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Assembling Cells and Scaffolds into a Suitable Trachea Replacement
Researchers here report on their efforts to build a suitable structure to replace a trachea, starting with patient cells and artificial scaffolds. Since the trachea is a thin-walled pipe, engineered tissue can be constructed in this way without the need for complex blood vessel networks, as at no point is the tissue so thick as to prevent direct perfusion of nutrients and oxygen to the inner cells. Unfortunately, it remains the case that decellularized donor tissue is the only reliable solution for the production of capillaries to support thicker tissues, scores of such vessels passing through every square millimeter. This...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 20, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Astrocytes Become Inflammatory in the Aging Brain
Astrocytes are one of the common types of support cell in the brain, performing a wide variety of tasks that range from repair to maintaining the balance of various signal and electrolyte molecules. Researchers find evidence to suggest that astrocytes shift into an inflammatory mode in large numbers with advancing age. Chronic inflammation is a feature of most neurodegenerative conditions, and of aging in the broader sense. It disrupts the complex relationships between cell types that are needed for most sophisticated behavior in tissues, such as regeneration, or any number of cell communication processes required for corr...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 20, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Recent Genetic Studies Claiming a Slowing of Aging may be Largely Incorrect
It is fair to ignore most studies showing extension of life span in laboratory species conducted much prior to the turn of the century. A majority failed to control for calorie restriction, and thus the (usually small) effects evaporate when more rigorously tested. The way this works is that an intervention makes mice nauseous or otherwise uncomfortable, they eat less as a consequence, and thus live longer solely due to lowered calorie intake. This is on top of the usual estimate that most of all published research results are flawed in some way. That includes animal studies that use too few animals, and thus tend to be pr...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

How Does Age Affect Induced Pluripotency for Regenerative Medicine?
One of the more intriguing discoveries relating to the cell reprogramming used to produce induced pluripotent stem cells is that this process appears to reverse some aspects of cell aging. It perhaps triggers some fraction of the mechanisms at work in early embryonic development, those that ensure that children are born young, with nowhere near the load of persistent damage present in the adult parents. This is not a well-explored topic, unfortunately - it is still too recent for much to be said in certainty, and a sizable fraction of the evidence is conflicting. Related to all of this is the question of how exactly the ag...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Towards Lasting Therapeutic Manufactories that Operate Inside the Body
Gene therapies involve delivering instructions into cells to ensure that specific proteins are manufactured, either temporarily or permanently. This is effectively a hijacking or programming of cellular mechanisms. There is another approach, which is to deliver suitable DNA machinery into the body, capable of manufacturing the desired proteins outside cells. This isn't helpful for all types of protein, but in many cases it is. That machinery needs protection, however: naked, it would be quickly removed by the immune system or otherwise broken down. One possibility is to employ engineered bacteria, which removes the need to...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 19, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 19th 2018
Fight Aging! provides a weekly digest of news and commentary for thousands of subscribers interested in the latest longevity science: progress towards the medical control of aging in order to prevent age-related frailty, suffering, and disease, as well as improvements in the present understanding of what works and what doesn't work when it comes to extending healthy life. Expect to see summaries of recent advances in medical research, news from the scientific community, advocacy and fundraising initiatives to help speed work on the repair and reversal of aging, links to online resources, and much more. This content is...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 18, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

HDAC3 Knockout Mice Exhibit Greatly Reduced Loss of Memory Function with Age
Work on the decline of memory formation with aging was presented at a recent conference and is doing the rounds in the press. The core of it was published and presented last year, so the overall topic isn't particularly new, but I didn't notice it at the time. The scientific group in question is interested in the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in memory. This is a long-running thread of research. Looking back in the Fight Aging! archives, inhibition of HDACs in the context of improved neural function was mentioned in 2012, and a trail of publications exists prior and since. The processes of acetylation and dea...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 17, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Further Investigation of the Role of Osteopontin in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Aging
The Hematopoietic stem cell population resident in bone marrow is responsible for generating blood cells and immune cells. Like all stem cell populations, their activity alters and declines with aging. This is one of the causes of the progressive disarray of the immune system in older individuals. If we want to rejuvenate the immune system, then restoring the youthful activity of hematopoietic stem cells is one of the items on the to-do list, alongside regrowth of the thymus, and clearing out the accumulation of exhausted, senescent, and misconfigured immune cells. The protein osteopontin appears to have a sizable r...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Bacteria Engineered to Deliver CXCL12 Accelerate Wound Healing in Mice
This study aimed to accelerate wound healing by targeting the function of immune cells through local bioengineering of the wound microenvironment. To achieve this, a technology optimized to deliver chemokines directly to wounded skin was developed, whereby lactic acid bacteria were used as vectors. Lactobacillus reuteri bacteria were transformed with a plasmid encoding the chemokine CXCL12 previously associated with beneficial effects in models of healing and blood-flow restoration. Bacteria-produced lactic acid reduced the pH in the wound and thereby potentiated the effects of the produced CXCL12 by prolonging its bioavai...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Development of Exosome Delivery as a Regenerative Therapy Continues Apace
If many stem cell therapies produce their benefits largely through the signaling generated by the transplanted cells, in a brief window of time before these cells die, unable to integrate into the local tissue, then why not skip the cells entirely and just deliver the signals? This is made an easier prospect by the fact that a great deal of cell to cell signaling takes the form of extracellular vesicles such as exosomes, tiny membrane-bound packages of various molecules. Thus researchers don't need to completely map and understand the entire set of signals used in order to recreate most of the signaling effects of stem cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 16, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Macrophages Make a Significant Contribution to Heart Failure
Researchers here implicate the immune cells known as macrophages in the progression of a particularly problematic form of heart failure. Macrophages are very important to the processes of tissue maintenance and regeneration, but they have several different characteristic states, or polarizations: one is inflammatory and aggressive, hindering regeneration, while the other is actively beneficial for regeneration. Researchers are finding that adjusting the proportion of these two states can be beneficial. The situation in heart failure - and a number of other age-related conditions - may well be made worse due to the balance ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

BACE1 Deletion Eliminates Amyloid Deposits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
BACE1 is one of the proteins involved in early stages of the production of amyloid-β, a form of metabolic waste that aggregates into solid deposits in the aging brain, and is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Inhibition of BACE1 so as to reduce levels of amyloid-β is a strategy pursued by a number of research groups, though it has to be said that disenchantment with the years of failure in the dominant strategy of clearing amyloid-β appears to be reaching a tipping point these days. While it is clear that amyloid-β is harmful, it may not be the most effective point of intervention. Or perhaps earli...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Greater Activity Slows the Progression of Age-Related Neurodegeneration
Here I'll point out two papers, one looking at exercise and the aging of grey matter in the brain, the other looking at exercise and the aging of white matter in the brain. It is well known that cardiovascular health is linked to cognitive health. An entire category of neurodegenerative disease is related to the age-related failure of the cardiovascular system to remain intact and supply adequate nutrients to the brain. A sizable portion of cognitive decline is linked to incidences of rupture of tiny blood vessels in the brain, each killing a comparatively small number of cells, but over the years that damage adds up. Furt...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 15, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Liver Organoids Come Ever Closer to Natural Liver Tissue
Tissue engineers continue to improve the quality of their creations. The liver is one of the easier organs to work with, given the much greater regenerative capacity of liver cells. It is, nonetheless, an organ with a complex small-scale internal structure, and getting that right is a process of incremental advances. The tissues created via present state of the art approaches are usually still small, lacking the capillary networks needed to support tissue larger than a few millimeters in depth. The only way to provide those networks is to use decellularized donor organs, the cells destroyed, and the organ thus reduced to t...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

DNA Machinery that can Sabotage the Blood Supply of Tumors
Researchers have been building simple molecular machines out of DNA for some years now. This approach to molecular machinery is well suited to applications that involve conditional activation based on the proteins present in the surrounding environment; a lot of the necessary functional parts already exist in DNA and just have to be assembled in the right way. The Oisin Biotechnologies cell-killing technology is a smaller example of the type than the approach here, in which sizable DNA containers are constructed. They carry a cargo that will disrupt local blood flow, and are triggered into opening by cancerous cell surface...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Weaponizing the Biochemistry of Huntington's Disease as a General Cancer Therapy
An interesting observation that has arisen over the years of epidemiological study of human age-related disease is that there are a number of distinct inverse relationships between incidence of cancer and incidence of some forms of neurodegeneration. This was in the news a few years ago in the case of Alzheimer's disease for example. Why would people with a higher risk of cancer suffer lower rates of Alzheimer's disease, however? We can only speculate at this point, but the more recent discovery I'll point out here adds fuel for that speculation. The Alzheimer's-cancer relationship is modest in size and somewhat complex in...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 14, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Tau Accumulation and Failing Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance to be the Starting Point for Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease might be considered as the consequence of the related, interacting buildup of two primary forms of metabolic waste in the brain, tau and amyloid-β. Either, independently, can cause neurodegeneration, but they have a complicated relationship with one another in which the presence of both makes the pathology worse. Which comes first? There is evidence to suggest that amyloid aggregation leads to tau aggregation, and there is also evidence for things to be the other way around, such as that presented in the research materials here. Both of these options could be the case, in that either tau or...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Inhibition of Wnt Signaling as a Treatment for Osteoarthritis
Researchers here find that inhibition of Wnt signaling can improve the state of cartilage and joint function in a mouse model of osteoathritis. Wnt and its closely related proteins are a complex topic, but the short version is that they are involved in the regulation of growth, regeneration, and embryonic development. They are also significant in cancer, as well as in other, less dramatic ways in which regeneration can run wild or fail, producing fibrosis and functional problems rather than a useful restoration of tissue. Numerous research groups are investigating ways in which Wnt signaling can be adjusted to produce bene...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Can Two Dozen Marginal Ways to Treat Aging be Combined into One Useful Therapy?
Comparatively little work on combinations of therapies takes place in the research community. I suspect this to be a matter of regulatory incentives. For example there is little room for commercial entities to be able to make money by combining established treatments owned by other entities. Similarly for researchers, the world of possible approaches is balkanized by intellectual property, while the disposition of the majority of research funding is ultimately guided by the promise of a pot of gold at the end of the road. That pot of gold is much harder to obtain when someone else owns the therapies involved, and all that ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 13, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

Jagged-1 as a More Selective Signal to Spur Bone Regrowth
Researchers here report on a more selective way to trigger the accelerated or enhanced regeneration of bone tissue, delivering jagged-1 to injuries rather than the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that have been used in the past. It appears to cause fewer issues related to inappropriate excess bone growth, as it influences mechanisms that are more closely associated with the process of regeneration in response to damage. The delivery of signals rather than cells or pharmaceuticals to produce regeneration will be a growing theme in the years ahead, and the approaches will only grow in sophistication and degree of control....
Source: Fight Aging! - February 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

There are Many Possible Paths to Immunotherapy for Senescent Cell Destruction
Rising numbers of senescent cells are one of the root causes of aging, a process that arises from the normal operation of youthful metabolism, yet results in accumulated damage and failure over time. Senescent cells generate signaling that degrades tissue function, breaks down and remodels tissue structure, spurs chronic inflammation, and alters the behavior of surrounding cells for the worse. Evidence shows their presence to be a contributing cause of a range of common fatal age-related conditions. In a youthful body, near all cells that become senescent and fail to self-destruct as a result are promptly eliminated by the...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 12, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 12th 2018
In conclusion, most experimental data on immune changes with aging show a decline in many immune parameters when compared to young healthy subjects. The bulk of these changes is termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence has been considered for some time as detrimental because it often leads to subclinical accumulation of pro-inflammatory factors and inflammaging. Together, immunosenescence and inflammaging are suggested to stand at the origin of most of the diseases of the elderly, such as infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, an increasing number of gerontologists have chall...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 11, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

A Few Recent Advances in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
The tissue engineering and regenerative medicine communities are too large and energetic to do more than sample their output, or note the most interesting advances that stand out from the pack. The publicity materials I'll point out here are a recent selection of items that caught my eye as they went past. Dozens more, each of which would have merited worldwide attention ten or fifteen years ago, drift by with little comment every year. The state of the art is progressing rapidly towards both the ability to build complex tissues from a cell sample, such as patient-matched organs for transplantation, and the ability to cont...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 10, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrially Targeted Antioxidant SS-31 Improves Cognitive Function in Old Mice
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacological attenuation of mtROS can restore cerebromicrovascular endothelial function and thus improve neurovascular coupling in aged mice. To achieve this goal, in aged mice mitochondrial oxidative stress was manipulated by treatment with the mitochondrial-targeted peptide SS-31. We found that neurovascular coupling responses were significantly impaired in aged mice. Treatment with SS-31 significantly improved neurovascular coupling responses by increasing cerebromicrovascular dilation, which was associated with significantly improved spatial working memory, motor s...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

MDM2 Antagonists Attenuate Harmful Signaling from Senescent Cells
A fair number of the scientists working towards therapies to address cellular senescence, one of the causes of aging, are more interested in suppressing signaling from these cells than in destroying them. Cynically, a treatment one has to keep using consistently is much more interesting to pharmaceutical companies than a treatment that only has to be applied once every few years at most. Until researchers encounter a population of senescent cells that cannot be safely removed, destruction continues to look like the far better option. Senescent cells are harmful because of the mix of signals they generate, a mix that is sti...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 9, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

How Old is a Transplanted Organ?
Heterochronic parabiosis involves joining the circulatory system of two animals, one old, one young, in order to observe the results. At a high level, the older individual exhibits reversal of some aspects of aging, and the young individual exhibits acceleration of some aspects of aging. The details are complex, and still debated in many cases, however. Researchers see this phenomenon as one of the more effective paths forward to identifying the important age-related changes in the environment of signals generated by cells that find their way into the bloodstream. A more effective approach would be to repair the underlying...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The Longest-Lived Bats Have Unusual Telomere Biology
Researchers here find that the longest lived bats have unusual telomere biochemistry, and in fact unusual enough that the new knowledge may turn out to be of little relevance to the understanding of telomeres, telomerase, and aging in other mammals. It appears that they rely upon alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to maintain telomere length, a process that doesn't operate in any normal adult human cell. Given that loss of telomere length appears to be a marker of aging rather than a cause, and a fairly loosely coupled marker at that, the real relevance of this area of biochemistry probably lies in the relationship...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Naked Mole-Rats Experience Cellular Senescence, but Seem Largely Unaffected by It
Naked mole-rats are distinguished by an exceptionally long life span in comparison to similarly sized rodents, and a near immunity to cancer. Unlike other mammals, their mortality rates stay fairly constant until very late life. They accumulate all the signs of significant oxidative damage in cells and tissues, but seem resilient to it. Similarly, researchers here note that naked mole-rats do in fact accumulate senescent cells, one of the root causes of aging, but appear resilient to the harmful presence and activities of these cells. Exactly why this is the case has yet to be determined. Cells become senescent in r...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 8, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Models Suggest that Declining T Cell Production is the Primary Reason for Age-Related Increases in Cancer Risk
In the open access paper noted here, researchers use modeling to suggest that age-related decline of the thymus, and thus of the immune system, is more important than mutation as a determinant of cancer risk. Cancer is at root caused by mutational damage to DNA. While DNA repair and replication mechanisms are highly efficient, mutations nonetheless occur - and must occur at some rate in order for evolution to take place. It is a numbers game, in that the more time, the more cells, and the more cell activity, the greater the odds that a cancerous mutation will occur. Mutation rates are also affected by external factors such...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Ventricular Decline Correlates Well with Other Forms of Damage in the Aging Brain
Here, researchers examine the correlation between ventricular dsyfunction, other noted forms of damage observed in brain aging, and the onset of cognitive decline. The ventricular system is where cerebrospinal fluid is created and circulates throughout the brain. Many things go wrong in the aging brain, all stemming from the same few root cause processes of damage accumulation in and around cells. Thus correlations between specific observed changes and the progression of dementia should be expected, but don't necessarily imply direct causation - though a particularly good correlation always indicates that further investiga...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing What is Known of Extracellular Vesicles and Cellular Senescence
The research community has been devoting more time and energy to the investigation of extracellular vesicles of late. These membrane-bound packages of proteins and other molecules are an important facet of the way in which cells communicate with one another. Signaling between cells is itself very significant, a potential point of intervention for many classes of therapy. For example, most current stem cell therapies appear to work largely due to the signaling provided by transplanted cells - given sufficient understanding of the signaling, the cells could be dispensed with and the signals applied directly. As anothe...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 7, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Decline in the Supporting Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Precedes Dementia
The brain is locked away from the biochemistry of the rest of the body behind the blood-brain barrier, the sheath of specialized cells surrounding blood vessels in the brain that prevents most unwanted molecular traffic to and from neural tissues. The brain is biochemically quite different from the rest of the body, and many of the commonplace molecules found elsewhere can be harmful to brain tissue or degrade neural function. Pericytes are one of the supporting cell types involved in the structure of the blood-brain barrier, and in the research noted here, pericyte dysfunction is linked to other known aspects of biochemic...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A More Subtle Demonstration that Telomere Length is Not a Good Measure of Aging
Researchers here find a disconnect between DNA methylation patterns shown to correlate well with age and processes associated with longer telomere length. Telomeres are caps of repeated DNA at the ends of chromosomes that shorten with each cell division, a part of the mechanism limiting the life span of somatic cells. Their average length tends to shorten with age when considered across large populations in a statistical analysis, but this is a tenuous relationship that has also failed to appear in some smaller studies. Here, it seems that older ages as assessed by DNA methylation can correlate with differences in telomera...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Immunosenescence and Inflammaging, Two Sides of the Same Coin
In conclusion, most experimental data on immune changes with aging show a decline in many immune parameters when compared to young healthy subjects. The bulk of these changes is termed immunosenescence. Immunosenescence has been considered for some time as detrimental because it often leads to subclinical accumulation of pro-inflammatory factors and inflammaging. Together, immunosenescence and inflammaging are suggested to stand at the origin of most of the diseases of the elderly, such as infections, cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, an increasing number of gerontologists have chall...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

To Cure Aging as Though it Were a Disease
Aging and cancer are conceptually similar in many ways, and by this I mean that they are both collections of processes that are fundamental to the way in which the biology of complex organisms works. They are not states that can be cured or eliminated through medicine as we presently understand it, but the aspiration is instead to bring these undesirable outcomes under control - to continually cut back the offshoots, to suppress the causes, and nip in the bud the results of those causes in their earliest stages. To actually cure either aging or cancer, to remove it from the human condition, would require a radical reworkin...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 6, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Why is Life Span Inherited to any Significant Degree?
In this study, we argue that resilience is acquired early and maintained throughout life. Resilience should therefore influence the ability to survive up to a high age and be linked to longevity, as a number of studies indeed suggest. "Inheritance of longevity" has been discussed at length in the literature. Its precise nature is somewhat elusive. Studying the entire Icelandic population, researchers concluded that longevity was inherited within families, probably because of shared genes. Other groups, looking at twin data, concluded that genetic influences on the lifespan were minimal before age 60 and on...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A New Blood Test Approach can Assess Levels of Amyloid- β in the Brain
This study has major implications. It is the first time a group has shown a strong association of blood plasma amyloid with brain and cerebrospinal fluid." Current methods to identify amyloid-β buildup in living people are limited to costly and sometimes highly invasive procedures, such as brain imaging with a PET scanner and spinal cord fluid extraction. So researchers set out to test whether the same information could be obtained from a blood sample. Using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, the team isolated and characterized amyloid proteins in the blood from a cohort of 121 people in Japan span...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 5, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, February 5th 2018
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Gbp1 plays a role in regulating immunometabolism and senescence of macrophages. We found that Gbp1 was mainly expressed in macrophages, but not adipocytes in response to IFNγ/LPS stimulation; Gbp1 expression was significantly decreased in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and aged mice. We also observed that downregulation of Gbp1 in macrophages resulted in M1 polarization and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory function possibly via disrupting mitophagy activity. Moreover, macrophages with downregulated Gbp1 displayed dampened glycolysis ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 4, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

The Sizable First Volume of the 2017 Longevity Industry Landscape Overview
Over on the other side of our still quite modestly sized longevity science community you will find the network that includes Deep Knowledge Ventures, the Biogerontology Research Foundation, and the Aging Analytics Agency, source of the report I'll point out today. "Other side" is a relative term; it isn't far, and you'll recognize many of the names as also being involved in the US research and advocacy ventures more often mentioned here. Portions of our community have long pursued an interest in mapping the initiatives, people, and funding involved in aging research; see the International Aging Research Portfolio...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 3, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

An Impressive Performance in Clearing Cancer from Mice via Immunotherapy
Immunotherapy is a cut above chemotherapy and radiotherapy: at its best, it is significantly more effective and significantly less harmful to the patient. It has still required years, a great deal of funding, and many failures for those best approaches to arise. Nonetheless, the report here is a cheering example for the sizable fraction of us expected to suffer cancer at some point in the years ahead if the condition is not soon brought under medical control. This immunotherapy appears highly effective, and just importantly, adaptable to many types of cancer. This potential for broad application is the most important aspec...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Where Next for Cellular Reprogramming and Regenerative Medicine?
Over the past decade researchers have gained ever more expertise in reprogramming cells from one type to another. The most useful form of reprogramming devised so far is the change from normal differentiated somatic cell, fixed in its role, to pluripotent stem cell, capable of generating any type of cell given the right instructions. Surprising recent developments in this line of research include (a) evidence that performing this transformation in a living animal is beneficial rather than cancerous, producing effects similar to those resulting from a stem cell transplant, and (b) that reprogramming cells to pluripotency er...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 2, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Aubrey de Grey on Progress and Timescales in Rejuvenation Research
Aubrey de Grey of the SENS Research Foundation maintains an active schedule of presentations, and the interview here is one of a series of recent discussions in which he talks about timelines, funding, and progress in recent years. We're in the midst of a tipping point of sorts, as the SENS view of rejuvenation research gathers more attention and legitimacy in the eyes of the public and various sources of funding. Senolytic therapies to clear senescent cells are well into the first stages of clinical development, with new compelling data for cellular senescence to contribute to specific age-related diseases arriving every ...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Towards Therapies Based on Klotho
Klotho is one of the few definitively longevity-associated genes. The protein it produces is associated with a range of important processes, though its roles are far from fully understood. Evidence exists for increased klotho to improve stem cell function, enhance cognitive function and increase synaptic plasticity in older animals, though whether or not this extends to humans is a question yet to be resolved. We might take the studies showing correlations between klotho and cognition in aged human patients as a positive sign, however. As this article notes, research groups are presently working on therapies based on deliv...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Rapamycin Does Not Interact Favorably with Growth Hormone Receptor Knockout
The scientific community is, on the whole, very focused on exploring the effects and understanding the mechanisms of single interventions. Studies that investigate potential synergies between two or more interventions are comparatively rare. This need not be the case; it seems to be a cultural thing, a product of many various influences on funding, planning, and development. There are numerous well-established methods of slowing aging in mice, and it would be interesting to learn how they interact, whether they stack or not, even though these are largely not useful roads to greatly enhanced human longevity. Accordingly, he...
Source: Fight Aging! - February 1, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Two Recent Review Papers on the Aging of Blood Vessels
Today I'll point out a couple of recently published open access papers that discuss aspects of arterial aging. The age-related decline of blood vessel structure and function is one of the more important aspects of aging, given that it is at present a largely one-way road to cardiovascular disease and death. Despite the efforts of the research community over past decades, which have included the noteworthy success story of statins, and an ongoing reduction in cardiovascular mortality rates, this remains the principal cause of age-related death in humans. To a first approximation, old humans die when the heart or blood vesse...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Yes, Of Course it is the Case that Life Expectancy at Birth Grew More Slowly in the Second Half of the 20th Century
To my eyes, the researchers here hold a few somewhat strange views of historical life expectancy data and its meaning, mixed in with the sensible thoughts, not least of which is their expectation of a ceiling or maximum to life span to exist. A great transition in trends for life expectancy at birth took place somewhere in the midst of the 20th century. In the early decades of the century, medical science made enormous inroads in the control of infectious disease, and then through to the middle of the century implementations of those advances fell in cost and spread out to less wealthy regions of the world. Infectious dise...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Thoughts on Mechanisms Linking Body Temperature and Aging
A fair number of papers have been published on various aspects of the link between body temperature and pace of aging. Calorie restriction in mammals both slows aging and lowers body temperature, for example. Mice with lower body temperatures due to altered temperature regulation mechanisms in the hypothalamus live a little longer. Body temperature tends to fall with advancing age in mammals, and some unusually long-lived mammals stand out for having particularly low body temperatures. When it comes to looking at the mechanisms involved in these relationships, the cellular biochemistry is very complex, and most of the rele...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 31, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Telomerase Gene Therapy Used to Cure Fibrosis in a Mouse Model
Maria Blasco's research group has been working on telomerase gene therapy to lengthen telomeres for some years now; they are quite enthusiastic about this approach as a means to treat aging. One can't argue with the data showing extension of mouse life span, nor the results announced today in which induced telomerase activity is shown to reverse fibrosis. We can argue about what is going on under the hood, and whether or not addressing telomere length is in fact tackling the root causes of aging. Perhaps the most important difference between the views of aging outlined in the SENS rejuvenation research proposals and the la...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Gbp1 Levels Fall with Age, Making Macrophages Less Helpful and More Harmful
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Gbp1 plays a role in regulating immunometabolism and senescence of macrophages. We found that Gbp1 was mainly expressed in macrophages, but not adipocytes in response to IFNγ/LPS stimulation; Gbp1 expression was significantly decreased in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed and aged mice. We also observed that downregulation of Gbp1 in macrophages resulted in M1 polarization and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory function possibly via disrupting mitophagy activity. Moreover, macrophages with downregulated Gbp1 displayed dampened glycolysis ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Increased Sirt4 Modestly Increases Fly Lifespan
Researchers here show that increased levels of a mitochondrial sirtuin, sirt4, can modestly extend life in flies. Unfortunately, this sort of manipulation of metabolism - connected to nutrient sensing, mitochondrial activity, and calorie restriction - scales poorly as the life span of species increases. Short-lived species are comparatively sensitive to periodic lack of resources, and exhibit a sizable extension of life span in response to a lack of nutrients. This improves their prospects for current survival and then later reproduction when nutrients are once more available. Longer-lived species - such as our own - have ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 30, 2018 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs