Medin Amyloid Aggregation with Age Causes Cerebral Vascular Dysfunction
There are twenty or so different proteins in the body that can become altered in ways that cause them to aggregate into solid deposits known as amyloids, spreading and encouraging other molecules of the same protein to do likewise. Amyloids are a phenomenon of old individuals and old tissues, for reasons that are much debated and no doubt quite complex. Some of these amyloids are well studied and well known to be harmful, such as the amyloid-β involved in Alzheimer's disease. Others are known but less well studied, and whether or not they are harmful is a question mark. The progression of knowledge over the pas...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

miR-192 in Extracellular Vesicles as a Negative Regulator of Inflammation in Old Tissues
This study found that the microRNA-192 (miR-192) is an aging-associated immune regulatory microRNA whose concentration was significantly increased in aged EVs due to the hyperinflammatory state of aged mice. Interestingly, EV miR-192 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. In our aged mouse model, aging was associated with prolonged inflammation in the lung upon stimulation with inactivated influenza whole virus particles (WVP), whereas EV miR-192 alleviated the prolonged inflammation associated with aging. The hyperinflammatory state of aged mice resulted in reduced production of specific antibodies and effica...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Proposing an Approach to Obtain Human Data on Combined Interventions and Effects on Aging
With the advent of epigenetic clocks that appear able to measure biological age, researchers are interested in putting these clocks to work on the assessment of interventions that might affect the pace and state of aging. It is the case, of course, that today there are all too few interventions that can reliably affect the pace and state of aging. But, arguably, the research community shouldn't let that get in the way of generating data with the interventions that do exist, such as exercise, calorie restriction, or senolytics, even though the effects on longevity in humans are either small or unknown. The most impor...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 23, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing the Clinical Evidence for NAD+ Upregulation
I recently collaborated on a review paper covering the history of clinical work on upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as an approach to therapy. This is of interest to the aging research community because NAD is important to mitochondrial function. NAD levels diminish with age, alongside a loss of mitochondrial function that is known to contribute to the onset and progression of many age-related conditions. Animal studies and a few clinical trials have indicated that increased NAD levels may improve, for example, cardiovascular function in older individuals, as a result of improved mitochondrial functi...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 22, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Reducing Chronic Inflammation as Effective as Reducing Blood Cholesterol in Producing a Small Reversal of Atherosclerotic Lesions
This study provides characterization of a lipid-rich necrotic core, a dangerous type of coronary plaque made up of dead cells and cell debris that is prone to rupture. Ruptured plaque can lead to a heart attack or stroke. The analysis involved 209 middle-aged patients (ages 37-62) with psoriasis who participated in the Psoriasis Atherosclerosis Cardiometabolic Initiative at the National Institutes of Health, an ongoing observational study. Of these participants, 124 received biologic therapy, and 85 were in the control group, treated only with topical creams and light therapy. To measure the effects of biologic ther...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 22, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fasting Mimicking Diet Improves Chemotherapy Effectiveness and Reduces Side Effects
The fasting mimicking diet emerged from efforts to better define the dose-response curve for beneficial effects resulting from a reduced calorie intake. Fasting is beneficial, calorie restriction is beneficial, but where are the dividing lines? How much food can one eat and still obtain near all of the benefits of fasting? As a result of this work, the fasting mimicking diet has undergone clinical testing in cancer patients. Numerous benefits have been demonstrated, and the paper here is an example of the type. In this human trial, fasting mimicking reduced the negative short term impact of chemotherapy on health, and, fur...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 22, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Point Mutations Contribute to Female Reproductive Aging, and NAD+ Upregulation Attenuates These Consequences in Mice
Today's open access paper discusses the impact of mitochondrial DNA damage on female reproductive capabilities. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, a herd of hundreds of organelles responsible for packaging the chemical energy store molecule ATP, used to power cellular processes. They are additionally deeply integrated into many core cellular processes. Mitochondria are the evolved descendants of ancient symbiotic bacteria: they carry their own small genome, the mitochondrial DNA, and replicate like bacteria. Unfortunately this mitochondrial DNA is more vulnerable and less proficiently repaired than the nuclear ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 21, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Chronic Inflammation to be a Significant Factor in Age-Related Hearing Loss
Hearing loss is a prevalent problem with age, the result of loss of sensory hair cells of the inner ear, or as seems more likely in recent years, damage to those parts of the peripheral nervous system connecting hair cells to the brain. Chronic inflammation is a noted aspect of aging, excessive activity of the immune system, and is very disruptive to tissue function and maintenance throughout the body. Researchers here provide evidence to suggest that this persistent inflammation in older individuals is an important factor in age-related hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (AHL) or presbycusis is a universal se...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 21, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Calorie Restriction Improves Intestinal Stem Cell and Barrier Function in Old Mice
This study aimed to reveal the impact of calorie restriction on the intestine via structural and molecular changes in terms of intestinal stem cell (ISC) function, ISC niche, intestinal epithelial barrier function, and intestinal immune function. Female C57BL/6J mice, aged 12 months, fed a commercial chow were used in this study. The ISC function, ISC niche, intestinal epithelial barrier function, and intestinal immune function were assessed. Calorie restriction reversed aging-induced intestinal shortening and made the crypts shallower. The intestinal epithelial cells isolated from the intestine showed a significa...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 21, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, September 21st 2020
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 20, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Higher Temperature Slows Osteoporosis, an Effect Mediated by Polyamine Produced by Gut Microbes
Osteoporosis is the name given to the characteristic age-related loss of bone mass and strength. The extracellular matrix of bone tissue is constantly remodeled, created by osteoblasts and broken down by osteoclasts. The proximate cause of osteoporosis is a tilt in the balance of these processes, favoring osteoclast activity and thus slow loss of bone structure. Today's research materials discuss a most intriguing result: in mice, maintaining a higher environmental temperature slows the progression of osteoporosis. Interesting, but is it a path to therapy? As is always the case when looking at metabolic responses to...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Long Term mTORC1 Inhibition Slows Muscle Aging in Mice via Preservation of Neuromuscular Junctions
Sarcopenia is the name given to the characteristic loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs in later life, the result of numerous contributing processes of damage and decline. Researchers here find that long-term treatment with rapamycin, and thus likely other more targeted approaches to mTORC1 inhibition, slows the onset of sarcopenia in mice by preserving the function of neuromuscular junctions, the links between nerves and muscles. The most important contributing cause of sarcopenia is likely to be a slowdown in muscle stem cell activity. Interestingly, these stem cell populations appear to remain viable, but are in...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Geroscience and Ovarian Aging
The geroscience view of the treatment of aging isn't limited to the reuse of existing drugs that happen to upregulate stress responses in ways that modestly slow aging, but this is the near entirely the focus of those researchers who publish on the topic. Unfortunately the effect size of this approach to aging is small, and diminishes as species life span increases. We know the upper limits of what can be achieved with the beneficial stress response induced by calorie restriction in humans, and we know that it won't really add more than a couple of years to human life spans. Better strategies exist, based on the developmen...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 18, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Recent Studies on the Changing Gut Microbiome in Aging
Today's research materials are a selection of recent studies on the gut microbiome and its relationship to the aging process. The scientific community has in recent years uncovered a great deal of new information regarding the way in which the gut microbiome both influences health and exhibits detrimental changes with age. Some of the microbes of the digestive tract are responsible for the generation of beneficial metabolites such as butyrate, indoles, and propionate. Unfortunately these populations decline in number with advancing age, and this negatively impacts tissue function throughout the body. Additionally, harmful ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Metformin Found to Reduce Liver Inflammation
Metformin produces a modest and unreliable extension of life in animal models, and human data shows a small increase in life span in diabetic patients. This is thought to work as a calorie restriction mimetic drug, triggering one slice of the beneficial response to a reduced nutrient intake. Researchers here dig further in the biochemistry of the drug, and find that it reduces liver inflammation in addition to other, known effects. This is interesting, and suggestive that any benefits it produces are going to be much smaller in healthier older adults with lower levels of chronic inflammation. It doesn't change the fact tha...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Lowered Body Temperature is Important in the Beneficial Calorie Restriction Response
Calorie restriction lowers body temperature in mammals, but most research on how reduced calorie intake produces benefits to long-term health and longevity has focused on nutrient sensing as the primary trigger for the upregulation of stress responses and other helpful changes to cellular metabolism. Here, researchers demonstrate that reduced body temperature is in fact an important trigger mechanism, possible more so than nutrient sensing, as keeping calorie restricted mice warm eliminates much of the beneficial metabolic adaptation to reduced nutrient levels. Cutting calories significantly may not be an easy tas...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 17, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

SENS Research Foundation Issues 2020 Annual Report
The SENS Research Foundation, like the Methuselah Foundation it emerged from, is one of the more important organizations involved in the creation and shaping of the present R&D communities focused on treating aging as a medical condition. In earlier days, advocates and philanthropic programs were attempting to sway the research community (and the world at large) into taking intervention in aging seriously at all. In other words to accept that the evidence was strongly in favor of the plausibility of rejuvenation therapies, that the evidence had been strongly in favor for a long time, and that the long-standing reluctan...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

The Aging of Macrophages Impairs Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
Macrophages of the innate immune system, cells derived from monocytes, are involved in many processes in tissue beyond merely hunting down invading pathogens. They are also important to the processes of tissue maintenance regeneration following injury. Like all aspects of the immune system, macrophage behavior becomes dysregulated with age, a consequence of changes in the signaling environment that result from the accumulation of molecular damage that causes aging. Here, researchers demonstrate that this aging of the immune system degrades the ability of the peripheral nervous system to regenerate, and that exposing macrop...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeting Inflammatory Microglia in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease
The immune cells of the central nervous system are distinct from those of the rest of the body. Innate immune cells such as microglia become increasingly inflammatory with advancing age, and this is very disruptive of tissue function in the brain. This progression into a state of chronic inflammation is an important component of many neurodegenerative conditions. Some of this is due to growing levels of cellular senescence in these cell populations, and with the advent of senolytic therapies to selectively destroy senescent cells, some reversal of neurodegeneration has been demonstrated in animal models. Not all inflammato...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 16, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation Modestly Increases Life Span in Mice
Alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation has been shown to modestly extend life span and improve measures of health in old mice; the publicity materials here accompany the formal release of that paper. Recently, a novel epigenetic clock was used to suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation in old humans can reduce epigenetic measures of aging, though since this was a novel epigenetic clock, those results should not yet be taken too seriously. Confirming studies are needed, assessing other metrics. Alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation may act to produce benefits via reductions in excessive inflammatory signaling. Gi...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 15, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Using Direct Conversion of Cells to Investigate the Behavior of Aging Tissues
The process of reprogramming used to produce induced pluripotent stem cells erases many of the marks of aging in cells taken from old tissues, such as epigenetic changes and declining mitochondrial function. This may prove to be the basis for therapies based on reprogramming, but it is also very inconvenient for researchers who want to study how old cells and tissues behave in detail. Thus scientists here use a process of direct conversion, programming one cell type to become another without inducing a stem cell state, in order to retain the features of old tissue. That allows the identification of differences between old ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 15, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Upregulation of Unacetylated Ghrelin Slows Age-Related Muscle Loss in Mice
Ghrelin is best known for its role in the mechanisms of hunger, but it has two different forms, only one of which induces hunger. Both forms are known to affect muscle tissue metabolism, and this may be one of the ways in which calorie restriction slows the onset of muscle loss with age, a condition known as sarcopenia. Researchers here increase levels of the non-hunger-inducing ghrelin in mice and show that this does indeed slow the onset and progression of sarcopenia, and thus might be a basis for therapy. Sarcopenia, the decline in muscle mass and functionality during aging, might arise from age-associated endo...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 15, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Cells Reverses the Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Chemotherapy
A primary goal of chemotherapy is to force cancerous cells into programmed cell death or cellular senescence. Cellular senescence is a state of growth arrest that should normally be triggered by exactly the sort of damage and dysfunction exhibited by cancer cells, but cancer is characterized by a mutation-induced ability to bypass those restrictions. Chemotherapy remains the primary approach to cancer therapy, but chemotherapeutic agents are still at best only marginally discriminating. Treating cancer with chemotherapy has always been a fine balance between harming the cancer and harming the patient. Even in the best of o...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 14, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Increased Insulin Receptor Expression Improves Memory in Old Rats
This is a interesting example of modulating the metabolism of the aging brain in order to improve its function, without any attempt to address the underlying cell and tissue damage that causes loss of function. Researchers delivered recombinant insulin receptor protein to the hippocampus of old rats, and demonstrated improved memory function as an outcome of this intervention. An age-related decline in insulin metabolism has been implicated in neurodegenerative conditions, but it is somewhat hard to pick this apart from reduced blood flow, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and other related issues that contribute to the dec...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 14, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Evidence for Familial Longevity to be Largely Cultural Rather than Genetic
It is certainly possible that a small number of people have mutations or genetic variants that confer notable longevity. The small lineage exhibiting a PAI-1 loss of function mutation springs to mind as an example of this sort of thing. But for the overwhelming majority of long-lived lineages, the evidence on genetic contributions to longevity tends to support the hypothesis that familial longevity arises much more from lifestyle and environment than from inherited genetics. The data from very large genetic databases points to genetic variants contributing little to variation in human life span. The data on exercise, diet,...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 14, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, September 14th 2020
This study is the first to provide a direct link between this inflammation and plaque development - by way of IFITM3. Scientists know that the production of IFITM3 starts in response to activation of the immune system by invading viruses and bacteria. These observations, combined with the new findings that IFITM3 directly contributes to plaque formation, suggest that viral and bacterial infections could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease development. Indeed, researchers found that the level of IFITM3 in human brain samples correlated with levels of certain viral infections as well as with gamma-secretase activ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 13, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Hormone Therapy in Postmenopausal Women Correlates with Lesser Senescent Cell Signaling
This study examined whether menopausal hormone therapies, in the form of oral conjugated equine estrogens (oCEE) and transdermal 17β-estradiol (tE2), altered the circulating levels of a specific set of SASP proteins in women who had undergone natural menopause. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), FAS, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP1α) were measured in serum. Results were compared among menopausal women participating in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study randomized to either placebo (n = 38), oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE, n...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Dysfunction of the Blood-Brain Barrier as an Early Stage in the Progression to Dementia
The blood-brain barrier is a lining of specialized cells that surrounds blood vessels passing through the brain. The barrier permits only certain molecules and cells to pass, isolating the tissue environment of the brain from that of the result of the body. When the blood-brain barrier leaks, an immediate consequence is inflammation in brain tissue, the result of the brain's immune cells reacting to the presence of inappropriate molecules. Unfortunately the integrity of the blood-brain barrier degrades with age and the accumulation of molecular damage, as is the case for all other tissues. The resulting inflammation is an ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Greater Fitness Correlates with Lower White Matter Hyperintensity Volume in the Aging Brain
This study explored the effects of CRF on WMH volume in community-dwelling older adults. We further tested the possibility of an interaction between CRF and age on WMH volume. Participants were 76 adults between the ages of 59 and 77 who underwent a maximal graded exercise test and structural brain imaging. Results indicated that age was a predictor of WMH volume. However, an age-by-CRF interaction was observed such that higher CRF was associated with lower WMH volume in older participants. Our findings suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness may protect cerebrovascular health in older adults. Link: https://...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 11, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeting Cellular Senescence to Heal Non-Healing Wounds
An accumulation of senescent cells takes place throughout the body with age. Cells become senescent constantly, the vast majority as a consequence of hitting the Hayflick limit on replication of somatic cells. In youth, these cells are efficiently removed, either via programmed cell death, or destroyed by the immune system. In later life, removal processes slow down, while the damaged state of tissue provokes ever more cells into becoming senescent. In older people, this imbalance leads to a state in which a few percent of all cells in tissues are senescent at any given time. This is, unfortunately, more than enough to pro...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Damage-Based View of Aging, Offering the Hope of Rejuvenation through Repair
This paper, published earlier in the year, is a reaffirmation of the consensus position that aging is caused by the accumulation of cell and tissue damage, made at a time in which programmed aging theories are becoming more popular. Initiatives such as those of Turn.bio and other groups, in which cells are at least partially reprogrammed towards a pluripotent state in living animals, have spurred greater interest in the characteristic epigenetic changes that take place with aging. That reversing those epigenetic changes produces rejuvenation by many measures is interesting and promising, but it isn't clear that it can be t...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Meta-Analysis of the Ability of Exercise to Reduce Age-Related Mortality
The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of physical activity and mortality in people with selected non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We aimed to define the dose-response relationship between post-diagnosis physical activity and mortality rates for nine NCDs with a high global burden of disease, including low back pain, type 2 diabetes (T2D), osteoarthritis, depressive disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), breast cancer, lung cancer, stroke, and ischemic heart disease (IHD). In total, 28 studies were included in the meta-analysis: 12 for breast ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 10, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Connecting the Immune Response to Amyloid- β Aggregation in Alzheimer's Disease via IFITM3
This study is the first to provide a direct link between this inflammation and plaque development - by way of IFITM3. Scientists know that the production of IFITM3 starts in response to activation of the immune system by invading viruses and bacteria. These observations, combined with the new findings that IFITM3 directly contributes to plaque formation, suggest that viral and bacterial infections could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease development. Indeed, researchers found that the level of IFITM3 in human brain samples correlated with levels of certain viral infections as well as with gamma-secretase activ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Long Lived Humans Do Not Exhibit Fewer Harmful Gene Variants
Why are long lived humans long lived? Why does this trait often run in families? One of the few firm advances in answering these questions is to rule out the hypothesis that long-lived lineages bear fewer detrimental gene variants. Several studies and study populations have indicated that there are just as many harmful variants present in the genomes of exceptionally long-lived people as are present in the rest of us. Beyond that, it remains to be seen as to just how much of exceptional longevity is in fact genetic. Broader genetic studies have in recent years continued to revise downward the contribution of genetics to va...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Interview with a Principal Investigator at Calico
Calico is Google's venture into aging research. It has, in general, been a disappointment to the community - though I suspect that this is a matter of unrealistic expectations as to the path that any new, large deployment of capital is likely to follow. Rather than taking on any of the approaches to rejuvenation that might plausibly produce sizable gains in life span, such as those of the SENS portfolio, Calico has focused on very staid, long-standing metabolic manipulations derived from the study of calorie restriction and growth hormone loss of function mutants. These lines of research are highly unlikely to produce siza...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 9, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

We Should Actually Try to Treat Aging for a Change
I am generally in favor of the sentiment offered in this commentary on recent clinical trial failures for the first attempts to guide anti-aging technologies through the FDA gauntlet, which is that researchers and developers should be aiming to treat aging, not specific age-related diseases. There is likely to be a greater incidence of failure on the way to the clinic, and for entirely avoidable reasons, if everyone is attempting to force a more or less square peg into a more or less round hole. Longevity trials: time to change the approach? Following the recent clinical trial failures by Unity Biotechnolog...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 8, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Politics and Legislation Source Type: blogs

Mechanisms by which Hearing Loss Might Contribute to the Onset of Dementia
There is a correlation between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Is this because similar mechanisms of cell and tissue damage disrupt both the function of the brain and nerve cells in the ears, or is this because hearing is important in the ongoing operation of the brain? Supporting evidence exists for both options. Here, researchers discuss ways in which loss of hearing might disrupt brain function. Hearing loss in midlife has been estimated to account for 9% of cases of dementia. Acquired hearing loss is most commonly caused by cochlear damage, while dementia is due to cortical degeneration that ty...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 8, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Raised Blood Pressure is So Harmful that Reductions are Beneficial Even Without Addressing Underlying Causes
The raised blood pressure of hypertension causes harm throughout the body, raising mortality risk and accelerating the onset and progression of numerous forms of ultimately fatal age-related disease. It accelerates atherosclerosis, and raises the risk of a fatal rupture of blood vessels weakened by atherosclerotic lesions. It causes pressure damage to delicate tissues throughout the body. It leads to detrimental remodeling of heart tissue and the onset of heart failure. Thus forcing a reduction in blood pressure is quite beneficial in later life, even when it is achieved - as is presently the case - by overriding regulator...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 8, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Kimer Med Founded to Develop the DRACO Antiviral Strategy
Today's good news is that a biotech startup, Kimer Med, has been founded to develop the DRACO approach to defeating viral infections. Those of us who have been following developments in antiviral technologies that might be applied to persistent infections relevant to aging, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other herpesviruses, may recall a burst of interest in DRACO some years ago, particularly the research crowdfunding efforts in 2015 and 2016. DRACO (Double-stranded RNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer) works by selectively killing cells that exhibit one of the distinctive signs of viral replication. This replicati...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 7, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

HDAC9 Inhibition Slows the Progression of Osteoporosis in Old Mice
In this study, we report that HDAC9 plays an important role in maintaining the balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of BMMSCs during aged-related bone mass loss. Furthermore, we found that the downregulation of HDAC9 could partially reverse the differentiation of aging BMMSCs and bone loss in mice by regulating autophagy. These results suggest that aged-related bone mass loss may be partially controlled by the HDAC9-meditated autophagy of BMMSCs. Link: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01785-6 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - September 7, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Approaches to Optimize Growth of Muscles in Response to Resistance Training in Old People
Muscle growth in response to resistance exercise is attenuated in older individuals, the result of much the same set of processes that lead to sarcopenia, the name given to the characteristic loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with age. Resistance exercise is clearly still beneficial in later life, judging by the reduction in mortality risk that results, but can it be made more beneficial? Undoubtedly yes, given the appropriate technology to address the underlying root causes of degenerative aging, but all too few such technologies exist at the present time. The use of senolytic therapies to destroy harmful, infl...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 7, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, September 7th 2020
In conclusion, using a large cohort with rich health and DNA methylation data, we provide the first comparison of six major epigenetic measures of biological ageing with respect to their associations with leading causes of mortality and disease burden. DNAm GrimAge outperformed the other measures in its associations with disease data and associated clinical traits. This may suggest that predicting mortality, rather than age or homeostatic characteristics, may be more informative for common disease prediction. Thus, proteomic-based methods (as utilised by DNAm GrimAge) using large, physiologically diverse protein sets for p...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 6, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Assessing the Utility of Six of the Better Known Epigenetic Clocks in a Large Study Population
In conclusion, using a large cohort with rich health and DNA methylation data, we provide the first comparison of six major epigenetic measures of biological ageing with respect to their associations with leading causes of mortality and disease burden. DNAm GrimAge outperformed the other measures in its associations with disease data and associated clinical traits. This may suggest that predicting mortality, rather than age or homeostatic characteristics, may be more informative for common disease prediction. Thus, proteomic-based methods (as utilised by DNAm GrimAge) using large, physiologically diverse protein sets for p...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 4, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Much Faster Peripheral Nerve Regrowth with Electrical Stimulation
Researchers here produce faster nerve regrowth following injury via the use of electrical stimulation of tissue. This is an interesting companion piece to a recent paper that reported on the use of electrical stimulation to produce greater degrees of neurogenesis in the brain. Applying electromagnetic fields to the body with the goal of beneficially changing the behavior of cells is a poorly explored facet of medical technology, when compared to the effort put into pharmacology. In part this may be because it appears more challenging to achieve success and reliability of outcomes in research. The fine technical details of ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 4, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing the Role of miR-181a in Sarcopenia
A great many research groups investigate the mechanisms and biochemistry of sarcopenia, the characteristic age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. The most compelling evidence points of a loss of stem cell activity in muscle tissue as the dominant cause, but numerous other mechanisms may contribute. Many researchers are more interested in proximate causes, age-related changes in muscle cell biochemistry, than in deeper causes of the condition. In this context, the review here examines the role of one microRNA out of a number of microRNAs that are of interest in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. Frailty is larg...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 4, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Stress Granules as a Therapeutic Target
Stress granules are a comparatively poorly understood portion of the processes that a cell uses to maintain its protein machinery and component structures. When cells are subject to mild stress or damage, whether it is due to radiation, heat, lack of nutrients, or other challenges, they upregulate the activity of both autophagy and the ubuiquitin-proteasome system. Autophagy involves flagging proteins and structures for disassembly, followed by transport to a lysosome packed with enzymes to break down molecules into component parts that can be reused. The ubuiquitin-proteasome system tags proteins with ubiquitin, allowing ...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 3, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Longevity-Risk-Adjusted Global Age, by Country
People tend to live longer in some parts of the world than in others, the result of a cultural distribution of lifestyle choices such as smoking and becoming overweight, environmental exposure to, say, particulate air pollution and infectious disease, and access to medical technology. One can use the worldwide statistics of life expectancy to produce a "longevity-risk-adjusted global age" to compare with chronological age: longevity-risk-adjusted global age is higher than chronological age in countries with a higher late-life mortality rate and shorter life expectancy. What happens at the population level says ve...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 3, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Cells as a Way to Expand the Donor Organ Supply
Researchers here provide a proof of principle to suggest that the presence of senescent cells in older organs contributes meaningfully to transplant rejection, via mechanisms that spur greater immune activity. This is of course only one of the ways in which senescent cell accumulation with age contributes to degenerative aging, the dysfunction of cells and tissues throughout the body. It may be possible to apply senolytic treatments that clear senescent cells to donor organs prior to transplantation (preferably), or to the patient immediately following transplantation (with the risk that it will suppress regeneration for a...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 3, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Bidirectional Relationship Between the Gut Microbiome and Aging
The gut microbiome is influential on health over the long term, possible as much so as exercise. That said, research related to aging in this part of the field is comparatively recent, and consequently is far less developed than the long-standing evidence for the effects of exercise on mortality and risk of age-related disease. It seems fairly clear that the gut microbiome changes in characteristic ways with age, becoming less helpful and more harmful. Species that produce beneficial metabolites decline in number and activity, while inflammatory microbial populations grow in size, contributing the state of chronic inflamma...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 2, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Is Age-Related Polyploidy a Beneficial Adaptation to a Damaged Environment?
Cells with abnormal chromosome counts, a state known as aneuploidy, are considered to be a problem. The evidence suggests that such cells accumulate with age, a form of damage and dysfunction that is associated with cellular senescence, and is expected to contribute to age-related degeneration and disease. Here, researchers argue that having duplicate chromosomes, polypoidy, might actually be protective, a beneficial adaptation that emerges in the damaged environment of aged tissues. This may be the case, and it may also be true that it is both protective and harmful. The weight of evidence to date continues to point to an...
Source: Fight Aging! - September 2, 2020 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs