The Metabolome as a Biomarker of Aging in Flies
This study with 20 genotypes and 87 metabolites, while relatively small in scope, establishes strong proof of principle for the fly as a powerful experimental model to test hypotheses about biomarkers and aging and provides further evidence for the potential value of metabolomic profiles as biomarkers of aging. Link: https://doi.org/10.1111/acel.13548 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

TDP-43 Implicated in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
TDP-43 is one of the more recently discovered problem proteins in the aging brain, capable of misfolding and aggregating in ways that promote neurodegeneration and the onset of dementia. This occurs to at least some degree in all older individuals, but where this aggregation is particularly pronounced it can give rise to conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, researchers report on their investigations of the biochemistry of this dysfunction, providing further evidence for TDP-43 aggregation to cause the onset and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Mislocalization of the predominantly nu...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Prior Replacement of Microglia Reduces Brain Injury and Inflammation Following Hemorrhagic Stroke
In this study, we investigated the impact of microglial replacement in the aged brain on neural injury using a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induced by collagenase injection. We found that replacement of microglia in the aged brain reduced neurological deficits and brain edema after ICH. Microglial replacement-induced attenuation of ICH injury was accompanied with alleviated blood-brain barrier disruption and leukocyte infiltration. Notably, newly repopulated microglia had reduced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and CD86, and upregulation of CD206 in response to ICH. Our findings suggest that ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Treating the Causes of Aging Seen through the Lens of Treating Multimorbidity
This popular science article takes an approach that seems useful when presenting the argument for treating aging as a medical condition to people who are entirely unfamiliar with the concept. At present the practice of medicine treats the symptoms of aging only, addressing each symptom - each age-related condition - separately. But most old people have numerous conditions, stemming from the same underlying causes, the causative mechanisms of aging. It only makes sense to address age-related conditions more efficiently, and the path to that goal is to target these deeper causes of aging, thereby treating numerous age-relate...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Does NAD+ In Fact Decline With Age Sufficiently to be a Useful Target for Interventions?
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important part of the mechanisms by which mitochondria produce chemical energy store molecules to power cellular processes. NAD levels fall with age, concurrent with growing mitochondrial dysfunction. There is some enthusiasm for approaches - such as supplementation with vitamin B3 derivatives - that might compensate for this issue and thereby improve mitochondrial function in later life. Researchers here suggest that in fact the quality and quantity of evidence for NAD+ levels to decline with age doesn't rise to the level that the scientific community should by using as...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 24th 2022
In conclusion, senolytic drugs have shown promising results in the elimination of senescent cells and in alleviating various diseases in animal models. However, in patients, there is a paucity in data on the efficacy and safety of senotherapeutics from clinical trials, including systemic effects and side-effects. In this regard it is important to assess the specificity of senolytics in killing targeted senescent cells and their cytotoxic effects, to identify reliable markers for intervention responses, to elucidate interactions with comorbidities and other drugs, and to standardise administration protocols. FOXO3...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 23, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Blocking Olfactory Receptors in Macrophages Reduces Inflammation in Blood Vessel Walls
Chronic inflammatory signaling is an important issue in aging, both generally throughout the body, and in localized hot spots such as atherosclerotic lesions in blood vessel walls. Macrophage cells responsible for clearing out molecular waste and repairing damage in blood vessels are made less effective by inflammatory signaling. The feedback loop of ineffective macrophages becoming incapacitated by the toxic lesion environment, while inflammation draws in more macrophages, is at the center of the progression of atherosclerosis. Ultimately these fatty lesions grow to the point of rupture, and the result is a heart attack o...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Retrotransposon Activity in Neurodegeneration
In recent years, researchers have investigated retrotransposon activity in the context of aging. Retrotransposons, a class of transposable element, are sequences in the genome capable of replication, perhaps archeological debris from the ancient interactions of cells and viruses, co-opted by evolution. Transposable elements are largely suppressed in youth, but the suppression mechanisms become less effective in later life, one of countless cellular mechanisms that runs awry for reasons that are far from fully understood. It is a challenge to connect specific changes in gene expression to specific underlying causes of aging...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An FDA Regulator's View of the Issues with the FDA in the Matter of Treating Aging
A charitable view of the FDA is that it is populated by well-meaning people who happen to believe that (a) any cost in lives, time, and funds is worth it in order to prevent harm by commission, and (b) zero risk is a possible goal in medicine. The Hippocratic Oath Enforcement Agency, if you like. There are much less charitable views, given the present state of regulatory capture that dramatically raises costs and slows development, as well as the invisible graveyard of countless lives lost to the absence of medical technologies that would otherwise exist and be widely available at reasonable prices. There is no esta...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing the Role of Cellular Senescence in Liver Disease
Senescent cells are play a role in the onset and progression of near every age-related condition. Cells become senescent constantly throughout the body and throughout life, most because they have reached the Hayflick limit to replication. In youth, senescent cells are efficiently removed, either through programmed cell death or by the immune system. With age, the immune system declines in effectiveness. Senescent cells begin to linger and grow in number. These errant cells secrete a mix of pro-growth, pro-inflammation signals that, when present over the long term, disrupt cell and tissue function. Today's open acce...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Chronic Stress Accelerates Atherosclerosis
Sustained psychological stress is shown to accelerate the progression of atherosclerosis. The most plausible biological explanations involve the effects of stress on (a) the immune system, resulting in raised inflammatory signaling, and on (b) blood pressure. Raised blood pressure can accelerate atherosclerosis, as well as raise the risk of rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. The relationship between stress and atherosclerosis may well have as much to do with the lifestyle effects of stress and their downstream effects on cardiovascular health over the long term, however. Although the specific biological mechanism...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

FOXO3 in Cardiovascular Disease
FOXO3 is one of the few genes in which variants correlate with human longevity in multiple study populations. Effect sizes are still small of course, meaning a modest adjustment to the odds of reaching very old age, but one can at least look into the role of FOXO3 and say something about processes likely to be important in human late life mortality. Evidence suggests that FOXO3, while influencing very general cell behaviors such as stress responses, is involved in vascular aging. Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of human mortality. That said, it seems unlikely that there is any basis for effective therapy in a d...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Altos Labs Officially Launches with $3 Billion in Funding to Tackle In Vivo Reprogramming
Altos Labs was formed to develop in vivo reprogramming into a viable class of therapies to treat aging. Reprogramming occurs during embryonic development, and the discovery of the Yamanaka factors allows this process to be enacted in any cell. To date this has largely been used in the development of induced pluripotent stem cells, a source of cells for research and therapy. The other effects of reprogramming are coming to be just as interesting, however: a resetting of the epigenetic marks characteristic of cells in old tissues, and a restoration of mitochondrial function. Studies in mice show that partial reprogramming, r...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Longevity Industry Source Type: blogs

A Cautious View of the Benefits of Senolytic Therapies
In conclusion, senolytic drugs have shown promising results in the elimination of senescent cells and in alleviating various diseases in animal models. However, in patients, there is a paucity in data on the efficacy and safety of senotherapeutics from clinical trials, including systemic effects and side-effects. In this regard it is important to assess the specificity of senolytics in killing targeted senescent cells and their cytotoxic effects, to identify reliable markers for intervention responses, to elucidate interactions with comorbidities and other drugs, and to standardise administration protocols. Link: ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Alzheimer's Disease Associated Genetic Variants Have Varying Correlations with Longevity
As a general rule, one should take with a grain of salt the results of any individual study on gene variants and correlations with longevity or disease risk. The results rarely replicate. Longevity in particular is a complex emergent phenomenon, and any one gene variant has only a small effect, highly dependent on interactions with environment and other genes. If anything, more rigorous studies of large genetic databases have been steadily decreasing the estimated contribution of genetic variants to variations in human life span. It is near all a matter of culture and lifestyle choice. That said, there are a few well defin...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

NAD+ Depletion Primes Cells for Inflammatory Behavior
Today's open access paper provides an interesting view on the age-related reduction in cellular NAD+ levels, a topic of interest in the longevity community these past years. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an important piece of molecular machinery in the function of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The primary role of mitochondria is to generate the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used to power the cell. NAD cycles between NAD+ and NADH during this process, and lower levels of NAD imply a growing dysfunction in cellular energy metabolism. Separately, researchers h...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

More Funding for the Dog Aging Project
There is a growing enthusiasm for aging research and the development of interventions aimed at slowing or reversing aging. This has reached the point at which people with significant resources are becoming involved, and thus the more prominent projects in the research and development communities are gaining support that would have been hard to find just a few short years ago. This new funding for the Dog Aging Project is a good example of the growing level of support for work on aging, undertaken by people who have bought into the vision of a future in which medical technology allows for much longer, healthier lives for al...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Gameto Raises $20M at an Early Stage to Focus on Ovarian Aging
One of the signs of investor enthusiasm for an industry is the existence of projects that raise significant funding at a very early stage of their development. We're seeing that happen for cellular reprogramming, but companies started by well-connected individuals in other parts of the longevity industry are now raising a great deal of funding in early preclinical stages of development. This suggests that we will continue to see a growing influx of capital into the development of ways to treat aging as a medical condition, pulling more research projects out of the constraints of academia and into an environment of greater ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Request for Startups in the Rejuvenation Biotechnology Space, 2022 Edition
For some years now, I've offered a yearly set of suggested projects for new startups in the rejuvenation biotechnology space. Or, alternatively, it might be viewed as a series of lengthy complaints about the slow pace of process towards human rejuvenation, given the many opportunities that exist. That slow pace is particularly galling in the case of the lowest-hanging fruit, a range of therapies that have been practical to carry out for at least a few years now, and yet have still not been meaningfully assessed for their ability to produce at least some degree of rejuvenation in aged humans. Given that the level of funding...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 17, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Investment Source Type: blogs

Temporary Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Produced in the Body via mRNA Gene Therapy
Chimeric antigen receptors applied to T cells, known as CAR-T therapies, are expensive. Isolating a patient's T cells, culturing them, engineering them, and then returning them to the body is an undertaking, particularly when it must be carried out with the very high level of reliability and quality control required by regulators. CAR-T therapies do well in attacking many types of cancer, but can have side-effects due to the lasting presence of engineered immune cells that have become too zealous. Few chimeric antigens are completely specific for cancer, and other cells will be destroyed as well. The approach noted here is...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 17, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Theorizing on the Contribution of the Gut Microbiome to Crocodile Longevity
Researchers studying the comparative biology of aging examine differences between species of varying life spans, in search of insights into mechanisms of aging and potential interventions that might slow or reverse aging in our own species. This is a slow process. Even given the discovery of specific mechanisms that likely contribute to greater longevity or resilience in a given species, it tends to be challenging to determine how large a contribution is made by those mechanisms, and quite speculative as to whether any given mechanism can be used as a basis for therapy in our species. Still, there are many areas of ongoing...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 17, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 17th 2022
In conclusion, fibroblasts in monolayers cultured with soluble pentosidine and tridimensional in vitro skin constructs exposed to the combination of AGEs and UVA promote an inflammatory state and an alteration of the dermal compartment in relation to an elastosis-like environment. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 16, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Nanowarming of Vitrified Kidneys and Hearts
Long term low temperature storage of living tissue is an active area of research. Cryoprotectant perfusion allows tissues to vitrify on cooling, minimizing ice crystal formation and thus preserving the small scale structure that is vital to tissue function. The challenge of cooling to vitrification is largely the challenge of obtaining good perfusion of cryoprotectant throughout the tissue, something that is much less of an issue for an isolated organ or tissue sample than it is for an entire animal or human. The more significant challenges are those related to the goal of warming vitrified tissue while retaining full func...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

UV Radiation and Cross-Linking Contribute to Elastosis in Aged Skin
In conclusion, fibroblasts in monolayers cultured with soluble pentosidine and tridimensional in vitro skin constructs exposed to the combination of AGEs and UVA promote an inflammatory state and an alteration of the dermal compartment in relation to an elastosis-like environment. Link: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6647773 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Further Wrangling Over the Definition of Aging as a Disease
The World Health Organization (WHO) manages the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), which goes through revised editions every so often. Since regulatory agencies and healthcare payers use the ICD in determining just about everything regarding whether or not specific treatments are permitted, many groups involved in the development of therapies to treat aging are interested in seeing aging unambiguously added to the ICD. At the end of the day this has little to do with semantics and a great deal to do with finances: the availability of funding for research and development, the direct and indirect costs of gainin...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Cambrian Biopharma Approach to Obtain Regulatory Approval of Drugs to Treat Aging
The approach outlined here by the Cambrian Biopharma principals isn't exactly a secret: at least the first part of the process is exactly the playbook for nearly every company working on interventions that target the mechanisms of aging. Since there is no established regulatory path to treat aging as a medical condition, companies must seek approval to treat a specific age-related condition. They pick the best choice of the scores that could be treated by slowing or reversing one or more mechanisms of aging. Most groups stop the future planning at that point, as the likely next step following regulatory approval will be wi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Politics and Legislation Source Type: blogs

Senescent Cells Negatively Affect T Helper Cell Differentiation
The accumulation of senescent cells with age harms tissues and cell behavior throughout the body. Senescent cells generate a pro-growth, pro-inflammation mix of molecules, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Researchers are still comparatively early in the process of producing a complete list of problems caused by the SASP. One of the better studied SASP components is TGF-β, and here researchers demonstrates that it causes disarray in the normal behavior of T-helper cells of the adaptive immune system. Applying senolytic treatments that selectively destroy senescent cells can reverse this aspect of a...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Incidence of Cognitive Impairment is in Decline
Rates of cognitive impairment in older people continue to decline, as noted in this study. The researchers attribute this to just about everything except improvements in medical technology, though it may well be the case that improvements in treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease contribute to this slowed loss of cognitive function. The population is aging, however, and with an ever greater fraction of the population being old, the overall incidence of age-related disease is increasing even as individual risk falls. Further, present trends represent only incremental improvements; the development of new medical ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Neutrophils Provoke Damaging Inflammation and Scarring Following Heart Damage
The heart is not a very regenerative organ. Following damage, scarring rather than reconstruction results, leading to reduced function. This contributes to the high mortality resulting from a heart attack. While preventing heart attacks is a much better goal than clearing up the damage afterwards, the research community is nonetheless very interested in understanding how to sabotage this scarring process. Interfering in the activities of immune cells has seemed a promising path forwards. Heart attacks provoke lasting inflammation, and such unresolved inflammation is disruptive of regenerative processes. In today's r...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Life Biosciences Raises a Sizable Round of Funding
I'll note the recent Life Biosciences capital raise as an example of the dramatic increase in funding flowing into the longevity industry in the past year or so. The companies that started earlier, many of which are running multiple distinct programs aimed at various approaches to the treatment of aging, are reaching the point at which they need to pull in significant funding to prepare for and undertake their first clinical trials. That funding is increasingly available. This remains a young industry, yet to obtain regulatory approval for any of the therapies under development, but it is clearly a field of growing interes...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Mutation Distinguishing Modern Humans from Other Primates Acts to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Humans are long-lived in comparison to other primates, despite exhibiting broad genetic similarity to our closest neighboring species. Our comparative longevity is thought to have evolved as a consequence of our intelligence and culture, allowing grandparents to contribute to the survival of descendants, and thus increasing the selection pressure operating in later life. Here researchers identify one genetic difference in modern humans that may contribute to greater longevity. Interestingly, it is absent from Neanderthals, an ancestral subspecies of human that one would also expect to exhibit a greater life span as a resul...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Metabolic Defects in Myeloid Cells Contribute to the Chronic Inflammation of Aging
Today's commentary discusses recent research into age-related changes in myeloid cell lineages of the innate immune system. These cells are produced by hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, and play important roles in immune function and tissue function throughout the body. With age, hematopoiesis becomes biased towards an ever greater production of myeloid cells at the expense of other immune cells, a problematic shift. As noted in this commentary, the changes also extend to the behavior of myeloid cells, and thus to the capabilities of the immune system. The work here pinpoints one set of changes in myeloid...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Comparing Some of the Most Widely Used Epigenetic Clocks
In this study, we evaluated and compared the three DNAm algorithms and a frailty index (FI) in relation to prediction of mortality in a cohort of older adults. The three DNAm algorithms and the FI were positively correlated with each other and each of them was independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Whereas the first-generation epigenetic clocks were assessed solely by chronological age as the reference, PhenoAge and GrimAge were designed to better capture biological aging. Given that AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim are reflecting differences of estimated biological age and chronological a...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Arguing for Aging of the Gut Microbiome to Worsen the Burden of Cellular Senescence
We should expect most of the various different aspects of aging to strongly interact with one another, leading to worse outcomes. Degenerative aging accelerates as it progresses precisely because of such harmful interactions. Researchers here discuss a still novel view of the way in which age-related changes in the gut microbiome may lead to greater harms resulting from the burden of senescent cells present in aged tissues. Incidentally, both the aging of the gut microbiome and the accumulation of senescent cells have bidirectional relationships with age-related immune system dysfunction. Near all aspects of aging interact...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Simple, Sensible Position on the Treatment of Aging as a Medical Condition
If there is to be a simple, sensible, consensus position on the treatment of aging as a medical condition, it might run something like this. (a) If our species is going to put significant time and funding into this project, then it is much better to conduct research and development programs that are capable of achieving rejuvenation, rather than those that can achieve only a slowing of aging. (b) Similarly, more rejuvenation is better than less rejuvenation. We should aim to optimize the direction of development as early as possible. (c) At present it is challenging, slow, and expensive to assess the benefits produced by a...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 10, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Age-Related Changes in Phospholipid Composition of Cell Membranes
This open access paper surveys what is known of age-related changes in the phospholipid composition of cell membranes, a feature that has been studied in a range of different species. As a mechanism of aging, this is likely downstream of deeper causes of aging, while also producing its own very complex set of consequences. Those consequences are poorly understood, and will likely remain poorly understood for the foreseeable future. There are only so many researchers and so much time and funding. Picking apart the fine details of aging at the level of cellular operations, particularly processes that can in principle influen...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 10, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Metabolic Coupling in the Aging Retina
An interesting perspective is presented in this open access paper, a discussion of the age-related decline in coupling of metabolism between different cell types in the retina. Cell metabolism cannot be considered in isolation for a given cell or cell type, particularly in the central nervous system, where, for example, supporting cells provide metabolites to neurons. As is the case for many aspects of aging, it is hard to draw clear lines of cause and effect between more fundamental forms of cell and tissue damage and downstream disruption of complex systems such as this within our biology. One particular metabol...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 10, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 10th 2022
In conclusion, our studies suggested that engrafted OPCs promoted the recovery after ischemic stroke by enhancing endogenous oligodendrogenesis, neurite growth, and synaptogenesis; the last two being mediated by the Netrin-1/DCC axis. Rejuvenating the Gut Microbiome of Aged Mice in Various Ways https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2022/01/rejuvenating-the-gut-microbiome-of-aged-mice-in-various-ways/ The gut microbiome changes with age in a number of different ways that are detrimental to long term health. Firstly, inflammatory microbial populations increase in number, rousing the immune system to constant...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 9, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Cancer, the Second Largest Cause of Human Mortality
After cardiovascular disease, cancer is the second most prevalent cause of death in our species. One of the most important parts of a future toolkit of diverse rejuvenation therapies is a robustly effective, low-cost universal cancer therapy, one that can be applied to near all cancers with little need for customization. The best approach to that end is likely some form of interference in telomere lengthening. Unlike other known differences in cancer cells, this is plausibly the one aspect of cancer biochemistry that is both vital and immune to mutational change. A cancer can evolve its way out from under many forms of tre...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Antioxidant Effects of Stem Cell Exosome Therapy
In this study, we have summarized the antioxidant effects of exosomes in in vivo and in vitro models, and have evaluated the anti-oxidant mechanisms of exosomes by demonstrating a direct reduction in excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), promotion of intracellular defence of anti-oxidative stress, immunomodulation by inhibiting excess ROS, and alteration of mitochondrial performance. Exosomes exert their cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the redox environment and oxidative stress, which explains the therapeutic effects of exosomes in a variety of diseases, mechanisms that can be well p...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Will Interventions that Improve Mitochondrial Function Also Increase Cancer Risk?
You may recall some speculative discussion regarding whether or not upregulation of NAD+ to improve mitochondrial function might increase cancer risk in old people. Much of the slowdown of aging, from reduced metabolism to reduced stem cell function, and certainly including loss of mitochondrial function, may influence lifespan by reducing the risk of cancer, while at the same time ensuring a slow decline into organ failure. This topic remains speculative, but if NAD+ upregulation does in fact increase cancer risk, then it is possible that other approaches to restore mitochondrial function will also have this outco...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Provocative Data from Shared Epigenetic Clocks for Naked Mole Rats and Humans
This study describes seven epigenetic clocks for naked mole rats (NMRs), of which five are specific to NMRs (for different tissue types) and two are dual-species human-NMR clocks that are applicable to humans as well. The human-NMR clocks for chronological and relative age demonstrate the feasibility of building epigenetic clocks for different species based on a single mathematical formula. This further consolidates emerging evidence that epigenetic aging mechanisms are conserved, at least between members of the mammalian class. On a phenotypic level, the NMRs appear to evade aging. Hence, we did not know whether th...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Rejuvenating the Gut Microbiome of Aged Mice in Various Ways
In this study, we controlled the ageing-related phenotype by oral administration of a single microbe, AK. AK restores intestinal integrity by activating epithelial cells, thereby supporting the growth of other beneficial commensals. Furthermore, our data shows that AK extends the healthy lifespan, as evidenced by the frailty index and restoration of muscle atrophy. Since the age-related inflammatory state is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle size and function (sarcopenia), the decrease in inflammation caused by oral administration of AK may be involved in the restoration of muscle metabolic function. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell Therapy Improves Stroke Recovery in Mice
In conclusion, our studies suggested that engrafted OPCs promoted the recovery after ischemic stroke by enhancing endogenous oligodendrogenesis, neurite growth, and synaptogenesis; the last two being mediated by the Netrin-1/DCC axis. Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8612617/ (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Towards a Better Understanding of Osteoclasts in Osteoporosis
Bone is, despite appearances, a very dynamic tissue. Bone structure is constantly remodeled, and a balance between the activities of osteoblasts that create bone extracellular matrix and osteoclasts that break down that matrix is necessary to maintain healthy, functional bones. With advancing age this balance is disrupted, shifting to favor osteoclast activity over osteoblast activity. Bones become weaker, less dense, and fragile, leading to osteoporosis and serious, life-limiting fracture events. Given that osteoporosis is an imbalance, there are numerous possible approaches to the development of therapies. Identif...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The Relationship Between Sarcopenia and Cardiovascular Disease
Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength that takes place in later life. Both sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease are accelerated by the chronic inflammation of aging, but the onset of physical weakness resulting from sarcopenia can also contribute to cardiovascular disease via reduced physical activity. As this paper notes, other mechanisms may also be involved in the relationship between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease. Muscle tissue is metabolically active, and the loss of that tissue has more consequences than just a decline into frailty. With the advent of population aging, aging...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Popular Science Article on Approaches to Clearing Senescent Cells
The development of senolytic therapies, capable of selectively destroying senescent cells in old tissues, is a very promising area of medicine. When present even in comparatively small numbers, senescent cells actively maintain a disrupted, inflammatory state of tissues via their secretions. A dozen or more biotech companies are working senolytic therapies of various types. If anything, however, far too little work is taking place on the assessment of first generation senolytic drugs in humans, given that these treatments have produced impressive degrees of rapid rejuvenation in aged mice in many different studies. Those d...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Longevity.Technology Looks Back at 2021
A fair number of news and interest sites covering aging research and the development of therapies to treat aging as a medical condition have come and gone over the years. Longevity.Technology is one of the few that seems likely to stick around for a while, now that there is a growing longevity industry to cover, and thus the ability to bring in enough revenue in traditional ways to run a small professional journalism organization. The Longevity.Technology staff recently published a set of short retrospective articles, looking back on industry news from 2021; some are linked below. The lie of the longevity landscape ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Senescent Astrocytes May Negatively Affect the Function of Neurons
A good deal of evidence points towards cellular senescence in the supporting cells of the brain, such as astrocytes and microglia, as an important contribution to neurodegeneration, cognitive decline, and dementia. Senescent cells behave abnormally and secrete a potent mix of pro-growth, pro-inflammatory signals that are known to degrade structure and function in many different organs. Chronic inflammation in brain tissue is strongly implicated in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative conditions, and clearance of senescent cells in the brain via senolytic therapies has been shown to reverse pathology in animal mod...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency as a Health-Inducing Mutation
Researchers here note that the uncommon sucrase-isomaltase deficiency found in some Greenland populations may be generally beneficial to long-term health in adults, removing many of the downsides to ingesting sucrose. Humans did not evolve in a sugar-rich environment, and we are poorly adapted to the consequences of the high sugar intake that characterizes wealthier populations. An identified and useful mutation in a human population can be the first step on the road to a therapy that can improve health, and perhaps that will happen here. Researchers analysed data from 6,551 adult Greenlanders and conducted experi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs