth Following Atrophy in Mice
Researchers here show that boosting the numbers of the pericyte cell population involved in vascular system growth and activity improves restoration of muscle mass following atrophy. This is particularly interesting in the context of the fact that capillary vessel networks decline in density in tissues with age, the processes of maintenance and blood vessel construction becoming disarrayed, and that this decline is thought to contribute to age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Muscle is an energy-hungry tissue, and we might thus expect that factors relating to delivery of nutrients and oxygen via the vascular netwo...
Source: Fight Aging! - May 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Assessing Socioeconomic Correlations with Rate of Aging using the Epigenetic Clock
Life expectancy, mortality, and risk of age-related disease are well known to correlate with a complicated web of socioeconomic factors. Educational attainment correlates with life expectancy, but so does intelligence. The relationship with intelligence might have underlying genetic causes, in that more intelligent people may be more physically robust. Or it may be that intelligence and education are inextricably linked - smarter people are better educated or better educated people do well on tests of intelligence - and the effect on life expectancy has little to do with genetics. Further, educational attainment cor...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 30, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Chronic Inflammation as Proximate Cause of a Large Fraction of Age-Related Disease
This popular science article discusses at length the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of the old, and its role as a proximate cause of age-related disease. Inflammation is a necessary part of the immune response to injury and pathogens, and when present in the short term it is vital to the proper operation of bodily systems. But when the immune system runs awry in later life, and inflammatory processes are constantly running, then this inflammation corrodes metabolism, tissue function, and health. The causes of excess, constant inflammation are both internal and external to the immune system. Internally, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 30, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Opening a New Approach to Targeting LDL Cholesterol to Slow Atherosclerosis
In atherosclerosis, fatty deposits form in blood vessel walls, narrowing and eventually rupturing or blocking them. It is one of the largest causes of death. The majority of efforts to treat atherosclerosis are focused on reducing the input of LDL cholesterol. This means statins and other, more recent approaches to lower levels of LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream, such as PCSK9 inhibitors. It is possible to reduce blood cholesterol to very low levels indeed, far below normal, and this actually has comparatively little effect on existing atherosclerotic lesions. Patients still die. The disease still progresses, just more ...
Source: Fight Aging! - April 30, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs