Mitochondrial Antioxidants as a Contributing Cause of Naked Mole-Rat Longevity
Naked mole-rats exhibit exceptional longevity in comparison to other rodent species. They can live nine times longer than similarly sized mice, for example. There are no doubt a sizable number of distinct mechanisms that contribute to this difference in species life span, and the existence of mammals with widely divergent life spans acts as a natural laboratory for researchers interested in better understanding aging. If one species lives a much longer life than another, then using their differences in order to identify the more important aspects of cellular metabolism in the matter of aging may well be a faster approach t...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 22, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Towards Universal Cell Lines and Tissues Grown from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
There is an enormous difference in logistics and cost between cell therapies that must use a patient's own cells and cell therapies that arise from a single universal cell line that can be used in any patient. While in principle it is perfectly possible to reprogram a patient's cells into induced pluripotent stem cells, differentiate those cells into the desired cell type, and then even grow functional organoids, that all takes a lot of time and effort, and is as yet far from reliable. It would be much cheaper and much faster to have a factory producing cell lines and organs that can be universally used. When organs and ot...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 22, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Gene Therapy to Disable Lamin A as a Potential Treatment for Progeria
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), or simply progeria, is a very rare condition caused by mutation in the lamin A gene. Patients exhibit a condition that superficially resembles greatly accelerated aging. They typically die very young from forms of cardiovascular disease usually only found in much later life. Lamins are important structural proteins, and the broken form of lamin A in progeria patients, known as progerin, results in cells with misshapen nuclei and significant dysfunction. In the sense that aging is an accumulation of damage and dysfunction, progeria can thus resemble aging, but the type of damage ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 22, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Restoration of Lapsed Mitophagy as a Potential Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease
Many research groups have published evidence to suggest that age-related mitochondrial dysfunction is an important aspect of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The brain is an energy-hungry organ and mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, responsible for producing the chemical energy store molecules that power cellular activity. It is well known that mitochondrial function declines with age; mitochondria in old tissues are structurally different, and less effective at their jobs. The research results here suggest that this mitochondrial decline has a lot to do with the fact that the ce...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Inflammaging and Degenerative Joint Disease
The age-related degeneration of joint cartilage is a strongly inflammatory condition, in which the accumulation of senescent cells plays an important role. Senescent cells produce potent inflammatory signaling that harms the local environment in a range of ways. Systemic inflammation is also thought to be a meaningful contribution to osteoarthritis, however. The immune system becomes dysfunctional throughout the body with age, becoming more active and inflammatory even as it becomes ever less capable of defending against pathogens and errant cells. Minimizing joint issues with aging will no doubt require dealing with both ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Transplantation of Young Bone Marrow Improves Brain Function in Old Mice
The immune cells of the brain are somewhat different in character and function from those of the body. They have a greater portfolio of tasks beyond chasing down pathogens, clearing out waste, and assisting in regeneration. For example, the immune cells known as microglia are involved in the maintenance of synaptic connections between neurons. Interestingly, microglia are not produced in the bone marrow by stem cells or progenitor cells, so in the research here in which young bone marrow is transplanted into old mice, one can be fairly sure that any beneficial effects on microglia result from signaling differences on the p...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 21, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Ribosomal DNA Epigenetic Clock is an Unexpectedly Accurate Measure of Age
Epigenetic clocks are a weighted combination of DNA methylation at specific sites on the genome. Modern processing power allowed the association between these algorithms and aging to be reverse engineered, but it remains an open question as to what exactly is being measured. What underlying processes of aging are reflected by these characteristic epigenetic changes? All of them? Some of them? Some more than others? No-one knows in certainty, though the specific genes and proteins involved offer some suggestions. Until researchers have a better idea on that front, it is hard to use these clocks in the way we all want them t...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

An Effort to Compensate for the Age-Related Dysfunction of GABA Neurotransmission
There is plenty of evidence for progressive dysfunction in neurotransmission related to GABA to be important in forms of cognitive decline, particularly relating to memory. A number of approaches to treat this loss have been considered, with the one noted here the most recent of the type. Exactly why GABA-related dysfunction occurs in the brain is a matter for debate; as for so much of aging, there is no well-mapped line of cause and consequence leading from the fundamental damage that causes aging to the observed changes in cell behavior the aging brain. There are two approaches to dealing with this ignorance. The first i...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Calcification of Arteries is an Independent Cardiovascular Risk, Distinct from Atherosclerosis and Inflammation
The same underlying molecular and cellular damage of aging contributes to both calcification of blood vessel walls and the development of atherosclerosis, but researchers here argue that calcification can be considered on its own, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality in later life. The presence of senescent cells is one of the common underlying factors that accelerates the progression of both atherosclerosis and calcification of blood vessels. This is due to the inflammatory signaling produced by these cells. That signaling distorts the behavior of macrophages trying to clear up deposits ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

John W. Campbell, Editor of Astounding Science Fiction, Described Actuarial Escape Velocity in 1949
Some of the voices of the past can appear entirely contemporary, because they saw further and with greater clarity than most of their peers. John W. Campbell, editor of Astounding Science-Fiction Magazine, died of heart disease at age 61 in 1971. In 1949 he wrote an editorial on the future of medicine, aging, and longevity that wouldn't seem out of place today. He anticipated what we presently call actuarial escape velocity, or longevity escape velocity, the idea that gains in life span through progress in medical technology allow greater time to benefit from further gains - and eventually, we are repaired more rapidly tha...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

A Small Molecule NNMT Inhibitor Puts Aged Stem Cells Back to Work to Improve Muscle Regeneration in Old Mice
In old tissues, stem cell activity is much reduced relative to youthful activity. This is thought to be the most important contribution to loss of muscle mass and strength with age, leading to the condition known as sarcopenia. It also diminished the ability to regenerate after muscle injury. Numerous studies in the regenerative medicine community have demonstrated that while this loss of stem cell function may be a defense against cancer, reducing the activity of cells that may bear potentially dangerous molecular damage, there appears to be a fair amount of room to push the balance towards greater activity without large ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Study of Cell Size in the Context of Cellular Senescence
Senescent cells are a major problem in our bodies, in that their growing presence over the years is an important cause of degenerative aging. Unfortunately, the research community can't just prevent cells from ever becoming senescent, even were the capacity to do that in hand today, because transient senescence serves many useful, even necessary purposes in our biochemistry. It is only the lingering senescent cells that are the problem. Periodically removing these unwanted, harmful cells is a very viable way forward, however, and a new biotechnology industry is springing up to do just that. One very interesting poin...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Harmful Signals Secreted by Senescent Cells Depend on the Presence of Senescence-Associated Heterochromatin Foci
Now that senescent cells are widely acknowledged as a cause of aging and age-related disease, and now that a large industry is forming to find ways to destroy or otherwise render harmless these cells, a great deal more investigative work into the biochemistry of senescence is taking place than was the case in earlier years. While destruction is very straightforward, and certainly easier to engineer at the present time, a sizable faction of scientists are interested in finding ways to turn off the harmful signals secreted by senescent cells. It is this signaling, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), that ca...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 18, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Interviewing Kelsey Moody of Ichor Therapeutics at the Longevity Leaders Conference
Ichor Therapeutics, led by Kelsey Moody, was one of the first companies to emerge from the core SENS Research Foundation community. The company has grown over the years and is now at the head of a collection of spin-out startups focused on a variety of approaches to aging, such as senolytic therapies to destroy senescent cells (Antoxerene), and clearance of a form of metabolic waste that contributes to macular degeneration (LysoClear). The influx of funding in this field that has taken place over the past couple of years is now powering Ichor Therapeutics forward towards the clinic. Ichor and its portfolio compani...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 18, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

White Blood Cells Degrade Capillary Blood Flow to Contribute to Age-Related Neurodegeneration
Researchers here outline a new discovery regarding the origin of reduced blood flow in the aging brain; white blood cells are clogging up capillaries. It is well known that the supply of blood is reduced in tissues with age; this is studied in muscles and the brain, among other tissue types. Some researchers blame a reduction in capillary density in later life, others consider reduced capacity of the heart to pump blood uphill to the brain. A lesser flow of blood in any specific tissue will affect its function, especially in energy-hungry tissues such as the brain, as the supply of oxygen and nutrients is reduced. I...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 18, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 18th 2019
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Trends in Human Mortality in Very Late Life May be Illusions Resulting from Bad Data
To my mind far too much effort is expended on trying to figure out the epidemiology of the tiny fraction of humans who manage to live a fair way past one hundred years of age. For one, there just aren't enough of them to generate truly robust data from which conclusions can be drawn. People are still arguing over the legitimacy of many of the cases, including Jeanne Calment. Gathering and vetting data on the age of very old people is inherently challenging in its own ways. As the authors of today's paper point out, we should be more suspicious than we are of claims of extreme longevity. You might compare their position wit...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Announcing the Academy for Health and Lifespan Research
Funding is pouring into the commercial development of the first rejuvenation therapies, largely meaning senolytic treatments at the present time, alongside various ways of upregulating beneficial stress responses in order to modestly slow aging. As this progresses, we will see an accompanying growth in advocacy for the treatment of aging as a medical condition. The announcement noted here is an example of the type, somewhat analogous to the Longevity Dividend initiative of the past decade, but hopefully more energetic and more focused on strategies such as clearance of senescent cells that are likely to produce larger gain...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

BHB Therapeutics Launched to Develop Ketosis Mimetics
Since ketosis is argued to be a component of the effects of calorie restriction, responsible in some part for the reliable benefits to health and longevity that result, some research groups have investigated ways to induce ketosis via treatment rather than via diet. This is a subset of broader efforts to produce calorie restriction mimetic drugs that mimic some of the effects of a low calorie diet on cellular metabolism. With the funding now pouring into the biotech startup arena, it was inevitable that some of it would make its way towards work on aspects of calorie restriction that was ready to make the leap to commercia...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Vicious Cycles of Aging
This study showed that potential vicious cycles underlying ARDs are quite diverse and unique, triggered by diverse and unique factors that do not usually progress with age, thus casting doubts on the possibility of discovering the single molecular cause of aging and developing the single anti-aging pill. Rather, each disease appears to require an individual approach. However, it still cannot be excluded that some or all of these cycles are triggered by fundamental processes of aging, such as chronic inflammation or accumulation of senescent cells. Nevertheless, experimental data showing clear cause and effect relationships...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Oglionucleotides that Interfere in Telomerase Activity Without Killing Cells
It seems reasonable to think that sabotaging the lengthening of telomeres might prove to be the basis for a universal cancer therapy, capable of shutting down all cancers. Unfettered telomere lengthening is required by all cancers in order to permit rampant replication and growth. Without that capability, the cancer will wither. Telomere length is a part of the mechanism limiting cell replication; cells lose a little of that length with each cell division, and short telomeres force senescence or self-destruction via programmed cell death. In normal tissues only stem cells use telomerase in order to maintain lengthy telomer...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

CD117 Antibodies for Low-Impact Selective Destruction of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is, in essence, a way to replace a person's immune system. These stem cells give rise to all of the immune cells in the body. There are numerous reasons why HSCT is a traumatic procedure, with a comparatively high risk of death, and thus only widely used for very severe diseases. One of them is the struggle to rebuild the immune system rapidly enough for the patient not to succumb to infection; this is particularly challenging in old patients, where the thymus is much diminished and the pace of T cell creation is slowed in comparison to youth. The thymus is where thymocytes produce...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Prospect of Growing Human Organs in Animals as a Source of Transplants
Farming animals is morally dubious, to say the least, but we live in a world in which most people are accepting of this practice. That doesn't make it right, and I think that this will change in the future. For now, however, anyone who finds farming animals for meat ethical should also consider it ethical to create genetically altered animals that contain either human organs or organs that can be humanized. The purpose in doing this is to provide a large supply of organs for transplantation, alleviating the present shortage of organs for that purpose. This is not the only approach, of course. Many research groups are worki...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Centenarians Have Lipid Profiles More Resistant to Peroxidation
The role of oxidized lipids in aging is often studied in the context of comparative biology, comparing different species with divergent life spans in order to try to identify the properties of cellular metabolism that are most influential on life span. It appears that the degree to which lipids are resistant to oxidative reactions is an important factor, and this has given rise to the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. There is something in mitochondrial function and resilience of lipids in mitochondrial membranes to forms of damage that is important in life span, at least at the scale of differences between species. Do lipid ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

More on Fibrinogen and Blood-Brain Barrier Leakage in the Aging Brain
The blood-brain barrier lines the blood vessels of the brain, and only very selectively allows passage of molecules to and from the brain. As is the case for all tissue structures, it fails with age. Molecular damage and cell dysfunction causes it to become leaky, and as a consequence all sorts of cells and proteins make their way into the brain to cause damage. One of these is fibrinogen, which appears toxic to brain cells. Here, researchers elaborate on previous findings, suggesting that this is an immune activation problem, and may be a significant cause of neurodegenerative conditions that exhibit significant loss of s...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Better Understanding the Origins of Fibroblasts Found in Healing Wounds Might Lead to Regeneration Without Scarring
Scarring is an unfortunate fact of mammalian life, both following injury and throughout inner organs in old age, when the processes of regeneration and tissue maintenance run awry. Wound healing, or indeed any form of regeneration, is enormously complex. It is a dance of signals and actions carried out between numerous cell populations: various stem cells and progenitor cells; immune cells; somatic cells. These processes are similar at the high level in different tissues, but the details vary. It is far from completely mapped by the research community, as is true of most of cellular metabolism, particularly when multiple c...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 12, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Small Molecules Convert Supporting Cells in Damaged Brain Tissue into New Neurons
Researchers here present an interesting approach to regeneration of the brain. Rather than spur greater creation of new neurons, or delivering neurons via cell therapy, they find a way to persuade supporting cells near damaged areas to convert themselves into neurons. They have not yet demonstrated that this will work in animals to restore lost function. In situ cell reprogramming is a part of the field that has a lot of promise, but much of the experimentation has yet to be accomplished. "Reprogramming" covers a wide range of possible goals, from minor changes to encourage cells into greater activity or altered ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 12, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Extranuclear DNA as a Mechanism of Aging
This fascinating open access paper investigates a role in aging for DNA fragments that have escaped the cell nucleus, for underlying reasons probably related to stochastic nuclear DNA damage, but yet to be comprehensively explored. They may contribute to cellular senescence and the chronic inflammation generated by senescent cells, and this is accomplished by activating an innate immune sensor, cGAS-STING. This innate immune mechanism is already strongly linked to the bad behavior of senescent cells. The most interesting portion of the work here is the prospect for cleaning up extranuclear DNA fragments via some form of mo...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 12, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Cells Reverses Cardiac Fibrosis and Hypertrophy in Mice
Cells become senescent in response to a toxic environment, or during regeneration, or when damaged in ways that may increase cancer risk, but the vast majority are created when cells reach the end of their replicative life span, the Hayflick limit. Senescence is irreversible, and a senescent cell is blocked from further replication. In all these cases, near all newly senescent cells are soon destroyed, either by their own programmed cell death mechanisms, or by the immune system. A tiny fraction lingers, however. Senescent cells are very metabolically active, secreting a potent mix of molecules that disrupts tissue structu...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 11, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

L1 Retrotransposon Activity Linked to the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype
A number of research programs in recent years have pointed to an increased level of retrotransposon activity with aging. Retrotransposons are DNA sequences that can copy themselves to different locations in the genome, a parasitic addition that originated deep in evolutionary history. Retrotransposons are normally suppressed in youth, but increased retrotransposon activity occurs in later life, and is thought to bring disarray to cellular function. As is the case for most observed aspects of aging, there is plenty of room to debate just where retrotransposon activity sits in the complex web of cause and consequence. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 11, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mildly Worded Support for the Treatment of Aging as a Medical Condition from the Mainstream of the Research Community
The largest institutions are always the most conservative, late to the party. Even now, as clearance of senescent cells is shown in mice to increase life span and reverse measures of aging and many age-related diseases, and an industry of senolytic therapies is pulling in hundreds of millions in venture funding, support from the major institutions of aging research for targeting the causes of aging is lukewarm and very carefully worded. This is the way of things, unfortunately. Still, there is clearly movement in the right direction. Medical care for older adults has long focused on preventing and treating chronic...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 11, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 11th 2019
We report that the bone marrow stromal cell senescence is driven by p16INK4a expression. The p16INK4a-expressing senescent stromal cells then feedback to promote AML blast survival and proliferation via the SASP. Importantly, selective elimination of p16INK4a-positive senescent bone marrow stromal cells in vivo improved the survival of mice with leukemia. Next, we find that the leukemia-driven senescent tumor microenvironment is caused by AML induced NOX2-derived superoxide. Finally, using the p16-3MR mouse model we show that by targeting NOX2 we reduced bone marrow stromal cell senescence and consequently reduced A...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 10, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Curcumin Analogs and Expectations About Natural Senolytics
Senolytic compounds selectively destroy senescent cells to some degree, and thus achieve a narrow form of rejuvenation, as accumulation of senescent cells is one of the root causes of aging. Senolytics produce a reliable reversal of age-related disease and extension of life in mice. As in all such things, quality varies widely: there will be a very large number of marginal senolytics that we should all ignore by the time the first enthusiastic wave of research, exploration, and clinical development is done. Of the senolytic compounds that do have sizable enough effects to care about, and for which there is published data, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reporting on the Longevity Leaders Conference
Some of the Life Extension Advocacy Foundation folk were at the recent Longevity Leaders conference in London, and wrote up a report on the event. The conference split up into three streams later in the day, one of which is followed here. Being focused on the pensions and life insurance industries as much as biotechnology, there were a lot of people present with minimal exposure to the prospects for rejuvenation and slowing of aging. It was noteworthy to see so many there being newly interested in the topic of treating aging as a medical condition, and motivated to learn more because it is important to their work in other ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Interview with Sebastian Aguiar of Apollo Ventures
Apollo Ventures is one of the first wave of investor concerns focused on the treatment of aging, and the principals and staff have put a fair amount of work into building a model for finding and commercializing promising research. They also publish the Geroscience popular science site, which is a helpful act of advocacy for the wider cause. As is the case for near all bigger venture funding organizations, they have a senolytics company (Cleara Biotech) in their portfolio, and thus the SENS model for rejuvenation is advanced. What initially attracted you to aging as a general discipline? Through multiple, or...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Notes on the Longevity Leaders Event, January 2019
LSX, a life science and biotechnology business networking organization, runs a yearly conference that took place in London this week. As a part of the festivities this year, the organizers added the Longevity Leaders event. This is one of a number of new conference series recently launched, in response to the great influx of funding and interest in the development of means to treat aging. Not all of that is rejuvenation biotechnology after the SENS model of damage repair, but a growing percentage is, even if that is near all a growing fleet of senolytics startups. A few years from now, we'll all have lost count of myriad m...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

$100 Million Longevity Vision Fund Launches
A new fund to invest in companies working on aging recently launched, the $100 millions Longevity Vision Fund. From what has been said, and what was presented at the Longevity Leaders conference, it sounds very much as though the Longevity Vision Fund principals wish to follow in the footsteps of Juvenescence, with an initial focus on small molecule drug discovery infrastructure. Unlike Juvenescence, it will probably continue to focus on established infrastructure technologies related to age-related disease, such as diagnostics, and fairly safe work with modest benefits, such as stem cell therapies, rather than invest in a...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Considering the MouseAge Project
Here, an update on the MouseAGE project from the popular science press. This initiative aims to produce a viable biomarker of aging based on visual inspection of mouse faces. Since age-related mortality in humans correlates fairly well with apparent age of the face, and since machine learning techniques can be used to assess aging from photographs in an automated fashion, it seems reasonable to think that it might be possible to achieve a similar analysis in mice. If successful, it might by used to speed up the assessment of potential rejuvenation therapies, a faster alternative to running life span studies. Given the low ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Autophagy is Everywhere in Aging
Researchers who work on autophagy might well feel justified in issuing the claim that the processes of autophagy are involved in near every aspect of aging. Autophagy is cellular housekeeping, the recycling of damaged or unwanted structures and molecules inside the cell. In chaperone-mediated autophagy, very selective chaperone proteins pick up other molecules and carry them to lysosomes. In macroautophagy, materials to be broken down are engulfed in an autophagosome, which then travels to the lysosome and fuses with it. In microautophagy, the lysosome engulfs materials directly. In all cases, the lysosome is the end of th...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Calorie Restriction Reduces Neuroinflammation
Calorie restriction, also known as dietary restriction in the scientific community, is the practice of consuming up to 40% fewer calories than usual, while still obtaining optimal levels of micronutrients. It produces sweeping changes in the operation of cellular metabolism, slows near all measures of aging, and extends life in mice. Thus for any particular aspect of aging, and here the focus is on chronic inflammation in the brain that accelerates progression of age-related neurodegeneration, it is possible to invest a great deal of time and effort into investigating just how calorie restriction slows it down. This...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Age-Related Diseases are Just the Names we Give to Portions of Aging
Aging is a process of damage accumulation in cells and tissue structures, followed by reactions to that damage, some of which are compensatory and some of which make matters worse, and lastly the consequent failure of biological systems necessary to support health and life. Age-related diseases are names we give to some of the aspects of system failure, but they are not distinct from aging. One cannot draw a line between aging and age-related disease; it is a futile endeavor, and that the medical industry and regulatory bodies are set up to do so is one of the major challenges facing those who want to develop commercial re...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Produces Senescent Cells to Promote its Own Growth, and is Thus Vulnerable to Senolytics
We report that the bone marrow stromal cell senescence is driven by p16INK4a expression. The p16INK4a-expressing senescent stromal cells then feedback to promote AML blast survival and proliferation via the SASP. Importantly, selective elimination of p16INK4a-positive senescent bone marrow stromal cells in vivo improved the survival of mice with leukemia. Next, we find that the leukemia-driven senescent tumor microenvironment is caused by AML induced NOX2-derived superoxide. Finally, using the p16-3MR mouse model we show that by targeting NOX2 we reduced bone marrow stromal cell senescence and consequently reduced A...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Arguing that Public Desire for Greater Longevity is Growing
Our community has undertaken years of advocacy for rejuvenation research, with the aim of developing ways to reverse age-related disease and disability, and thus greatly extend healthy life spans. The first concrete results are emerging from the research community, the result of philanthropy and persuasion, then the incremental accretion of funding to programs that showed promising initial data. So now we have senolytics, and I would hope not too many years from now we'll have glucosepane cross-link breakers - and then more thereafter. But have we persuaded the broader public at all? Have we convinced more than a sm...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Delivery of Senolytics Can Help Following Acute Kidney Injury, but Tissue Damage and Loss of Function Remains
Researchers here investigate the mechanisms by which senescent cells are created during acute kidney injury (AKI). Senescent cells are usually created as a part of the injury and regeneration process, and then destroyed quickly afterwards, but there is more to it in this case. The senescent cells linger and their signaling causes fibrosis, a form of scarring that further harms the injured kidney. The researchers find that some (but not all) senolytic drugs can clear out these senescent cells, reducing fibrosis. However, introducing this treatment after AKI failed to lead to regeneration of damage to the tubule structures o...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Thoughts on the Longevity Therapeutics Conference, January 2019
I attended the small Longevity Therapeutics conference in San Francisco last week, there to talk a little about the work taking place at Repair Biotechnologies. This was another first conference of a forthcoming series, but, unlike most of the prior conferences in our community, this was organized by Hanson-Wade, a company that specializes in hosting conferences. The company finds areas of growing interest in business and science, sets up conferences, and tries to make a business out of that process. It is a sign of growth that companies of this nature are arriving in our community to launch conferences relating to the dev...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 4, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Arguing for Exercise to be a Useful Treatment for Sarcopenia Because it Affects Mitochondria, Unlike Most Other Attempted Interventions
In this open access paper, the authors argue that exercise (and particularly strength training) remains the best therapy for sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, because exercise improves mitochondrial function and other attempted treatments do not. This seems a reasonable position. There are many, many possible contributing causes of sarcopenia, all with accompanying evidence, but the most compelling in my opinion is stem cell dysfunction. Even so, one still needs to offer an explanation as to why exactly stem cell activity in muscle tissue declines with age, a way to link it to the root cause mol...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 4, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

PU.1 Inhibition as a Potential Therapy to Suppress Fibrosis
Researchers here suggest that PU.1 is a master regulator of fibrosis, and thus inhibition could be an effective treatment for the various fibrotic diseases that presently lack good options for patients. Fibrosis is a dsyregulation of the normal processes of tissue maintenance, in which scar-like deposits of collagen are formed, disrupting tissue structure and function. When this progresses far enough, it is ultimately fatal: consider the fibrotic diseases of heart, lungs, and kidney, for example. There is evidence for the presence of senescent cells to contribute to fibrotic diseases. Given this new information about PU.1 ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 4, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 4th 2019
In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model. Lifelong, voluntary wheel-running (O-AET; 26-month-old) prevented age-related declines in aerobic fitness and motor coordination vs. age-matched, sedentary controls (O-SED). AET also provided partial protection against sarcopenia, dynapenia, testicular atrophy, and overall organ pathology, hence augmenting the 'physiologic reserve' of lifelong runners. Systemic inflammation, as evidenced by a chronic elevation in 17 of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokin...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 3, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

It Doesn't Matter How Fit You Are, Excess Fat Tissue Still Raises the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Being physically fit is very much better for long term health than being unfit. But in this era of cheap and attractive calories, it is quite possible to be both physically fit and overweight to some degree. Many people are. Unfortunately, being fit doesn't meaningfully protect against the detrimental effects of excess fat tissue on health and disease risk. If you are carrying more visceral fat tissue, then you have a higher risk of all of the common age-related diseases, when compared with someone of the same level of fitness with less visceral fat tissue. Not so many years ago, metrics based on the ratio of height...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reduced Blood Pressure Lowers Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment, but Not Dementia?
Data from a large human trial has shown that control of blood pressure in older individuals, achieved through lifestyle changes and medication, reduces the risk of mild cognitive impairment by 20% or so, but not the risk of dementia. This is a nuanced result; given what is known of the way in which blood pressure interacts unfavorably with a range of mechanisms related to the development of dementia, it is certainly easier to blame the study design, as the authors do here. There is plenty of evidence to show that hypertension damages the brain directly, causing a greater incidence of ruptured capillaries and tiny areas of ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 1, 2019 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs