Reviewing Waste Clearance in the Brain via the Glymphatic System
Clearance of metabolic waste from the brain via fluid drainage pathways is becoming an important topic in the context of age-related neurodegeneration, as is noted by the authors of this open access review paper. There is good evidence to suggest that drainage of cerebrospinal fluid is a significant path for the removal of wastes, such as the protein aggregates associated with dementia, and that the relevant fluid channels atrophy and fail with age. That decline may well be an important contribution to the development of neurodegenerative disease in later life, and the first efforts to do something about it are now underwa...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Vinculin Upregulation Improves Cardiovascular Health and Extends Life in Flies
Researchers here report on a single gene alteration in fruit flies, increased levels of vinculin, that improves cardiovascular function in later life and increases life span. Effect sizes in flies are much larger than those in humans, where is is possible to directly compare interventions. Short-lived species have evolved to exhibit a far greater plasticity of longevity in response to environmental and genetic changes, at least in those methodologies tested to date. It remains to be seen as to whether the initial hypothesis on the important mechanisms linking vinculin levels to improved health turn out to be correct. Vincu...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Oisin Biotechnologies Produces Impressive Mouse Life Span Data from an Ongoing Study of Senescent Cell Clearance
Oisin Biotechnologies is the company working on what is, to my eyes, the best of the best when it comes to the current crop of senolytic technologies, approaches capable of selectively destroying senescent cells in old tissues. Adding senescent cells to young mice has been shown to produce pathologies of aging, and removal of senescent cells can reverse those pathologies, and also extend life span. It is a very robust and reliable approach, with these observations repeated by numerous different groups using numerous different methodologies of senescent cell destruction. Most of the current senolytic development prog...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 17, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

MD2 Blockade to Prevent TLR4 Signaling Reverses Fibrosis in Mice
Researchers appear to have found a novel way to sabotage fibrosis, the condition in which regenerative processes run awry with age and cells begin building scar-like structures that disrupt normal tissue function. The approach involves blocking TLR4 signaling. Fibrosis is a feature of the decline of many organs; liver, lung, kidney, heart, and so forth. If it can be turned off comparatively simply, that would produce noteworthy gains for the health of older individuals, even when the underlying causes of regenerative disarray are not addressed. The question is always whether or not there is a good way to interfere without ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 17, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Trial of mTORC1 Inhibition Improves Immune Function in Older Individuals
Inhibitors of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) are arguably the most reliable of the current crop of compounds that slow aging by targeting stress response mechanisms, improving cellular health and resilience to some degree. The observed gain in life span in mice and lower species is likely to be much larger than the outcome achieved in longer-lived species such as our own, as that is unfortunately just the way things work for this class of approach to aging. Short-lived species evolved to have far greater plasticity of longevity in response to environmental circumstances. The health benefits in old humans tha...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 17, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Herpesvirus Infection to be a Significant Cause of Alzheimer's Disease
A few recent papers have, collectively, added evidence for persistent viral infection to be a significant contributing cause of Alzheimer's disease. A number of viruses in the herpesvirus family are prevalent in the population but cause few obvious symptoms, such as HSV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Some of these, particularly CMV, are already under suspicion as being the cause of long-term dysfunction in the immune system. Viral infection is an attractive way to explain why only some of the people who exhibit all of the known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease actually go on to develop the full clinical manifestation of ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A First Pass at a Signature of Aging Based on Blood Plasma Proteins
Approaches to producing a biomarker of aging based on assessing levels of many proteins in the blood, and how those levels change with aging, are under development by a number of research groups. This paper should be considered a demonstration of methodology only, as a great deal of further work would be required to show that the relationships discovered here also apply across broader human populations. Still, it seems likely that proteomic analogies to the epigenetic clocks developed in recent years do in fact exist. The challenge with all of these biomarkers and potential biomarkers is to connect them to the under...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Juvenescence Announces a Small Molecule Senolytics Joint Venture with Antoxerene
The Ichor Therapeutics contingent present at the Ending Age-Related Diseases conference in New York last week were quite pleased that the timing worked out to allow them to announce during the conference a $10 million investment from Juvenescence into a joint venture with their portfolio company Antoxerene. Antoxerene started as a protein biotechnology infrastructure company, but the staff are now turning that infrastructure to the discovery and development of senolytic compounds, those capable of selective destruction of senescent cells. Antoxerene joins a number of existing companies working on various approaches to this...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 16th 2018
We presently forget 98% of everything we experience. That will go away in favor of perfect, controllable, configurable memory. Skills and knowledge will become commodities that can be purchased and installed. We will be able to feel exactly as we wish to feel at any given time. How we perceive the world will be mutable and subject to choice. How we think, the very fundamental basis of the mind, will also be mutable and subject to choice. We will merge with our machines, as Kurzweil puts it. The boundary between mind and computing device, between the individual and his or her tools, will blur. Over the course of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

An Unconvincing Desire for Mortality
As progress towards actual, real, working rejuvenation therapies becomes ever harder to ignore, even for those without any great familiarity with the sciences, the positions espoused by those opposed to longevity is shifting. It is apparently easy to be opposed to, outraged with, up in arms about the prospect of longer human lives when longer human lives are not an option for the near future. Just as soon as rejuvenation becomes something that isn't just for the distant future elite, the tone changes. There are still all of the old inconsistencies and virtue signals, but the firm opposition becomes a good deal less firm. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Evidence to Show that Multivitamins Do Not Aid Cardiovascular Health
Vitamins and related supplements are useful in the case of outright deficiency, but the scientific consensus is that they don't provide benefits when it comes to the progression of aging. In the case of antioxidants, they might even be modestly harmful. This data has proven to be a hard sell with the public, particularly given the existence of a very vocal marketplace of sellers willing to declare all sorts of beneficial outcomes to result from their products, regardless of the evidence. Nonetheless, it is hard to argue with the weight of evidence. Taking multivitamin and mineral supplements does not prevent heart...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Arguing that Cytomegalovirus is Beneficial for Old Immune Systems
Researchers here make the intriguing argument that persistent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection results in a better rather than worse immune system in old age, for at least some measures. This stands in opposition to the current consensus and broad range of evidence to show that much of the disarray of the aged immune system is due to CMV and similar latent viral infections. Too large a portion of the limited resources of the adaptive immune system becomes devoted to these foes, at a point in life when new T cells are created slowly, if at all. The thymus, where T cells mature, atrophies in later life, while the hematopoieti...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Exosomes From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Make Skin Cells More Resilient
Research into exosome signaling has grown in recent years. Arguably the bulk of signaling between cells is transported via varieties of extracellular vesicle, collections of molecules packaged within a membrane. Exosomes are one such type of vesicle. An originating cell generates exosomes, releasing them to the environment, and other cells accept them as they arrive. The contents of an accepted exosome then go on to influence cell machinery and activities. The beneficial effects of most stem cell therapies are mediated by signaling rather than by any other actions of the transplanted cells, and thus in principle it should ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Upregulation of FGF21 to Prevent Visceral Fat Gain and Consequent Diabetes
Telling people to eat less doesn't work, as demonstrated by the vast number of overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Both of those are preventable, reversible conditions, even in their later stages. All the patient has to do is eat less and lose the weight. Instead most people keep the weight, undergo largely palliative treatments that produce unpleasant side-effects, suffer many more medical complications with aging, and die younger than their peers. We don't live in a particularly rational world. Medical science may yet rescue the obese from themselves, however; certainly a very large amount...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Activation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex to Enhance Genomic Stability
Does the accumulation of stochastic nuclear DNA damage over time contribute to all aspects of degenerative aging, or only contribute to cancer risk? That is an interesting question, and the answers lack strong proof in one direction or another. The current consensus is that mutational damage to nuclear DNA does indeed contribute to aging, most likely through expansion of such mutations into sizable fractions of a tissue when they occur in stem and progenitor cells. Thus there is some interest in the research community in finding ways to enhance the stability of the genome: better repair, or lower levels of damaging inciden...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Adverse Interactions Between Natural Selection and the Modern Environment
Our species evolved to perpetuate itself in a very different environment from the one we find ourselves in now. We are clearly far better off as individuals: lives are a good deal less nasty, brutish, and short than was the case for our distant ancestors. Technological progress has conquered a sizable slice of the death and disease of childhood and early adult life, to a degree varying by the wealth of any given region of the world. The worst half of infectious disease is controlled, but chronic age-related diseases remain poorly managed, and the incidence of these diseases rises inexorably as people live longer due to con...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Life Lived is No Justification for a Death Unchosen
Platitudes spoken after the death of elderly friend have a way of turning into justifications for that death. This is the flip side of the "fair innings" argument that is used fairly openly these days in rationed medical systems to direct resources away from providing treatments to the old. You have lived, now get along and die. Or perhaps it is a little of the old evolved conservatism in human nature, the urge to conformity: everyone else is dying, why not you? Or perhaps this is entwined with ageism, that older people are worth some fraction of a younger individual for whatever justification makes the everyone ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

More than You Wanted to Know About NAD+ in Metabolism and Aging
Manipulating levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) so as to improve mitochondrial function in older individuals is a popular topic these days, particularly now that numerous groups are selling supplements alleged to raise NAD+ levels usefully. These might be thought of as a form of exercise mimetic drug, in the cases where they actually perform. Even given an intriguing early human trial, this is most likely a road to only minor benefits in the matter of aging. At 90, even the best of former athletes looks like a 90-year old, with a significant degree of dysfunction, and a high chance of failing to live to see...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Hedonistic Imperative, Followed to the Ends of Paradise Engineering
The two strongest urges are firstly to seek pleasure, in all its myriad forms, and secondly to evade suffering, in all its myriad forms. The primordial glass half full and glass half empty of the human condition. These are the two sides of the hedonistic imperative, and are perhaps the most important motivations guiding the development of technology. Technology, and I use the word in its broadest sense, can satisfy these urges either by helping to eliminate suffering or by helping to induce pleasure. Technology to reduce suffering has throughout history largely consisted of the vast and complex fields of medicine and agric...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Endothelial Cell Dysfunction as the Early Manifestation of Small Vessel Disease
Cerebral small vessel disease is a form of age-related dysfunction in the smaller blood vessels of the brain, associated with damage to the white matter of the brain and the onset of dementia. It is thought that the increased blood pressure of hypertension and consequent physical stresses on blood vessel walls is the primary cause of small vessel disease, but here researchers provide evidence pointing towards specific forms of change in signaling generated by dysfunctional endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier in blood vessel walls. That signaling degrades some of the necessary supporting operations of cells ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Senolytics Reduce Age-Related Dysfunction and Extend Remaining Life Span by 36% Following Administration to Old Mice
This paper isn't open access, but is important enough to stand out from the many publications on clearance of senescent cells emerging these days. While the evidence is compelling for senescent cells to be a root cause of aging, and removal of senescent cells via senolytic therapies to reverse aspects of aging, many of the fine details remain to be robustly established in the science and the implementations. Measures of senescent cell levels are not yet advanced enough for clinical implementations, for example, and the life span studies have so far involved animals genetically modified to suppress senescence rather than ad...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Blind Upon the Eve of Apotheosis
We presently forget 98% of everything we experience. That will go away in favor of perfect, controllable, configurable memory. Skills and knowledge will become commodities that can be purchased and installed. We will be able to feel exactly as we wish to feel at any given time. How we perceive the world will be mutable and subject to choice. How we think, the very fundamental basis of the mind, will also be mutable and subject to choice. We will merge with our machines, as Kurzweil puts it. The boundary between mind and computing device, between the individual and his or her tools, will blur. Over the course of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Cleara Biotech Launches to Develop Senolytic Therapies Based on FOXO4-DRI
The accumulation of senescent cells is thought to be one of the root causes of aging, and a growing body of evidence points to their direct contribution to numerous age-related conditions. Removing senescent cells is a narrow form of rejuvenation, capable of turning back measures of aging and age-related disease. Last year researchers published data on an approach to selective destruction of senescent cells based on interfering in the interaction between FOXO4 and p53. This pushes senescent cells into the form of programmed cell death known as apoptosis, while doing next to nothing to normal cells. The method of interferen...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Chimeric Antigen Receptor Therapy, but Using Natural Killer Cells
Adding chimeric antigen receptors to T cells (CAR-T), causing them to aggressively target cancer cells, has proven to be a fruitful approach to the treatment of cancer. Like most immunotherapies, it can result in potentially severe side-effects related to excessive immune activation, but it is also quite effective. Treatment of forms of leukemia in particular has produced good results in a large fraction of patients who have trialed the therapy. In the research reported here, scientists extend the chimeric antigen receptor approach to natural killer cells rather than T cells, noting that this may prove to be both safer and...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 9th 2018
In this study, senescent cell distribution and quantity in vastus lateralis muscle were examined in young human adults after a single bout of resistance exercise. To determine the effects of dietary protein availability around exercise on senescent cell quantity and macrophage infiltration of skeletal muscle, two isocaloric protein supplements (14% and 44% in calorie) were ingested before and immediately after an acute bout of resistance exercise, in a counter-balanced crossover fashion. An additional parallel trial was conducted to compare the outcome of muscle mass increment under the same dietary conditions after 12 wee...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

The Humble Axolotl and the Quest for Human Organ Regeneration
The popular science article I'll point out today takes a look at research into axolotl biochemistry. The scientists involved are searching for ways in which they might be able to improve upon mammalian regeneration; the axolotl is one of the few higher species capable of perfect, repeated regeneration of lost limbs and severe damage to other organs. There are limits, of course, and the axolotl is just as mortal as any mammal, but mammals, ourselves included, have in comparison a very poor capacity for regeneration. We can barely grow back a fingertip, and even that only when very young, and not at all reliably. There are t...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Biomedical Engineering in Medicine and Aging
Today, the effective treatment of aging can only proceed rapidly as an engineering project. The fine details of the way in which aging progresses at the level of cells and proteins are far from fully understood - but that is not a roadblock to progress. The research community knows enough of the causes of aging to repair them and observe the results. In fact the repair approach, where it has been tried, and as typified by senolytic development to clear senescent cells, is doing far more, with far less expenditure, and in far less time, than other strategies that involve mapping and adjusting the extreme complexity of cellu...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reducing Levels of All Pathological Protein Aggregates Should be a Primary Strategy for Treating Neurodegeneration
The reasons why restoration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage is a very promising strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease go beyond the compelling direct evidence, into matters of research and development strategy. Numerous proteins that become misfolded or altered in ways that cause them to form solid deposits in the aging brain, surrounded by a halo of harmful secondary biochemistry. To date, serious development efforts that have advanced to clinical trials have focused on clearing only one of these aggregates. That may well never be enough: neurodegeneration appears to be a combination of the effects of many mec...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Can the Top-Down Institutional Approach Promote the Right Sort of Research and Development to Treat Aging?
Most scientists who spend their professional lives within large institutions, such as the big universities, the National Institute on Aging (NIA), and so forth, tend to favor institutional solutions. In practice that means slow engineering of change within the established hierarchy, rather than stepping outside it, or where a new need is identified, meeting it with the creation of a new institutional edifice much like those that already exist. This is the top down approach to development: structure and delegation, provide big-picture guidance and leave the details up to lower levels of the hierarchy. It is advocated in a r...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Differences in Macrophage Polarization Between More Healthy and Less Healthy Elders
Macrophages of the innate immune system take on different states known as polarizations depending on their duties. M1 macrophages are aggressive and inflammatory, involved in the destruction of pathogens and harmful cells. M2 macrophages aid in the processes of regeneration. The immune system becomes more inflammatory with advancing age. This chronic inflammation drives progression of most of the common age-related diseases, and an excess of M1 macrophages appears as a feature of many of those conditions. The research community is looking into ways to force more macrophages into the M2 polarization, as a possible approach ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Metformin Shown to Attenuate Lung Fibrosis in Mice
Fibrosis is a form of malfunction in tissue maintenance and regeneration, in which cells inappropriately build scar-like collagen structures that disrupt normal tissue function. It is perhaps most significant in age-related diseases of the lung, heart, and kidney, but it is a general feature of old tissues. There are no effective and approved treatments capable of reversing fibrosis to any significant degree, but good evidence has arrived in recent years to suggest that senescent cells, one of the root causes of aging, are also an important contributing cause of the regenerative dysfunction that leads to fibrosis. Senolyti...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Prevention of Harmful Astrocyte Activation as a Therapy for Parkinson's Disease
Researchers have recently investigated means to interfere in on a one of the later consequences in neurodegenerative conditions, in which the supporting astrocyte cells in the brain become actively harmful to the neurons that they normally aid and protect. Astrocytes are triggered into this state at least in part by the inflammatory dysregulation of microglia, a class of innate immune cells of the central nervous system. Aging brings rising levels of chronic inflammation throughout the body, a consequence of processes such as the accumulation of senescent cells and malfunctioning of the immune system. The evidence clearly ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The Longevity Film Competition, Advocacy for Rejuvenation Research
The volunteers at Heales and the International Longevity Alliance last organized a film competition in support of longevity science and longer, healthier lives back in 2015. Now the second competition in this series is underway, with its own website, and the aim of spreading the word about the potential inherent in the treatment of aging as a medical condition. Given enthusiasm and funding, aging might be controlled and halted in the decades ahead, through the development of therapies that repair its root causes. I hope to see a brace of interesting entries as this contest progresses, given the growth in our community over...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Adjusting Macrophage Polarization as a Basis for Cancer Immunotherapy
Macrophage polarization is a hot topic of late. The innate immune cells known as macrophages are responsible for a wide range of duties that include destroying errant cells, attacking pathogens, cleaning up waste and debris, and participation in tissue regrowth and regeneration. The polarization of a macrophage describes its state and inclination as to which of those duties it undertakes: M1 macrophages are aggressive and inflammatory, while M2 macrophages tend towards participation in the gentler processes of rebuilding and regeneration. Many of the common inflammatory age-related conditions appear to be characterized by ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cardiac Muscle Cell Therapy Improves Function after Heart Attack in Monkeys
Cell therapies are thought to have great promise as a way to help repair damaged tissue that will not normally regenerate to any great degree. When it comes to the heart, and following nearly two decades of stem cell and other therapies tested in trials and via medical tourism, the research community is still in search of a reliable, highly effective methodology. Work in the laboratory continues, and researchers have recently reported improvement in heart function following heart attack in Southern pig-tailed macaques. The approach used here involves generating a sizable cell population of cardiomyocytes, heart musc...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Aspirin Enhances Autophagy to Reduce Amyloid in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's
A number of groups advocate the use of NSAIDs such as aspirin as a means to reduce risk and postpone the development of Alzheimer's disease, based on the evidence accumulated in the past few decades. Aspirin is considered by some to be a calorie restriction mimetic that enhances autophagy, the cellular housekeeping mechanism that is required for calorie restriction to extend life in laboratory species. That said, I normally mention aspirin as a way to dampen excess enthusiasm for any new calorie restriction mimetic, autophagy-stimulating compound demonstrated to slow aging in the laboratory. After all, aspirin slows aging ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Chronic Inflammation Correlates with White Matter Damage in the Aging Brain
Here researchers add more evidence to the existing stack of studies linking inflammation to the pace of neurodegeneration, with a focus on white matter damage in the brain in this case. Like raised blood pressure, inflammation is a mediating mechanism that transforms the low-level molecular damage at the root of aging into high-level organ dysfunction and structural damage throughout the body. Chronic inflammation is one of the major reasons why excess visceral fat tissue and exposure to particulates such as smoke are so harmful to long term health. Even the healthy and trim amongst us are faced with the steady rise of inf...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Just How Dynamic are Cellular Senescence Levels in Old Tissues?
In this study, senescent cell distribution and quantity in vastus lateralis muscle were examined in young human adults after a single bout of resistance exercise. To determine the effects of dietary protein availability around exercise on senescent cell quantity and macrophage infiltration of skeletal muscle, two isocaloric protein supplements (14% and 44% in calorie) were ingested before and immediately after an acute bout of resistance exercise, in a counter-balanced crossover fashion. An additional parallel trial was conducted to compare the outcome of muscle mass increment under the same dietary conditions after 12 wee...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A View of Commercial Efforts in Organ Bioprinting and Recellularization
A fair number of companies are at work on various approaches to bioprinting larger tissue structures, stepping stones on the way to the construction of patient-matched organs to order. New organs on demand is clearly the goal on the horizon, but many hard problems have to be solved before that can be accomplished for even relatively less complex internal organs. At the moment, while functional tissues for several organ types can be produced from cells in the lab, in the form of tiny organoid structures, there is no reliable methodology for the production of blood vessel and capillary networks needed to supply large tissue ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Using Age-Related Gene Expression Changes to Search for Drugs to Slow Aging
In this study, using gene expression data for human brain ageing, we aimed to discover not only new pro-longevity drugs but also those that can improve health during ageing. The biological processes showing a change in expression include pathways related to synaptic and cognitive functions as well as proteostasis, suggesting gene expression changes in the ageing brain could be used as a surrogate to find drugs to target detrimental effects. Using multiple gene expression datasets from brain tissue, taken from patients of different ages, we first identified the expression changes that characterise ageing. Then, we c...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 2nd 2018
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Glial Cells in Aging and Neurodegeneration, in Flies and Mammals
Various forms of glial cell exist in the brain, supporting and protecting neurons. Over the years, researchers have discovered that glial cells are deeply involved in many of the important functions of neurons, such as the establishment and maintenance of synaptic connections. Some forms of glial cell, such as microglia, are a part of the innate immune system. They differ in many aspects from similar types of immune cell elsewhere in the body, macrophages, but have much the same set of responsibilities: clean up debris; consume pathogens; destroy errant cells; assist in regeneration from injury. In the aging brain, immune ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Back to Arguing for a Mortality Rate Plateau in Extremely Old Humans
I'm of the opinion that there simply isn't enough data on extremely old humans to do more than roll the dice on the outcome produced by any one statistical analysis, though the results noted here are based on a large enough study population to perhaps demand more attention than past efforts. The researchers have avoided the very sparse data for supercentenarians (110 and older) by focusing on people aged 105 to 110. They conclude that mortality rates stay much the same across that span, at more or less a 50% yearly attrition. This disagrees with one of the more recent attempts to run the numbers for supercentenarian mortal...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Interfering in an Amplification Loop for Oxidative Stress in Aging Mice
Researchers here report on the identification of a mechanism in mice that amplifies the harms done by an excess of oxidative molecules. Aging is accompanied by a general increase in oxidative stress in cells, and suppressing this amplication mechanism is shown to improve measures of health and slow the progression of aspects of aging. This is similar in spirit to a number of other lines of research that seek to attenuate oxidative stress in old tissue, such as the use of mitochondrially targeted antioxidants, but tackling the challenge at a completely different point of action. Arguably none of this addresses root causes: ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Mitochondrial Transition Pore in Age-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction
Every cell contains a herd of bacteria-like mitochondria. These are the power plants of the cells, responsible for packaging chemical energy store molecules. They replicate by division, but also fuse together and exchange component parts. For reasons that are far from fully understood, the mitochondria in old tissues are much changed and degraded in comparison to their counterparts in youthful tissue. Their shapes are different, the balance of fusion and fission altered, they generate too little in the way of energy store molecules and too much in the way of oxidative molecules. Some of this is a matter of damage to mitoch...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Unity Biotechnology Starts First Human Trial of a Senolytic Therapy
The honor of running the first trial of a senolytic drug, albeit inadvertently, goes to one of the groups testing dasatinib or navitoclax back when those pharmaceuticals were first evaluated for cancer therapies. At that time nobody knew that these drugs could selectively destroy senescent cells, and were thereby far more valuable as a starting point for rejuvenation therapies than as cancer treatments. The first intentional human trial was started last year by Betterhumans, a non-profit organization. Now Unity Biotechnology has recently announced that their first human trial is underway, testing the ability of their initi...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A First Pass at Artificial Cell Structures Capable of Influencing the Immune System
I think it a little much to be calling the artificial cell structures reported here T cells; the similarities are few. They are pseudo-cell-like membranes that can be decorated with surface features capable of interacting with other cell populations. The goal touted here is to influence the immune system, but in principle any sort of cell to cell communication that relies on surface decoration could be targeted in this way. Being able to build membranes that can pass for cells in the body, and thus avoid the attention of the immune system, seems more useful for the ability to hide molecular machinery inside them, however. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Calico Extends a Sizable Partnership, Remains Otherwise Uncommunicative
Those of us who do not work at the California Life Company, Calico, have very little idea as to what it is the staff there are up to, at least when it comes to the details. The organization is very heavily funded by the overspill of resources from Alphabet, employs a great many scientists, and - so far as the world peering in from the outside can determine - is engaged in fundamental aging research with the goal of producing pharmaceutical treatments to intervene in the aging process at the end of the day. The little research they have made public is very distant from SENS and the idea of repairing damage, and looks more l...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Late Life IGF-1 Inhibition Modestly Extends Life in Female Mice Only
One of the most studied areas of metabolism and its interaction with aging involves the activities of, and relationships between, IGF-1, insulin, growth hormone, and their cell surface receptors, all of which are among the mechanisms strongly influenced by calorie restriction. Genetic engineering to disable growth hormone or its receptor produces dwarf mice that live 60% longer, and IGF-1 can be similarly manipulated to produce a less exceptional life extension. It is worth noting that the equivalent growth hormone loss of function mutants in our species do not live 60% longer, though they may be modestly more resistant to...
Source: Fight Aging! - June 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Naked Mole Rats Repair DNA Damage More Efficiently than Mice
Naked mole rats live nine times longer than other, similarly sized rodents. They are also near immune to cancer. Researchers are mining the biochemistry of this species in search of mechanisms that might inform the development of ways to treat cancer or influence the processes of degenerative aging. Cancer is a consequence of mutation in nuclear DNA, and the consensus of the majority of the research community is that this random mutational damage, (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - June 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs