To What Degree Can Cell Therapies Rebuild the Aging Brain?
Repair of the aging brain is perhaps the most important of goals in regenerative medicine. We are the data that is stored in some way within the small-scale structures of our brain tissue, and so the options for outright replacement of brain cells and tissues are somewhat constrained. As a thought experiment, it is in principle possible, given significant progress in biotechnology, to manufacture a cloned body to receive a transplanted brain. All of the steps needed either already happen in nature, such as the growth of bodies without brains, and would need control and direction, or have been crudely demonstrated in animal...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reviewing the State of Gene Editing to Make Cells Compatible Between Donor and Recipient
A sizable level of funding in academia and industry is devoted to the goal of enabling cell transplants between different individuals, with large and well funded pharma companies such as Astellas, Sana, and others involved. This would allow for the creation of cost-effective cell therapies of all sorts, in which the donor cells used in every patient originate from the same few well-vetted and well-controlled cell lines. Logistics is everything in the realm of cell therapies, and the reason why autologous cell therapies, such as CAR-T treatments for cancer, are so expensive is that every treatment site must have the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Making Senescent Cells Glow In Vivo
In this study, we generate a Glb1+/m-Glb1-2A-mCherry (GAC) reporter allele at the Glb1 gene locus, which encodes lysosomal β-galactosidase - an enzyme elevated in tissues of old mice. A linear correlation between GAC signal and chronological age is established in a cohort of middle-aged (9 to 13 months) Glb1+/m mice. The high GAC signal is closely associated with cardiac hypertrophy and a shortened lifespan. Moreover, the GAC signal is exponentially increased in pathological senescence induced by bleomycin in the lung. Senolytic dasatinib and quercetin (D + Q) reduce GAC signal in bleomycin treated mice. Thus, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Arguing for Well Explored Approaches to Slow Aging to Not In Fact Slow Aging
In conclusion, the PAAIs examined (i.e. mTOR loss of function, Ghrhr loss of function, intermittent fasting-based version of dietary restriction) often influenced age-sensitive traits in a direct way and not by slowing age-dependent change. Previous studies often failed to include young animals subjected to PAAI to account for age-independent PAAI effects. However, any study not accounting for such age-independent intervention effects will be prone to overestimate the extent to which an intervention delays the effects of aging on the phenotypes studied. This can result in a considerable bias of our view on how modifiable a...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Advocating for Glutathione Upregulation as a Basis for Therapy
You might recall a recent small clinical trial in which oral supplementation with large amounts of glutathione precursors produced improvements in health in older adults, the size of the outcome surprisingly large for a treatment based on supplements. Here, researchers enthusiastically advocate for glutathione upregulation, reversing the normal age-related decline in glutathione levels, as a basis for improving the health of older people and slowing the onset of age-related degeneration. Many local and systemic diseases especially diseases that are leading causes of death globally like chronic obstructive pulmona...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Interactions Between the Aging Immune System and Aging Kidney
Researchers here discuss the ways in which the aging of the immune system influences the aging of the kidney, such as through disruption of the normal participation of immune cells in tissue maintenance and repair. With age the immune system falls into a state of chronic inflammation, and unresolved inflammatory signaling is disruptive to the structure and operation of tissues throughout the body. The kidney is but one example of how this contributes to the declines of aging. With the steady increase in the number of elderly individuals globally, age-related diseases emerge as a major challenge to health care work...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, November 28th 2022
This study explored whether determining the gain or loss of specific taxa represent a more precise metric of healthy/unhealthy aging than summary microbiome statistics, such as diversity and uniqueness. We analyzed microbiome diversity and four measures of microbiome uniqueness in 21,000 gut microbiomes for their relationship with aging and health. We show that diversity and uniqueness measures are not synonymous; uniqueness is not a uniformly desirable feature of the aging microbiome, nor is it an accurate biomarker of healthy aging. Different measures of uniqueness show different associations with diversity and with mark...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 27, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Studying the Trajectory of Exercise Across Life Suggests that It is Never Too Late to Undertake More Of It
You may recall a study from a few years back suggesting that increasing level of exercise in later life, after a low level of exercise in earlier life, removes a perhaps surprisingly large fraction of the negative consequences of that low level of exercise. This is at least the case when it comes to age-related mortality. Nonetheless, in that study, maintaining a high level of exercise across life was still shown to be much better for health than only beginning high levels of exercise in later life. Today's open access paper reports on a similar study, but here the metrics are specifically focused on measurements o...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Studying the Trajectory of Exercise Across Life Suggests that It is Never Too Late to Undertake More It
You may recall a study from a few years back suggesting that increasing level of exercise in later life, after a low level of exercise in earlier life, removes a perhaps surprisingly large fraction of the negative consequences of that low level of exercise. This is at least the case when it comes to age-related mortality. Nonetheless, in that study, maintaining a high level of exercise across life was still shown to be much better for health than only beginning high levels of exercise in later life. Today's open access paper reports on a similar study, but here the metrics are specifically focused on measurements o...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Targeting the Aging of the Immune System in the Context of Frailty
The immune system declines into a state of incapacity (immunosenescence) and chronic inflammation (inflammaging) with advancing age. Unresolved inflammatory signaling is disruptive of tissue function in many ways, from reduced stem cell activity to pathologically altered somatic cell behavior. It is thought to be important in the declining muscle mass and strength that contributes to age-related frailty. Thus addressing immune aging is a significant and important target in the treatment of aging as a whole. Frailty is a highly prevalent geriatric syndrome that has attracted significant attention from physicians an...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

mTOR in the Enhancement of Cancer Treatment Outcomes via Calorie Restriction
Calorie restriction, and related approaches such as protein restriction, tend to improve the outcomes for cancer patients, making cancers more vulnerable to therapies by reducing the normally rampant replication of cancer cells. Here, researchers explore the role of mTOR signaling in the mechanisms underlying this effect, finding the link between dietary intake of amino acids and mTOR activity in cell growth. Manipulating these mechanisms isn't enough on its own to deal with cancer, but there is a lot to be said for low cost improvements to the odds of success for patients undertaking any form of cancer therapy. R...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 25, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

First Generation Stem Cell and Exosome Therapies Promote Neurogenesis
First generation stem cell transplants have not as yet produced the reliably improved regeneration that was hoped for, but they do suppress chronic inflammation for some months. This effect is mediated by cell signaling on the part of the transplanted cells in the short time that they survive after transplantation. Much of that signaling is carried by exosomes and other classes of extracellular vesicle, and hence similar outcomes result from therapies based on delivery of exosomes harvested from cultured stem cells. One of the effects of the unresolved inflammatory signaling characteristic of aging is a suppression ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Further Discussion of the Poor Evidence For Metformin to Even Mildly Slow Aging`
The problem with metformin as a drug to slow aging is that the evidece to support that use is very poor. In animal studies, the results are very unreliable, and the Interventions Testing Program found no effect in its highly overengineered studies. Further, the existing human data is not supportive, taken as a whole. Even if we did want to cherry pick the better data and be hopeful, the effect size compares unfavorably with that achieved through regular exercise, and further appears to be only achieved in people with the abnormal metabolism associated with obesity and diabetes. All of the work that was done to convince the...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Gain or Loss of Specific Microbial Species May Be a Better Measure of Gut Microbiome Aging
This study explored whether determining the gain or loss of specific taxa represent a more precise metric of healthy/unhealthy aging than summary microbiome statistics, such as diversity and uniqueness. We analyzed microbiome diversity and four measures of microbiome uniqueness in 21,000 gut microbiomes for their relationship with aging and health. We show that diversity and uniqueness measures are not synonymous; uniqueness is not a uniformly desirable feature of the aging microbiome, nor is it an accurate biomarker of healthy aging. Different measures of uniqueness show different associations with diversity and with mark...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 24, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Prodrugs As a Useful Approach to Targeting Distinctive Aspects of Cancer Metabolism
The goal of cancer research should be to produce a robust, highly effective universal cancer therapy, or as close to universal as possible. One treatment that can be deployed for every type of cancer, with a very good chance of inducing remission. Attempting to tackle cancer subtypes one by one based on their genetic peculiarities is simply not efficient enough to produce meaningful progress in our lifetimes. Further, most cancers are subject to high mutation rates, and in a sizable fraction of patients will prove to be quite capable of evolving immunity to any therapy that targets a non-essential aspect of cancer biochemi...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 23, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs