Telomerase Activity and Telomere Length Show a Greater Increase After Endurance Training versus Resistance Training
These days a fair amount of scientific work is aimed at quantifying the benefits of various different approaches to exercise. The research here is an example of the type, and compares endurance training (aerobic activity) versus resistance training (to build strength). The authors looked at measures of telomerase activity and telomere length in white blood cells obtained from a few hundred volunteers who carried out different programs of training. Some groups showed greater gains than others. This should not be taken as robust evidence for effects on aging, as firstly this is more an assessment of immune system acti...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Pyrophosphate to be the Primary Inhibitor of Vascular Calcification
This open access commentary notes the evidence to suggest that therapies based on raised levels of pyrophosphate in blood vessel walls to reduce age-related calcification. The mineralization of blood vessel walls through deposition of calcium, calcification, is one of the mechanisms that contributes to vascular stiffness with age. It impairs the ability of blood vessels to contract and relax as they should. This is a serious issue, as it breaks the feedback mechanisms that control blood pressure, leading to hypertension, vascular disease, and heart failure as heart muscle grows and weakens. From my point of view, th...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Few Recent Conference Reports from the Aging Research Community
There are more than enough conferences focused on aging and the treatment of aging these days to collectively be called a conference circuit, I think. A researcher in the field of aging could find two or more scientific events every month to attend, and the business side of conference hosting is catching up. I had to give up noting every event of interest a number of years ago for the sake of space, and I know of at least one individual who provides a service to the community by maintaining what is becoming quite a lengthy calendar of conferences. That there are more conferences rather than fewer conferences is a si...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Effective Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Requires Targeting the Mechanisms of Aging
These days, an ever larger fraction of the research community is waking to the idea that the effective treatment of age-related disease requires approaches that target the mechanisms of aging. This is a good thing, as it begins to narrow the scope of advocacy within the research community to the task of steering scientists towards better rather than worse ways of going about targeting the mechanisms of aging. It remains the case that most of the better supported lines of work related to aging are, in effect, very challenging ways to produce only small benefits at the end of the day - most researchers are working on methods...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Challenges of Xenotransplantation
Xenotransplantation from genetically engineered pigs to humans is one of the potential approaches that is hoped to provide an arbitrarily large supply of replacement organs. Whether or not this becomes a sizable industry depends on how long it takes for competing researchers to complete the alternative route of generating patient-matched new organs from cell samples. While the production of small functional organoids from patient samples is a going concern, the construction of entire organs continues to be held back by the inability to reliably generate the intricate blood vessel networks that are needed to supply large ti...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, December 10th 2018
In conclusion, this is the first report to show that pyroptotic cell death occurs in the aging brain and that the inflammasome can be a viable target to decrease the oxidative stress that occurs as a result of aging. Reducing Levels of Protein Manufacture Slows Measures of Aging in Nematodes https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2018/12/reducing-levels-of-protein-manufacture-slows-measures-of-aging-in-nematodes/ Researchers here demonstrate that an antibiotic slows aging in nematode worms, providing evidence for it to work through a reduction in protein synthesis. Beyond a slowing of aging, one of the con...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Correlates with Self-Rated Health in Older Adults
In this study of 956 participants, we found that patients with higher mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood had better self-rated health independent of age. We also found that older patients had lower mtDNA copy numbers. Lastly, we found that men had lower mtDNA copy numbers than women. These findings are unique and differ from previous studies. These findings should continue to add to our understanding of the relationship of mtDNA copy number to self-rated health as well as the ongoing work on mtDNA and age and gender. There has been limited previous work in determining the relationship between self-rated health an...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Macrophage-Derived Factor from Young Mice Speeds Bone Regeneration in Older Mice
The innate immune cells called macrophages are known to be important coordinators of regeneration, in addition to their role in protecting tissues from invading pathogens. In recent years, researchers have investigated the altered behavior of macrophages with aging, and linked this to a range of age-related conditions. In older individuals, macrophages are more likely to be inflammatory and aggressive rather than acting to assist tissue regeneration, and the consequence is a much reduced capacity for tissue maintenance. If the methods by which macrophages act to induce greater regenerative activity on the part of ot...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Questioning the Validity of Jeanne Calment's Age
Jeanne Calment is well known as the longest-lived person, with her age at death validated at 122 years. The data for supercentenarians, the exceptionally rare individuals who live to be 110 years of age or older, is very ragged. This is usually the case at the far outside end of a distribution, where the total number of data points is very low. It is usual to find outliers, but some people feel that Jeanne Calment is too much of an outlier given the other validated ages of death for supercentenarians. Only one other person lived to be 119, and no-one else is known to have made it past 117. The yearly mortality rates for su...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

High Functioning Centenarians Have Longer Telomeres, More Telomerase Activity, and Better Measures of Immune Function
Today I'll point out an open access paper in which the authors divide centenarians into two groups based on the degree of age-related dysfunction. They find that centenarians with comparatively lower levels of dysfunction also have longer telomere length and more telomerase activity in white blood cells taken from a blood sample. Further, aspects of their immune response that are not directly related to telomeres and telomerase also appear more capable. In one sense this telomere length data is the expected result: telomere length is a measure of biological aging. When considered generally it is a measure of the bur...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

An Epigenetic Signature that Matches the Majority of Cancers
Real progress in the defeat of cancer will emerge from mechanisms that are common to near all cancers. Given a signature, or a required mechanism, that appears universally in cancer, then it should be possible to craft a single form of treatment that can be applied to any cancer type. That the enormous and massively funded cancer research community has struggled to make progress towards the control of cancer in the present environment of revolutionary progress in the tools of biotechnology largely results from spending too much time and too many resources on technologies that are only narrowly applicable to certain types o...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Reduces Frailty in the Elderly
An early stage clinical study has shown that mesenchymal stem cell transplants reduce measures of age-related frailty. The benefits occur most likely because chronic inflammation is a significant contribution to the state of frailty, and mesenchymal stem cell therapies are known to fairly reliably reduce inflammation for a period of at least some months. That may be long enough for tissues in an older patient to recover somewhat before they are again under siege. It is thought that this temporary abatement of inflammation is accomplished through signals delivered by the transplanted stem cells, changing the behavior of nat...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Longevity Science is Pretty Much Impenetrable for Journalists
Today I'll point out a recent media article that comments on RAADfest 2018, held in San Diego earlier this year. I attended this year, and wrote up my own thoughts on the event shortly thereafter. The advent of the first working, low cost, narrow focus rejuvenation therapies in the form of senolytic drugs capable of selectively destroying senescent cells is causing a sizable, but slow, shift of alignment and focus in both the scientific community and the historically fraud-ridden "anti-aging" marketplace. RAADfest is where these two communities meet, which makes it an interesting study if you have some insight in...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

The Debate over the Existence of Heart Stem Cells Continues
Does the adult heart contain a sizable population of dormant stem cells that can be roused to acts of regeneration in order to rebuild lost or damaged muscle? If this is the case, then regenerative treatments will be easier to construct, in the form of signaling to direct native stem cells. If not, then the road to such treatments is much less straightforward, requiring the delivery of cells capable of regeneration, as well as the instructions for those cells, or perhaps the conversion of scar tissue cells into heart muscle. The research community is presently engaged in a debate of evidence and hypothesis over whet...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cellular Senescence Contributes to Impaired Heart Regeneration
This paper is a preprint, meaning it hasn't gone through peer review yet, so apply the appropriate multiple to its chances of containing significant errors. The authors outline evidence for the age-related accumulation of senescent cells to impair heart regeneration. I'd have to say that this is an expected outcome of cellular senescence, given what is presently known of senescent cells, and in particular the ways in which their potent mix of inflammatory signaling disrupts normal tissue function. Of course the scientific community still has to provide satisfactory proof for that to be the case for the heart specifically, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Current State of Therapeutic Development Involving Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
A little more than a decade has passed since the development of a simple cell reprogramming approach that reliably created pluripotent stem cells from ordinary somatic cells, known as induced pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells are very similar, near identical in fact, to the embryonic stem cells that were previously the only reliable source of cells capable of forming any cell type in the body. Arguably the most important aspect of induced pluripotency is not the promise of the ability to generate patient-matched cells for regenerative therapies and tissue engineering of replacement organs, but rather that it is a lo...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Manipulating Energy Generation in Kidney Cells Can Enhance Regeneration
There are multiple distinct mechanisms by which cells can generate the energy needed for operations. Since everything is connected to everything else inside a cell, these various mechanisms are also tied in to the regulation of cell behavior, such as whether or not cells are actively assisting in tissue regeneration. Thus ways to change the balance of energy generation in cells might be a viable path towards enhanced regeneration for damaged organs. Researchers here provide evidence for this approach to be useful in the kidney, at least in mice. Researchers have discovered a pathway for enhancing the self-repair e...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

All Sorts of Existing Data on Aging is Now Being Connected to Senescent Cells
Throughout the research community, scientists involved in the study of aging, inflammation, and various age-related diseases are retrofitting the present appreciation for senescent cells into their past work. Over the past few years, the scientific community has suddenly awoken to the fact that the accumulation of senescent cells is a significant cause of aging and age-related pathology. This sea change of opinions could, in principle, have happened at pretty much any time in the last 30 years, had resources been better directed within the aging research community. But prior to a decade ago next to nobody in the establishm...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Immune System Aging and its Contribution to Cardiovascular Disease
Today's open access paper is a survey of the known ways in which the aged immune system contributes to disruption of function in the cardiovascular system. As the selected snippets illustrate, this is a relationship dominated by chronic inflammation. Raised and constant inflammation is characteristic of the systematic failure of the immune system in late life: it becomes both overactive and ineffective, and the consequent inflammation causes detrimental reactions in many important cell populations. In the short term inflammation is useful, a necessary part of the response to infection and injury. When it runs withou...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reducing Levels of Protein Manufacture Slows Measures of Aging in Nematodes
This study shows that minocycline prevents this build-up even in older animals with age-impaired stress-response pathways. The number of proteins in a cell is balanced by the rate of protein manufacture and disposal, called proteostasis. As we age, proteostasis becomes impaired. "It would be great if there were a way to enhance proteostasis and extend lifespan and health, by treating older people at the first sign of neurodegenerative symptoms or disease markers such as protein build-up. In this study, we investigated whether the antibiotic minocycline can reduce protein aggregation and extend lifespan in animals that...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Inflammasome in Aging
In conclusion, this is the first report to show that pyroptotic cell death occurs in the aging brain and that the inflammasome can be a viable target to decrease the oxidative stress that occurs as a result of aging. Link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12950-018-0198-3 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - December 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, December 3rd 2018
This article, however, is more of a commentary on high level strategy and the effects of regulation, coupled with a desire to forge ahead rather than hold back in the matter of treating aging, thus I concur with much more of what is said than is usually the case. For decades, one of the most debated questions in gerontology was whether aging is a disease or the norm. At present, excellent reasoning suggests aging should be defined as a disease - indeed, aging has been referred to as "normal disease." Aging is the sum of all age-related diseases and this sum is the best biomarker of aging. Aging and its d...
Source: Fight Aging! - December 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Why do Women Experience Worse Health than Men in Late Life?
It is well known that females of many species live longer than males. Some fundamental aspects of gender roles in mating and reproduction tend to lead to this outcome. It isn't peculiar to our species, so it can't have anything to do with technology or the sociology that comes with intelligence. Thus the dominant arguments really have to be evolutionary in nature. It is less well known that, in our species at least, women have worse health than men in later life, despite a greater life expectancy. This also probably arises at root from fundamental aspects of gender roles, but there is a great deal of room to argue for any ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

RNA Fragments and Ribosomal Failure as a Consequence of Oxidative Stress
Researchers here describe a novel form of cell damage that results from oxidative stress, one that has not yet been investigated in any meaningful way. Oxidative stress is the name given to raised levels of oxidative molecules (free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and others) and the damage that they cause inside cells, in the form of chemical reactions that disable protein machinery. That damage is constantly occurring and constantly repaired, even in young cells, but in old cells the damage outpaces the repair mechanisms. Oxidative damage was at one time thought to be a fairly straightforward cause of aging, but that ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Purpose of Longevity
Many people find there to be little distance between the questions "why live longer?" and "why live at all?" It makes it hard to have conversations about the great good that might be done through the development of rejuvenation therapies without tipping over the edge into nihilistic considerations of the meaning of life. Since life has only the meaning we grant it, these tend to be circular, pointless conversations. If you wish to live, then live. I would say that the purpose of longevity, insofar as it has one, is to make the continuation of a life worth living a choice for those who presently h...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

What Else can be Achieved with Better Control of Senescent Cells?
At the present time, the main focus of therapeutic development involving senescent cells is the safe, selective destruction of as many such cells as possible. The accumulation of senescent cells is an important cause of aging and age-related pathology, and removing even just a quarter or a half of them - and in only some organs and tissues - has been shown to significantly extend life and improve health in mice. The first human trials are underway and the results will be published over the next year or so. While senescent cells do a good job of accelerating our demise, it is undeniably the case that these cells also...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Dysfunctional Maintenance in an Alzheimer's Disease Model Unexpectedly Results in Lower Levels of Amyloid- β
Cell biology is complicated, to say the least, and so the unexpected keeps occurring. Cell maintenance is carried our by a number of processes such as the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) or the various forms of autophagy. Collectively these are responsible for clearing out broken structures and unwanted proteins within cells. There is plenty of evidence for the role of maintenance process of this nature in policing aggregates such as the amyloid-β associated with Alzheimer's disease. It is suspected that the faltering of autophagy that occurs with age is one the reasons why neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheime...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Dysfunctional Autophagy in an Alzheimer's Disease Model Unexpectedly Results in Lower Levels of Amyloid- β
Cell biology is complicated, to say the least, and so the unexpected keeps occurring. Autophagy is a collection of cell maintenance mechanisms responsible for clearing out broken structures and unwanted proteins within cells. There is plenty of evidence for its role in policing aggregates such as the amyloid-β associated with Alzheimer's disease. It is suspected that the faltering of autophagy that occurs with age is one the reasons why neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease are a feature of late life only. Here, researchers undertake a routine study of dysfunctional autophagy in Alzheimer's dise...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Further Evidence for Cancer Treatments to Accelerate Aging
People who have undergone chemotherapy or radiotherapy suffer a reduced life expectancy and increased risk of suffering other age-related conditions even when the cancer is defeated. These cancer therapies produce large numbers of senescent cells, both as a result of their toxicity and because they force cancerous cells into senescence. It is quite likely that this is the primary mechanism by which successful cancer treatments nonetheless shorten later lifespan. This could be considered a true form of accelerated aging, as the accumulation of senescent cells is one of the root causes of aging. These cells secrete signals t...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 29, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

News from the Methuselah Foundation: Support this Organization to See More Such Progress in the Future
The Methuselah Foundation is one of the most important non-profits in our longevity science community. It was the original home of the first SENS rejuvenation research programs, and has used our philanthropic support to fund a range of important projects and startups. If you look at many of the advances and initiatives of the past twenty years in our community, behind the scenes you'll find that Methuselah Foundation CEO Dave Gobel was in some way involved. All communities are the sum of their connections, and at the center of ours you will find the Methuselah Foundation and the SENS Research Foundation that it gave rise t...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Even Eliminating the Top Four Causes of Age-Related Death Gains Few Years of Life
Aging is a general process of deterioration, and any specific age-related disease, even one of the fatal conditions, is only a very narrow manifestation of that broad deterioration. It is a fantasy to think that any one specific age-related condition can be cured, entirely removed from the full spectrum of damage that is aging, in isolation, and without impact to the rest of aging. The only way to cure an age-related condition is to repair all of the forms of cell and tissue damage that cause it, and each type of damage has widespread effects beyond its contribution to any one named disease. Aging is treated all at once, o...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A DNA Methylation Signature is Shared Between Calorie Restriction, mTOR Inhibition, and Growth Hormone Inhibition
Calorie restriction, mTOR inhibition, and blockade of growth hormone interaction with its receptor all result in slowed aging and extension of healthy life span in mice. These interventions beneficially alter the operation of metabolism in humans, but do not enhance human life span to anywhere near the same degree; the current consensus suggests that an additional five years is probably the largest effect that could be expected to exist. The mechanisms involved overlap, and nutrient sensing plays an important role. Thus researchers looking for common epigenetic signatures shared by all of these interventions have found suc...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 28, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Today is Giving Tuesday: Help Us to Expand SENS Research Foundation Programs to Create New Rejuvenation Therapies
Today is Giving Tuesday, a day on which to ponder the change you wish to see in the world, and then help to make it a reality. For my part, I would prefer that no-one had to suffer and die because of the damage that accumulates in all of our bodies, through no fault of our own. Being born should not be accompanied by the guarantee of a slow, troubled, and painful decline and death, as it is today. We can do better than this limited human condition we find ourselves in. We can dig ourselves out of this pit. We can develop the means to repair the cell and tissue damage that causes aging, and build a world in which being old ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Arguing for Autophagy as the Primary Mechanism by which Exercise and Calorie Restriction Improve Health and Longevity
Autophagy is the name given to a collection of maintenance and recycling mechanisms responsible for removing damaged and unwanted proteins and structures from within cells. Many of the means of modestly slowing aging demonstrated in laboratory species feature increased levels of autophagy, in in some cases that increase in autophagy has been shown to be necessary for benefits to result. That autophagy is the most important means by which beneficial stresses such as exercise and calorie restriction improve health and longevity is by no means a novel argument. It has been made for decades, with increasing confidence. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Decline Correlates with Onset of Sarcopenia in Nematodes
Researchers here demonstrate an association between reduced mitochondrial function and onset of sarcopenia in nematode worms. Muscle tissue requires a lot of energy for function and maintenance, and that energy is supplied in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the roving herds of mitochondria found within muscle cells. Progressive failure of mitochondrial function is a feature of aging, and is thought to be a contributing cause of the loss of muscle mass and strength, known as sarcopenia, that is characteristic of late life physiology. Sarcopenia is not exclusive to humans, and has been observed in non-hu...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 27, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Senescent Cells Accelerate the Accumulation of More Senescent Cells
Aging is an accelerating process, in which new symptoms of degeneration appear ever faster as the decline progresses. This is characteristic of the aging of any complex system, in that damage to component parts - and the dysfunction that results - tends to produce further damage and dysfunction. To pick one example of many in human biochemistry, cross-linking in the extracellular matrix causes stiffening of blood vessels, which in turn causes hypertension, which in turn causes pressure damage to delicate tissues. Or accumulation of amyloid-β in the brain leads to accumulation of tau that in turn causes cell death and ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Cellular Senescence to Contribute to Retinal Degeneration
Forms of retinal degeneration are commonplace in later life, leading to progressive and presently irreversible blindness - though there are promising human trial results emerging from the tissue engineering community of late. The accumulation of senescent cells is a feature of aging found in all tissues. These errant cells should self-destruct or be destroyed by the immune system, but enough survive to linger and cause problems. They secrete an inflammatory mix of signals that disrupts normal tissue structure and function, and their presence is one of the root causes of aging. Thus it is not surprising to find evidence for...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Don't Wait for Aging to be Classified as a Disease
This article, however, is more of a commentary on high level strategy and the effects of regulation, coupled with a desire to forge ahead rather than hold back in the matter of treating aging, thus I concur with much more of what is said than is usually the case. For decades, one of the most debated questions in gerontology was whether aging is a disease or the norm. At present, excellent reasoning suggests aging should be defined as a disease - indeed, aging has been referred to as "normal disease." Aging is the sum of all age-related diseases and this sum is the best biomarker of aging. Aging and its d...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 26, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, November 26th 2018
This study is the culmination of a decade of research that has repeatedly demonstrated that this vaccine can effectively and safely target in animal models what we think may cause Alzheimer's disease. I believe we're getting close to testing this therapy in people." Although earlier research established that antibodies significantly reduce amyloid buildup in the brain, researchers needed to find a safe way to introduce them into the body. A vaccine developed elsewhere showed promise in the early 2000s, but when tested in humans, it caused brain swelling in some patients. The new idea was to start with DNA codin...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 25, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

On Giving Tuesday, Help to Build a Future in which Aging is Controlled and Age-Related Diseases No Longer Exist
Giving Tuesday is just a few days away, the better sibling of earlier days of mandated commerce. Whatever your thoughts on top-down collectivism, there are worse things in the world than a successful movement to prompt people into thinking about the causes they support in principle, and encourage them to make that support material. Philanthropy is a very necessary part of our society, and particularly in the case of technological progress. Established sources of funding for medial research and development, even those we might think of as having an appetite for risk, such as venture capital funds, are in fact very conservat...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 23, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Atrophy of the Thymus Accelerates the Progression of Atherosclerosis
The thymus is where T cells mature, the training ground for the footsoldiers of the adaptive immune system. As the thymus declines in size and function with age, the supply of new T cells falls. This constrains and distorts the existing population of T cells, resulting eventually in chronic inflammation and immunosenescence, the failure the immune response and resulting vulnerability to pathogens and cancer. Atherosclerosis, meanwhile, is a condition of the innate immune system, in that it is caused by macrophages - a type of innate immune cell with origins that have nothing to do with the thymus - flocking to try and fail...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 23, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Bioengineered Intervertebral Discs are Implanted Successfully in Goats
Significant progress has been made in the tissue engineering of intervertebral discs in recent years. Researchers here report on an initial study in larger animals, demonstrating that the implanted intervertebral discs exhibit the correct behavior and otherwise hold up well for at least a few months. Degeneration of intervertebral discs is universal to at least some degree in older people, with a sizable portion of the population suffering pain and loss of function, and the consequences of disc injury at any stage of life can also be lasting and severe. Thus approaches that can meaningfully address this issue are most welc...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 23, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Delivering Klotho to Old Mice Partially Reverses Loss of Muscle Regenerative Capacity
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that age-related declines in α-Klotho drive dysfunctional muscle progenitor cell (MPC) mitochondrial bioenergetics, ultimately resulting in an impaired tissue regeneration. Our findings demonstrate that young skeletal muscle displays a robust increase in local α-Klotho expression following an acute muscle injury with transient demethylation of the Klotho promoter. However, aged muscle displays no change in Klotho promoter methylation and no increase in α-Klotho expression following injury. Levels of α-Klotho in MPCs derived from aged mice are decreased ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 22, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A DNA Vaccine Reduces Both Amyloid- β and Tau Aggregates in Mice
This study is the culmination of a decade of research that has repeatedly demonstrated that this vaccine can effectively and safely target in animal models what we think may cause Alzheimer's disease. I believe we're getting close to testing this therapy in people." Although earlier research established that antibodies significantly reduce amyloid buildup in the brain, researchers needed to find a safe way to introduce them into the body. A vaccine developed elsewhere showed promise in the early 2000s, but when tested in humans, it caused brain swelling in some patients. The new idea was to start with DNA codin...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 22, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

MRI Scans Predict Development of Dementia a Few Years in Advance
Researchers here demonstrate that MRI scans of white matter in the brain can be used to visualize a form of dysfunction that is strongly associated with the near term development of dementia in patients already showing some degree of cognitive decline. Given that low cost approaches to predicting the declines of neurodegeneration earlier rather than later are still thin on the ground, possibilities such as this one are valuable indeed. The earlier the determination that dementia is ahead, the more opportunities there are to enact preventative strategies. Neurologists can get a ballpark estimate of a patient's risk...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 22, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Dysfunction Causes Telomere Attrition
I have long argued that reduction in average telomere length with age is a downstream measure of aging, not an upstream cause of aging. Telomeres are the caps of repeated DNA sequences found at the end of chromosomes. A little is lost with each cell division, and when telomeres get too short then the cell become senescent and is destroyed. This mechanism limits the number of times a cell can replicate. The vast majority of our cells are somatic cells that are limited in this way. A tiny number of stem cells can maintain lengthy telomeres via use of the telomerase enzyme and thus divide indefinitely. This is how near all mu...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Alzheimer's Subtypes Differentiated by How and Why Amyloid- β Accumulates
The authors of this open access commentary paint a picture of Alzheimer's disease as a condition that starts in a variety of different ways, all of which lead to amyloid-β accumulation, and this is then the common gateway to pathology and dementia. Once an individual begins to accumulate raised levels of amyloid-β, then the characteristic degeneration of Alzheimer's proceeds from there. This is a slow burn over years or decades in which the biochemistry of the brain becomes ever more aberrant, culminating in the development of tau aggregates, inflammation, dementia, and cell death. The question has always ...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Another Study Demonstrating that Older People Fail to Exercise Sufficiently
Numerous studies demonstrate that increased exercise in the elderly reduces mortality risk and improves many measures of health. The glass half empty view of these results is that most people in wealthy, technological societies are not exercising sufficiently, and thus sabotaging their health. This conclusion is supported by the reduced presence of many of the characteristic aspects of age-related decline observed in hunter-gatherer populations, despite comparatively poor access to medical support throughout life. Exercise too little, and the result is that the decline into frailty is faster and greater than it might be. N...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 21, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Additional Evidence for Lymph Node Degeneration to be an Important Obstacle for Attempts at Thymus Rejuvenation
The thymus atrophies with age, and since its primary function is to support the maturation of T cells, this means that the supply of new T cells, fresh and ready for action, also declines with age. This contributes greatly to immunosenescence, the progressive age-related failure of the immune system to respond to pathogens and destroy damaged or malfunctioning cells. Numerous research groups are attempting to restore the thymus to youthful size and activity, and thus also restore the supply of T cells, and reverse loss of immune function. A wide variety of approaches are under development, from gene therapies and small mol...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 20, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reviewing Recent Progress in Investigations of Calorie Restriction and Fasting
A great deal of present day research is in one way or another focused on forms of lowered calorie intake. There are those who seek to fully map the mechanisms by which calorie restriction and intermittent fasting improve health and extend life significantly in short lived species. There are those who are trying to sufficiently quantify the benefits to be able to produce robust calorie-specific medical diets. There are those who are trying to find pharmaceuticals that partially replicate the changes induced by nutrient sensing regulators of metabolism, and thus improve health without eating less. Any investigation of...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 20, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs