Macrophages as Both Friends and Foes in Age-Related Diseases
Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system, found throughout the body, and which play a great many roles beyond the obvious ones of defending against invading pathogens. They destroy cancerous and senescent cells, ingest molecular waste and debris between cells, and participate in the processes of tissue regeneration and maintenance, to pick a few examples. Further, the immune system of the brain includes an analogous population of cells known as microglia, which additionally take on supporting roles essential to the proper functioning of neurons and their synaptic connections. Chronic inflammation is importa...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 27, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Arguing for More Computational Modeling to Aid the Transition to Clinical Trials that Target Aging
At some point in the future, clinical trials for therapies that target mechanisms of aging must start to assess the outcome on aging, rather than the present situation in which regulators force potentially broad rejuvenation therapies - such as senolytics - to address only one specific age-related condition at a time. The authors of this paper argue that this will be a challenging transition for present regulatory and research institutions, and that a great deal more use of computational modelling of aging and the effects of interventions will be needed to smooth the way. I agree that the regulatory system is a barrier and...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 27, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Age and Dietary Fat Result in Larger Inflammatory Populations of Gut Microbes
This study investigated the short-term responses of the gut microbiota composition to diets with different fat contents. Experimental animals were fed either a a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks and the microbial composition was evaluated at 10 and 20 weeks. In agreement with previous studies, body weight and the expression of colonic cytokines increased with higher dietary fat content. The diversity of the gut microbiota was significantly influenced by both age and diet, and two variable showed significant interactions. At the phylum level, the proportion of Actinobacteria was si...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 27, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Short Commentary by Reason from the Giant Health Conference in 2019
I had quite forgotten about the video of this short commentary I'd given last year at Giant Health in London. I was recently prompted for a transcript by someone, and so here it is. This conference was a mainstream health event, not normally a place that would have any great focus on longevity and aging. However, the Aikora Health principals had claimed one of the stages and put together a set of presentations from various people involved in the development of means to treat aging, myself included. All of us were ambushed by interviewers with cameras at some point in the proceedings, and hence this video. Longevity ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 26, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

The Gut Microbiome as a Contributing Factor in Alzheimer's Disease
The gut microbiome changes with age in ways that provoke chronic inflammation. Beneficial microbial populations decline in number while harmful populations expand. This is likely the result of numerous contributing factors, including dietary changes characteristic of age and the decline of the immune system, but at this point it is a challenge to pin down which of these processes are more versus less important to the overall outcome. It is well known that chronic inflammation drives a faster progression of many of the common age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions. Thus it is expected to find links bet...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 26, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Natural Killer Cells May Act to Reduce Neuroinflammation
Researchers here provide evidence for natural killer cells to act to reduce inflammation in the brain. This is of interest because chronic inflammation in brain tissue, neuroinflammation, is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. If a natural mechanism that suppresses inflammation can be harnessed, it might be possible to slow or reverse neurodegenerative conditions, given that inflammation appears to play such a significant role in their progression. That said, recent work on cellular senescence in the supporting cells of brain suggests that selectively elimi...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 26, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Outlining Some of the Science Behind Partial Reprogramming at Turn.bio
Turn.bio is an early venture in the new field of in vivo cellular reprogramming, though it is unclear as to whether the partial reprogramming approach they are taking will eventually be used directly in patients, versus in cell cultures prior to transplantation for cell therapy. The publicity materials here cover some of the work undertaken by one of the scientific founders of Turn.bio in recent years, including the transplantation of partially reprogrammed muscle cells into old mice to restore muscle function. Cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells via expression of a small number of genes - the Yama...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 25, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Loss of Mitochondrial Function with Age in Monocytes may Contribute to the Development of Atherosclerosis
Macrophage cells are derived from circulating monocytes, and, among many other tasks, are responsible for clearing out lipid deposits from blood vessel walls. The conventional view on the age-related nature of atherosclerosis, the build up of fatty deposits that narrow and weaken blood vessels, is that macrophages are vulnerable to oxidized lipids, particularly oxidized cholesterols such as 7-ketocholesterol. These oxidized lipids are far more prevalent in older people, a consequence of the cellular damage of aging. Macrophages in old tissues are overwhelmed by oxidized lipids and become inflammatory, dysfunctional foam ce...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 25, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Is There a Causative Role for Infectious Organisms in Alzheimer's Disease?
The consensus position on the role of amyloid-β as a meaningful cause of Alzheimer's disease is under attack. Removal of amyloid-β from human brains has so far failed to reverse or even meaningfully slow the condition, though there are certainly scenarios under which amyloid-β aggregates can be both a contributing cause of Alzheimer's and a poor target for therapy. For example, amyloid-β aggregation might generate sufficient cellular senescence and inflammation in microglia for that pathology to become self-sustaining even when the amyloid-β is later removed. Alternatively, rising levels of amyloid...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 25, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviving Cardiomyocytes via Coincubation with Mitochondria
This study, for the first time, shows that transplantation of non-autologous mitochondria from healthy skeletal muscle cells into normal cardiomyocytes leads to short-term improvement of bioenergetics indicating "supercharged" state. However, over time these improved effects disappear, which suggests transplantation of mitochondria may have a potential application in settings where there is an acute stress. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - March 24, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Protein Acetyltransferases Influence Longevity in Short-Lived Laboratory Species
Over the past twenty years a great deal of work has gone into the investigation of protein deacetylases, such as SIRT1, in the context of aging and longevity. Here, researchers note some of the evidence for the other side of the coin, protein acetyltransferases, to also influence life span in short-lived laboratory species. It seems plausible that interventions based on these mechanisms will also produce negligible effects once attempted in humans: all of these metabolic manipulations appear to scale down in their benefits as species life span increases. Treatments that make nematode worms live twice as long typically have...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 24, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Abnormal Stress Granules in Aging and Age-Related Disease
This open access review paper looks at stress granules in the context of aging. These are transient structures that form within cells, made up of a wide variety of biomolecules. There is a lot of information about stress granules in the literature, but a great deal of it is speculative. This is one of the less well explored areas of cellular biochemistry. Cells form these assemblies of under stressful conditions, and their function may be protective - perhaps a way to stash useful molecules and protect them from an aggressive upregulation of cellular maintenance activities, or perhaps a way to make those useful molecules m...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 24, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Ronjon Nag on Investment in the Longevity Industry
Ronjon Nag is a noted angel investor in the Bay Area, and one of the newer entries to the select community of investors interested in the longevity industry. He brings his own perspective to the table; new points of view are always welcome as the community grows in size, and as more narrowly focused specialists begin to emerge. That said, given the enormous venture funding still in waiting, looking for places to invest, there is always the perverse incentive for fund managers to consider the space of aging and longevity in the broadest sense possible. There is a pressure to invest now, invest soon, find more deals to parti...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Investment Source Type: blogs

Trajectories of Exercise and Mortality in Late Life
Greater physical activity correlates well with lower mortality in later life. Given the way that human data is collected, and the way in which epidemiological studies are carried out, it is hard to determine causation, however. Is it that exercise is protective, or is it that more robust people both live longer and exercise more often? Fortunately the equivalent animal studies on exercise are unambiguous, and show that exercise does in fact act to improve long-term health and reduce premature mortality. Here, researchers expand on the existing evidence by focusing on trends in physical exercise in later life, and how those...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

On the Prospects for Intermittent Late-Life Use of Rapamycin
Researchers here discuss the evidence for intermittent use of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor that has undesirable side-effects, to be a path forward to producing benefits in older people. We should probably weigh the animal evidence for this class of therapy against the recent failure of a phase III trial for a related form of mTOR inhibition designed to bypass the side-effects of rapamycin. The beneficial effect sizes in humans may be too small to be worth the cost and time of development at the end of the day, and this is somewhat characteristic of interventions, such as mTOR inhibition, that upregulate cellular stress res...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 23rd 2020
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 22, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

The Two Way Relationship Between Cellular Senescence and Cancer in Bone Marrow
Cells become senescent in response to a variety of circumstances. The vast majority are cases of replicative senescence, somatic cells reaching the Hayflick limit. Cell damage and toxic environments also produce senescence, and senescent cells are also created as a part of the wound healing process. A senescent cell ceases replication and begins to secrete inflammatory and pro-growth signals, altering the nearby extracellular matrix and behavior of surrounding cells - even encouraging them to become senescent as well. Near all senescent cells last a short time only, as they self-destruct or are removed by the immune...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 20, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Failing Mitochondrial Quality Control with Age Considered in Terms of Inter-Organelle Contact Sites
The review paper here provides an interesting perspective on the interaction between mitochondria and lysosomes, looking at the mechanics of their membrane contact sites in the context of mitochondrial quality control and its age-related decline. Every cell plays host to hundreds of mitochondria, bacteria-like organelles responsible for generating adenosine triphosphate molecules to power cellular processes. Mitochondrial function declines throughout the body with age, and this appears to be largely a problem of failing quality control. The quality control processes of mitophagy identify worn and damaged mitochondria, ensu...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 20, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

MicroRNAs miR-21 and miR-217 are Important in the Spread of Cellular Senescence via Cell Signaling
This study was devised to unravel the relative contribution of EVs released from senescent ECs in spreading pro-senescence signals to proliferating cells via their miRNA cargo. Based on the evidence that the in vitro replicative senescence of ECs substantially mimics the progressive age-related impairment of endothelial function described in vivo, we set out to identify the miRNAs that are differentially expressed in senescent and non-senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their EVs. MicroRNA profiling of small EVs (sEVs) and large EVs demonstrated that senescent cells release a significantly ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 20, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mapping p16 and p21 Markers of Cellular Senescence in Humans by Tissue and Age
In that part of the research community focused on the role of cellular senescence in aging, the consensus is that the markers presently used to identify senescent cells are placeholders waiting for a better approach. They are not sufficiently universal. Senescent cells might be different enough in different tissues to require tissue specific approaches to assess their presence to a usefully exact degree. This point is illustrated by the results of a recent survey of p16 and p21 in humans by tissue type and age. That neither p16 nor p21 expressing cells increased in number with age in lung tissue strongly suggests that...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reduced Calorie Intake and Periodic Fasting Independently Contribute to the Benefits of Calorie Restriction
Researchers here make the point that calorie restriction studies in animals are also introducing a strong component of time restricted feeding, as animals tend to be fed once a day. Studies of intermittent fasting without calorie reduction have shown that this can produce a similar set of metabolic responses to a reduced calorie intake. Intermittent fasting and calorie restriction have been shown to improve health and extend healthy life spans via two overlapping sets of mechanisms, as assessed by various omics approaches. Thus the details of the approach to feeding animals any given fixed amount of calories (delivery of f...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Proteomic Effects of Cardiopoietic Stem Cell Therapy Following Heart Attack
Cardiopoietic stem cells are used in a form of autologous mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Cells are extracted from patient bone marrow, expanded in culture, and provoked into adopting a cardiac lineage, such that they produce daughter cardiac muscle cells. Human trials have shown benefits in heart attack patients, but, as for all such therapies, it is a question as the degree to which signaling versus integration produces these benefits. Is greater regeneration the result of signaling that changes native cell behavior, followed by the death of near all of the transplanted cells, versus integration of a fraction of those tra...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mild Depolarization of the Mitochondrial Membrane as a Mechanism of Slowed Aging in Long-Lived Mammals
Every cell contains hundreds of mitochondria, cell structures that evolved long ago from symbiotic bacteria. They carry remnants of the original bacterial DNA, and continually fuse and divide like bacteria. Mitochondria participate in many core cellular processes, but arguably their most important function is to produce the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP), needed to keep the cell running. This is an energetic process, and produces free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a side-effect. ROS damage cellular machinery, provoking the activity of repair mechanisms. This damage is actual...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Survey of Common Risk Factors and their Effects on Life Expectancy
In this study, we analyse total mortality using a model with a large number of risk factors that have previously been found to be predictors of longevity. The study assessed a otal of 38,549 participants aged 25-74 years at baseline of the National FINRISK Study between 1987 and 2007. The Primary outcome measures were register-based comprehensive mortality data from 1987 to 2014 with an average follow-up time of 16 years and 4310 deaths. The largest influence on the EAD appeared to be a current smoker versus a never smoker as the EAD for a 30-year-old man decreased from 86.8 years, which corresponds to the r...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Quantifying the Effects of a Healthy Lifestyle on Later Risk of Age-Related Disease
It is no big secret that maintaining a healthier lifestyle will extend the time spent free from age-related disease and generally improve the experience of later life. In this day and age, and now that the very harmful practice of smoking is waning somewhat, the practice of maintaining better health largely means resisting the siren call of excess calories and consequent excess weight. The presence of visceral fat tissue in excessive amounts accelerates the aging process. Staying slim over the course of life thus pays off down the line. If you instead choose to damage yourself in this way, the inevitable result is an earli...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Failing Mitophagy in the Aging Heart
Every cell contains hundreds of mitochondria, bacteria-like organelles that work to provide the cell with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a chemical energy store molecule to power cellular biochemistry. With age, mitochondrial function falters throughout the body. This may be largely a consequence of failing mitophagy, a form of the cellular maintenance process of autophagy that is responsible for destroying worn and damaged mitochondria. In tissues with high energy demands, such as the heart, this loss of function is a sizable contributing factor in the development of age-related disease. At present the research and ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Mechanism by Which Obesity Contributes to Hypertension
Excess fat tissue raises blood pressure. Chronically raised blood pressure, hypertension, in turn causes tissue damage to organs throughout the body. This is one of the ways in which being overweight accelerates the progression of degenerative aging and onset of age-related diseases. Researchers here report on the investigation of one of the biochemical mechanisms by which obesity can raise blood pressure; having identified it, interfering in the mechanism is the next logical step. With obesity comes greater risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure (hypertension) and stroke, among other health problems....
Source: Fight Aging! - March 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Amyloid- β as a Contributing Cause of Age-Related Cardiovascular Disease
Amyloid-β is one of the few proteins in the human body capable of misfolding in a way that encourages aggregation, causing the misfolded version to spread and form harmful deposits in tissues. This process is best known in the context of Alzheimer's disease, where an active debate continues over whether it is actually an important part of the condition or a side-effect of other important mechanisms. Amyloid-β aggregation also occurs in the cardiovascular system, however. There is some evidence for the presence of amyloid-β in brain and vasculature to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but equally the dise...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Splicing Regulation and Naked Mole-Rat Longevity
Multiple proteins can be assembled from the blueprint of a any given gene, depending on which of the intron sequences (usually removed) and exon sequences (usually retained) within the overall gene sequence are included in the final protein. Splicing is the part of the gene expression process that determines this outcome, and regulation of splicing is one of the many aspects of cellular biochemistry that becomes disarrayed with age. It is an open question as to how important this is versus other processes in aging, as well as how far downstream from the root causes of aging splicing dysfunction might be, but splicing chang...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

TREM2 Antibodies as an Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's Disease
Researchers here report on preliminary evidence that antibodies binding to TREM2 can enhance the ability of the immune cells known as microglia to clear out debris and metabolic waste in brain, particularly the amyloid-β plaques thought to contribute to the progression of the condition. Given the unremitting record of failure to date for amyloid-β clearance approaches to produce material benefits in patients, it is something of a question as to whether more and better clearance is what is needed right now. From a reductionist point of view, amyloid-β aggregates should indeed be removed, as their presence is ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

HNF4 α in the Effects of Intermittent Fasting on the Liver
Intermittent fasting strategies such as alternate day fasting are known to be beneficial to health in humans and both health and longevity in animal models. A portion of this outcome likely stems from some degree of reduction in overall calorie intake, but animal studies in which calorie intake is consistent between control and intermittent fasting groups demonstrate that benefits still arise even when calories are not reduced. Lengthy enough periods of hunger likely trigger the same cellular maintenance mechanisms as play a role in the metabolic response to calorie restriction when practiced without fasting. The biochemis...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 16th 2020
We report a new class of natural-product-inspired covalent inhibitors of telomerase that target the catalytic active site. Age-Related Epigenetic Changes that Suppress Mitochondrial Function https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2020/03/age-related-epigenetic-changes-that-suppress-mitochondrial-function/ Today's open access research reports on two specific epigenetic changes observed in old individuals that act to reduce mitochondrial function. This joins an existing list of genes for which expression changes are known to impact mitochondrial function with age. A herd of hundreds of mitochondria are found ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 15, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

The Wrong Inflection Point in Aging Research
While it is still a small field in comparison to much of biotechnology and medicine, research into slowing and reversing the aging process has achieved legitimacy and growth in the past decade. This newfound capacity for progress results from a great deal of work by patient advocates, visionary researchers, and other allies to overcome public disinterest and a hostile leadership in the field of gerontology. Sadly, most participants in the now energized research and development communities are pursuing varieties of a poor strategy, often called geroscience. They have taken the wrong realization regarding the plastici...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 13, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

CEACAM1 and TNF- α in Age-Related Vascular Dysfunction
Researchers here report on their investigations of one small part of the complex biochemistry of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that is observed in aging blood vessels. This sort of work is carried out in search of novel target proteins and mechanisms that might be influenced in order to treat age-related vascular conditions, those that arise from the downstream consequences of chronic inflammation in older individuals. It would be a better approach to address the causes of age-related chronic inflammation rather than adjust its mechanisms or immediate consequences, but this remains a less popular strategy in th...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 13, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Novel Reprogramming Approach Applied to Generation of Cells for Retinal Regeneration
Researchers here report on the application of a novel form of cellular reprogramming that might be more useful than the present standard approach when it comes to generating patient-matched cells and tissues for regenerative medicine. They demonstrate this via the creation of vascular progenitor cells that might be used to treat some forms of retinal degeneration in which blood vessels in that tissue have atrophied. Scientists began their experiments with a fibroblast - a connective tissue cell - taken from a person with type 1 diabetes. Reprogrammed fibroblasts function as stem cells, with the potential to give r...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 13, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Views on Investment in the Longevity Industry
Today I'll point out a couple of short interviews on the topic of investment in the longevity industry. This industry is young and still quite small, taking its present shape over the last five years or so. There are a little more than a hundred companies in the industry, a dozen venture funds that make significant numbers of investments, and - as of yet - no approved drugs emerged from phase III trials. Most programs are still at a preclinical stage of development. From the archly conservative perspective of Big Pharma and the largest established biotech venture funds, this whole endeavor remains an experiment in its earl...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 12, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Investment Source Type: blogs

Reviewing CD38 in Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation
Age-related upregulation of CD38 is quite closely related to the decline of NAD+ levels in mitochondria. That in turn causes some fraction of the age-related loss of mitochondrial quality control and mitochondrial function. As mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, providing chemical energy store molecules (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) to power cellular operations, this causes a broad range of issues in tissues throughout the body. Mitochondrial decline is particularly influential in the aging of the brain, given the high energy demands of that organ. Due to the lack of effective treatment to at least slow...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 12, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Stress During Pregnancy Accelerates Measures of Aging Across Generations in Rats
It was discovered comparatively recently that laboratory species exhibit a plasticity of life span that is passed across generations. This can be epigenetic, in which the offspring of calorie restricted parents exhibit some of the same metabolic responses to calorie restriction even in its absence. In the other direction, stresses in a parent during pregnancy can lead to an acceleration of degenerative aging in offspring. Researchers here demonstrate this second class of mechanism across four generations of rats, in which the final generation exhibits measurably accelerated manifestations of aging. One question that...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 12, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Amyloid Plaques Containing Nucleic Acids Drive Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of protein aggregates in the brain. These are misfolded and altered versions of proteins that can act as seeds for solid deposits to form and spread in the brain. These deposits are surrounded by a halo of toxic biochemistry that harms and eventually kills neurons. Amyloid-β aggregates are present in the early stages of the condition, while tau aggregates cause much greater harm and cell death in the later stages. Alzheimer's disease is also an inflammatory condition, however, in which chronic inflammation and altered behavior of the central nervous system im...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Enhanced Lipophagy via the Unfolded Protein Response in Neurons Modestly Extends Life in Nematodes
Researchers here show a small effect on life span in nematode worms resulting from an increase in the unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum in neurons. This is connected with lipophagy, a process that depletes lipids in these cells. In this context, it is worth mentioning that, as a general rule, small effect sizes in nematodes are not interesting from the perspective of producing therapies to extend healthy life for mammals. Short-lived species have life spans that are very plastic in response to environment circumstances and changes in the regulation of cellular housekeeping processes. Longer lived speci...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Even Light Physical Activity Correlates with Lower Mortality in the Elderly
One of the more interesting findings of the past decade or so, as accelerometers allowed for a better calibration of exercise levels in epidemiological studies, is that even more mild levels of exercise are still quite well correlated with health and mortality in later life. The dose-response curve for exercise is steep when going from nothing to mild exercise, and then flattens out for moderate and greater exercise. In later life this is particularly pronounced, judging from the evidence at hand. This investigation evaluated physical activity levels of 1,262 participants from the ongoing Framingham Offspring Stud...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Age-Related Epigenetic Changes that Suppress Mitochondrial Function
Today's open access research reports on two specific epigenetic changes observed in old individuals that act to reduce mitochondrial function. This joins an existing list of genes for which expression changes are known to impact mitochondrial function with age. A herd of hundreds of mitochondria are found in every cell, working to provide the cell with a supply of energy store molecules used to power its operations. They are the distant descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria, now fully integrated into the cell. Loss of mitochondrial function is strongly implicated in the progression of aging and age-related diseases, pa...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Improving Mitochondrial Function in Neurons to Boost Nerve Regeneration
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, responsible for producing the chemical energy store molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that powers cellular operations. As such, most processes of interest in disease and regeneration have at least some indirect dependency on mitochondrial function. Researchers here note a potential connection between mitochondrial function and the inability of nerves to regrow following injury. They provide evidence for an adjustment to the way in which mitochondria behave in nerve cells, and in the connections between nerve cells called axons, to spur regeneration. This is an interesting ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing the Evidence for the Unguarded X Hypothesis of Shorter Male Life Span
Why do males of all species have a shorter life expectancy than that of females? There are numerous perspectives on this question, from viewing it as a natural evolutionary outgrowth of mating strategies, to the more mechanistic concerns of differences in metabolism, appetite for risk, and so forth. One popular hypothesis is that the Y chromosome is less capable of covering for mutational damage to the X chromosome than is a duplicate X chromosome. This will gender-bias the effects of inherited mutations on the evolution of longevity, and perhaps also magnify the effects of stochastic mutational damage occurring across a l...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Telomerase
We report a new class of natural-product-inspired covalent inhibitors of telomerase that target the catalytic active site. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - March 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Visceral Fat Harms Cognitive Function via Inflammatory IL-1 β Signaling
It is well known that excess visceral fat tissue is harmful to health over the long term. A sizable amount of this harm stems from mechanisms that act to generate chronic inflammation. These include an accelerated generation of lingering senescent cells, DNA debris from dead fat cells, signaling from normal fat cells that is similar to that secreted by infected cells, and so forth. Researchers here focus on the link between visceral fat and loss of cognitive function, showing that particular inflammatory signal is influential in causing the central nervous system immune cells known as microglia to change their behavior for...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The State of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies to Accelerate Regeneration
Therapies using mesenchymal stem cells are quite widely used at the present time, but efficacy varies considerably, clinic by clinic, even between those groups ostensibly taking exactly the same approach to cell source and methodologies of treatment. Working with cells isn't easy, and very small differences in protocol can lead to large differences in the behavior and type of cells that result. The majority of such treatments see transplanted cells die quite quickly, but their signaling produces effects on native cell behavior. Suppression of chronic inflammation is the most consistent outcome, but improvements in regenera...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 9th 2020
In this study, we intravenously administrated the young mitochondria into aged mice to evaluate whether energy production increase in aged tissues or age-related behaviors improved after the mitochondrial transplantation. The results showed that heterozygous mitochondrial DNA of both aged and young mouse coexisted in tissues of aged mice after mitochondrial administration, and meanwhile, ATP content in tissues increased while reactive oxygen species (ROS) level reduced. Besides, the mitotherapy significantly improved cognitive and motor performance of aged mice. Our study, at the first report in aged animals, not only prov...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 8, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Delivery of Young Mitochondria to Old Mice Improves Cognitive and Motor Function
In this study, we intravenously administrated the young mitochondria into aged mice to evaluate whether energy production increase in aged tissues or age-related behaviors improved after the mitochondrial transplantation. The results showed that heterozygous mitochondrial DNA of both aged and young mouse coexisted in tissues of aged mice after mitochondrial administration, and meanwhile, ATP content in tissues increased while reactive oxygen species (ROS) level reduced. Besides, the mitotherapy significantly improved cognitive and motor performance of aged mice. Our study, at the first report in aged animals, not only prov...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 6, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

cAMP Upregulation is Involved in the Benefits of Exercise and Calorie Restriction
Both exercise and the practice of calorie restriction produce benefits to health in large part via an increased or more efficient operation of cellular maintenance processes such as autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system, both of which act to recycle damaged or waste proteins and cell structures, improving cell function. Many research groups are involved in investigating the details of these metabolic responses, in search of ways to mimic some fraction of the beneficial effects of exercise or calorie restriction. The work noted here is an example of the type, focused on increased levels of cAMP as an important part ...
Source: Fight Aging! - March 6, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs