Request for Startups in the Rejuvenation Biotechnology Space, 2021 Edition
For a few years now, I've suggested areas of opportunity in rejuvenation biotechnology in which either (a) it seems quite viable to start a company, given what I've seen going on in industry and academia, or (b) it would be very helpful should someone step up with an approach that works, given the need for a solution. The longevity industry is still young, still small, and countless valuable programs in the aging research field remain waiting to be championed and carried forward to the clinic. The low-hanging fruit is still near all there to be claimed: what is possible is a far greater space than what is presently being a...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Longevity Industry Source Type: blogs

Suppression of Tyrosine Degradation Modestly Extends Life Span in Flies
In conclusion, our studies highlight the important role of the tyrosine degradation pathway and position TAT as a link between neuromediator production, dysfunctional mitochondria, and aging. Link: https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58053 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Supporting Evidence for the Hypothesis that NAD+ Upregulation Increases Cancer Risk
NAD+ levels in the mitochondria decline with age, and this is a proximate cause of reduced mitochondrial function. Approaches to increasing levels of NAD+ in aging cells have been shown to improve metabolism and mitochondrial function in mice, but the evidence is mixed in humans for there to be any meaningful effect on age-related conditions. The common approaches to NAD+ upregulation, meaning supplementation with derivatives of vitamin B3, such as nicotinamide riboside, are about as effective as structured exercise programs in increasing NAD+ levels. There is the suspicion that taking this shortcut - without addin...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Conceptual Shift to (Finally) Seeing Aging as the Cause of Age-Related Disease
The mainstream of the scientific community has for decade after decade followed an entirely incorrect strategy in the matter of aging, and it was only comparatively recently that this state of affairs was changed for the better by the advocacy of groups like the SENS Research Foundation, Methuselah Foundation, and their allies, alongside advances in the science of slowing and reversing aging that couldn't be easily dismissed, much of that funded by philanthropy rather than established institutions. Given a poor strategy, in which age-related diseases were studied separately from aging, and in their end stages, and without ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial Aging as a Contributing Cause of Sarcopenia
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to power cellular processes. When mitochondrial function declines all cell functions are negatively affected as a consequence. Many age-related conditions clearly involve mitochondrial dysfunction, particularly in the most energy-hungry tissues, the muscles and the brain. In addition to damage to the fragile mitochondrial DNA, some forms of which cause a small number of cells to become pathologically broken in ways that actively harms surrounding tissues, all mitochondria throughout the body become more worn and dysfunctional with ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Review of Research into Intermittent Fasting and its Effects on Longevity
Intermittent fasting (such as alternate day fasting) is not as effective as calorie restriction (consistent reduction in calories every day) in extending life span in animal models such as mice, but it does have many of the same effects on health and longevity. Even when total calorie intake is held consistent between intermittent fasting animals and controls, there are still benefits that accrue to the fasting animals. One might conclude that time spent in a state of hunger, with all of the signaling and changes in cell behavior that comes with it, is a meaningful component of the benefits derived from calorie restriction...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Enormous Clinical Potential of Senotherapeutics for the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease
Today's open access review paper is a high level look at what the newfound realization of the importance of senescent cells to aging and age-related disease means for the treatment of chronic kidney disease. At present there are few good options for treatment, and those therapies that are widely used can only slow the progression towards kidney failure. The kidneys filter waste and regulate many of the chemical and other characteristics of blood. Correct function of the kidneys is vital to the correct function of many other organs in the body, including heart, vascular system, and brain. As the kidneys decline, so too does...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Advocating the Use of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation as a Hormetic Treatment
Many forms of mild cellular stress produce benefits to health because they trigger the more efficient operation of cellular maintenance processes such as autophagy. That in turn causes better cell and tissue function, and thus improved health. This stress response and benefit is known as hormesis, and has been robustly proven to take place for calorie restriction, heat, cold, low dose ionizing radiation, and numerous other environmental circumstances. When it comes to slowing aging, the benefits of hormesis to life span are much larger in short-lived species. The short-term changes to metabolism are very similar, however, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

T Cell Response Varies Widely Between Individuals and is Important in Suppressing Cancer
Different individuals can have very different degrees of vulnerability to any given cancer, depending on how aggressively the adaptive immune system responds to that cancer. Researchers here explore some of the mechanisms in T cells responsible for varying vulnerability to cancers - it many cases it is blind luck as to whether or not the T cell population is capable of immediately recognizing a specific lineage of cancerous cells. That T cells are so important to the cancer response may explain why the age-related decline of the thymus correlates very well with rising cancer risk. The thymus is where thymocytes mature into...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

AGEs Contribute to Disc Degeneration via Interaction with RAGE
Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are a form of metabolic waste, sugary compounds that can interact harmfully with structures and cells in the body. A few forms of persistent AGE can form lasting cross-links in the extracellular matrix that change the structural properties of tissues, contributing to the loss of elasticity in skin and blood vessels, for example. Most AGEs are transient compounds, however, associated with the abnormal metabolism of diabetes and the chronic inflammation of aging. Dietary AGEs may also be influential on levels of AGEs in the body, though the size of this contribution is arguable - the bod...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Considering the Ethics of Extending the Healthy Human Life Span
To suffer or become incapacitated is to diminish the utility of being alive. The way to minimize this loss is to work towards removing the causes of suffering and incapacitation. The greatest such causes are medical, and of those, aging is by far the largest. Similarly, to die is to suffer the loss of all that one might have been and done after that time. It is a tragedy that any individual ceases to exist. The way to minimize this loss is to work to remove the causes of death. The greatest such causes are medical, and of those, aging is by far the largest. Ethically, the case for working to extend healthy human life spans...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

SENS Research Foundation on Recent Plasma Dilution Research
The SENS Research Foundation scientific staff here discuss the recent results demonstrating benefits to an aged metabolism resulting from dilution of blood plasma. Plasma dilution is a comparatively simple process, straightforward enough that self-experimenters with the support of physicians recently replicated the animal study protocol in a few human volunteers. Dilution of blood plasma also dilutes harmful signal molecules present in an aged body, such as those generated by an increased burden of lingering senescent cells. This reduces chronic inflammation and improves tissue function in older individuals. When ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Iron Deposition in the Aging Brain Correlates with Glymphatic System Function
In this study, we recruited 213 healthy participants. We evaluated the function of the glymphatic system using the index for diffusivity along the perivascular space (ALPS-index), assessed iron deposition on quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), and analyzed their relationship. The main finding of the current study is that the regional brain iron deposition was related to the function of the glymphatic system. Previously, the glymphatic system has been speculated to be responsible for the clearance and homeostasis of waste in the brain. Our results support that in a healthy aging brain, the glymphatic system mi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The Mitochondrial Transition Pore in Aging
A few papers in recent years have reviewed what is known of the role of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in aging. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, and mitochondrial function is vital to cell and tissue function. Unfortunately, mitochondria become dysfunctional with age, for a variety of reasons that have yet to be firmly traced back to specific root causes. Researchers are engaged in the exploration of proximate causes, such as changing mitochondrial dynamics and loss of mitophagy, the quality control mechanism responsible for removing worn and damaged mitochondria. Changes in the activity of m...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Partial Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex I is Neuroprotective
Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, packaging chemical energy store molecules through the activities of electron transport chain protein complexes. Some forms of interference in the operation of these complexes can be beneficial, causing mild stress that provokes the cell into greater maintenance activities. This usually results in better cell function, greater cell resilience, and so forth, leading to better organ function and a slowing of the aging process. Researchers here demonstrate that this sort of approach is beneficial in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, reducing the damage done to neurons. It is, ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 18, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 18th 2021
In this study, Desferal, deferoxamine mesylate for injection, which is approved for the treatment of acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload, was used to explore the beneficial effects on preventing aging-induced bone loss and mitigating dysfunction of aged BMSCs. High-dose Desferal significantly prevented bone loss in aged rats. Compared with controls, the ex vivo experiments showed that short-term Desferal administration could promote the potential of BMSC growth and improve the rebalance of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, as well as rejuvenate senescent BMSCs and revise the expression of stemness/se...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 17, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

A Few More Mammalian Species Found to Exhibit Amyloid- β and Tau Pathology
The primary challenge in Alzheimer's disease research has long been that short-lived laboratory species do not naturally exhibit any of the features of the condition. Thus all mouse models of the condition are highly artificial genetic constructs, and potential treatments and relevant mechanisms in these models have a high chance of being irrelevant to Alzheimer's disease as it exists in humans. Up until fairly recently it could be argued that humans were in fact the only species to exhibit full blown Alzheimer's disease, involving a lengthy increase in amyloid-β aggregation in the brain, followed by neuroinflammation...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Klotho Links Inflammation, Salt Sensitivity, Hypertension and Mortality in Aging
Klotho is one of the few robustly demonstrated longevity-associated genes. Greater expression extends life in mice, while reduced expression shortens life. Present investigations of the mechanisms by which klotho produces effects on life span are largely focused on the direct actions of klotho in the kidney, and then the effects of kidney function on broader health. Kidney function influences cardiovascular decline and the aging of other organs through a variety of mechanisms. While klotho level is well known to correlate with the degree of cognitive decline with age, this is most likely a demonstration of the importance o...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Hypoxia Mimetic Drug Improves the Bone Marrow Environment to Treat Osteoporosis
In this study, Desferal, deferoxamine mesylate for injection, which is approved for the treatment of acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload, was used to explore the beneficial effects on preventing aging-induced bone loss and mitigating dysfunction of aged BMSCs. High-dose Desferal significantly prevented bone loss in aged rats. Compared with controls, the ex vivo experiments showed that short-term Desferal administration could promote the potential of BMSC growth and improve the rebalance of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, as well as rejuvenate senescent BMSCs and revise the expression of stemness/se...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The 2020 Year End Fundraiser Brought in More than $2 Million for the SENS Research Foundation
The SENS Research Foundation represents the best of charitable organizations working on the treatment of aging as a medical condition. It is well run, focuses on approaches capable of rejuvenation rather than merely modestly slowing aging, devotes funds and attention towards those projects in rejuvenation research that most need support in order to advance, and has a great track record when it comes to helping development programs to make the leap from academic laboratories to commercial development in startup biotech companies. The SENS Research Foundation is near entirely supported by philanthropy, including the d...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

A Continued Focus on Metformin, a Demonstrably Poor Approach to Treating Aging
Metformin is a poster child for the way in which much of the aging research community is focused on approaches to aging that cannot possibly achieve more than a very modest slowing of degeneration, and where the existing evidence strongly suggests that those tiny positive outcomes will be unreliable at best. Metformin is a way to tinker with the operation of a damaged metabolism, not a way to repair that damage. As a calorie restriction mimetic, the animal data shows that it compares very poorly to calorie restriction itself. We know that calorie restriction doesn't do anywhere near enough for human longevity. This is not ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Senescent Cells Provoke Excessive Sympathetic Nerve Fiber Growth, with Harmful Consequences
Senescent cells are created constantly throughout life in response to a range of circumstances, but only begin to accumulate in later life, once there is an imbalance between processes of creation (as a response to cell damage, for example) and processes of destruction (such as immune surveillance of senescent cells). Senescent cells secrete a potent mix of signals that, when sustained over time, provokes chronic inflammation and alters nearby cell behavior and tissue structure in detrimental ways. Researchers are only now attempting to catalog exactly how senescent cells cause harm, given the advent of senolytic therapies...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

KAT7 Inhibition via Gene Therapy Reduces Cellular Senescence in the Liver and Extends Life in Mice
Since the confirmation of cellular senescence as an important contributing cause of aging, a great many research initiatives have focused on the biochemistry of senescent cells, in search of new approaches to rejuvenation therapies. A common strategy in the life sciences is to deactivate genes one by one and observe the results, in search of suitable regulators to change cell behavior. In today's open access paper, researchers report on the results of such a screen of gene functions, identifying KAT7 as a gene important in the regulation of cellular senescence in at least the liver. The researchers screened for gene...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Targeting TGF β to Treat Fibrotic Disease
TGFβ is an important component of the inflammatory signaling of senescent cells, and cellular senescence is involved in the progression of numerous fibrotic and age-related conditions. Chronic inflammation causes tissue maintenance processes to run awry, and fibrosis, the inappropriate deposition of scar-like collagen structures that disrupt tissue function, is one of the possible outcomes. Here, researchers use an established class of compound to target this form of inflammatory signaling, finding that the treatment has a positive impact on fibrotic disease in animal models. This is consistent with other studies that...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Predicting Alzheimer's Disease via Detection of Misfolded Amyloid- β in a Blood Sample
The research community is making progress towards forms of low cost testing for Alzheimer's disease risk. At present, the well established tests are invasive or expensive. The very early stages of Alzheimer's disease, in which symptoms are mild or absent, are characterized by increasing levels of amyloid-β in the brain. However, amyloid-β in the brain is in a state of dynamic equilibrium with amyloid-β in the bloodstream, and in principle a suitable sensitive test can use a blood sample to assess the relevant aspects of amyloid-β burden. It takes years to validate predictions of Alzheimer's risk of cour...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Looking Forward to the Longevity Industry in 2021
Having written retrospectives for 2020, longevity industry observers are now looking forward to what we might expect in 2021. This survey of companies and projects in the longevity industry is unbiased from the point of view of whether or not the treatments under development are expected to have a sizable effect on human aging. Can they slow aging or actually reverse aging meaningfully? It is more focused on progress on startups, business matters, and potential for profit. One of the many issues with the highly regulated medical development market is that success in investment is only somewhat connected to success i...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Longevity Industry Source Type: blogs

Thoughts on the Road to Greater Human Longevity
I recently noticed this scientific commentary, published in a journal not specifically focused on aging. The author is far from the only person to have noticed that priorities in medical research and development do not seem to match up with the major causes of death all that well. It can't hurt to keep on pointing out that research into the most harmful biological processes in the world, meaning the mechanisms that cause aging, is very poorly funded and investigated in comparison to the vast and ongoing toll of death that results. Until aging is defeated, more funding for research into rejuvenation therapies will continue ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Immunosenescence in Alzheimer's Disease
Researchers here catalog the various mechanisms known to be involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease that occur as a result of the aging of the immune system. The immune system becomes less effective with age, but also constantly overactive. It generates constant and unresolved inflammatory signaling that damages tissue structure and disrupts tissue function. All of the common age-related conditions are accelerated and worsened by the chronic inflammation resulting from the age-damaged immune system. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by progressive memory loss, vi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeting Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease
As noted by the authors of today's open access review paper, Alzheimer's disease is just as strongly characterized by chronic inflammation in brain tissue as it is by the presence of aggregates of amyloid-β and phosphorylated tau. More modern views of Alzheimer's disease etiology place more emphasis on chronic inflammation as a cause of pathology, either wrapping it into the amyloid cascade hypothesis, or replacing amyloid-β with inflammatory processes in the progression of the foundational, earlier stage of the condition. The infection-senescence hypothesis, for example, suggests that persistent infection...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Effects of Calorie Restriction on Cognitive Decline
The practice of calorie restriction slows aging and extends healthy life, quite dramatically so in short-lived species, and far more modestly in long-lived species. All of the mechanisms of aging, the forms of damage that accumulate in old tissues and the outcomes of that damage, are affected. Some are affected more than others, however. So it is possible to see some aspects of aging that are less robustly responsive to calorie restriction, such as loss of cognitive function, as noted here. It is interesting to speculate on the specific mechanisms involved in an age-related decline that responds well to life-long ca...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Suggesting Gum Disease Worsens the Progression of Other Conditions via Oxidative Stress Rather than Inflammation
Periodontitis, gum disease, produces chronic inflammation that is thought to worsen the progression of conditions such as cardiovascular disease and dementia, through the size of the effect is debated. Certainly there are good reasons to believe that more chronic inflammatory signaling is worse than less chronic inflammatory signaling. Researchers here suggest that the observed relationship between periodontitis and progression of chronic kidney disease is mediated by excessive production of oxidative molecules rather than by inflammation. Previous studies have shown a link between the severe oral inflammation cau...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 11, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 11th 2021
This study demonstrates the potential of a natural (o-Vanillin) and a synthetic (RG-7112) senolytic compounds to remove senescent IVD cells, decrease SASP factors release, reduce the inflammatory environment and enhance the IVD matrix production. Removal of senescent cells, using senolytics drugs, could lead to improved therapeutic interventions and ultimately decrease pain and a provide a better quality of life of patients living with intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain. From Ying Ann Chiao of Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in aging and cardiovasc...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 10, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Arterial Stiffening with Age Correlates with Structural Damage to the Brain
In this study, we show that an increased rate of arterial stiffening is associated with lower white matter (WM) microstructural integrity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in older age. Furthermore, these associations were present in diffuse brain areas, suggesting that exposure to excess pulsatility may result in a widespread damaging effect on the fragile cerebral microstructure. Cognitive function at follow-up related more closely with baseline arterial stiffness rather than rate of arterial stiffening. Taken together, these findings suggest that although faster rates of arterial stiffening in the transition to old age may ...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Event Report: Aging, Geroscience and Longevity Symposium
This study demonstrates the potential of a natural (o-Vanillin) and a synthetic (RG-7112) senolytic compounds to remove senescent IVD cells, decrease SASP factors release, reduce the inflammatory environment and enhance the IVD matrix production. Removal of senescent cells, using senolytics drugs, could lead to improved therapeutic interventions and ultimately decrease pain and a provide a better quality of life of patients living with intervertebral disc degeneration and low back pain. From Ying Ann Chiao of Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in aging and cardiovasc...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Targeted Delivery of a Short-Lived Radioactive Compound to Cancer Cells
The power of specific targeting of specific cell types is that any cell-killing mechanism can then be delivered. The more efficient the targeting, more more dangerous and effective the cell-killing mechanism can be. The reason why any given cancer therapy is less effective at killing cancer cells than it might be is because the targeting isn't perfect, and thus there is the need to limit the damage to other tissues in the body. A cancer-specific L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is highly expressed in cancer tissues. Inhibiting the function of LAT1 has been known to have anti-tumor effects, but there has been...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Example of High Dose Fisetin Exhibiting Senolytic Effects in Mice
In this study, BLM was used to reproduce PF in mice and induce alveolar epithelial cell senescence to investigate the effect and mechanism of FIS in experimental PF. We found that FIS treatment apparently alleviated BLM-induced weight loss, inflammatory cells infiltration, inflammatory factors expression, collagen deposition and alveolar epithelial cell senescence, along with AMPK activation and the down regulation of NF-κB and TGF-β/Smad3 in vivo. In vitro, FIS administration significantly inhibited the senescence of alveolar epithelial cells and senescence-associated secretory phenotype. FIS may be a promising...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Nanomaterials for the Clearance of Senescent Cells
Senescent cell accumulation is a contributing cause of aging, and targeted destruction of senescent cells with senolytic therapies produces meaningful rejuvenation and reversal of age-related disease in animal models. First generation senolytics are largely repurposed small molecules. Second generation senolytics will include a range of more carefully designed strategies, including the nanoparticles allowing for selective delivery of therapeutics to senescent cells that are the topic of this open access paper. Such nanoparticles can be used as the basis for both detection of senescent cells and their destruction, a promisi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Ageless: The New Science of Getting Older Without Getting Old
is a forthcoming book discussing the aging research community and its newfound interest in treating aging as a medical condition. Aging is the cause of age-related disease and mortality, and far longer, far healthier lives lie ahead in the era in which the mechanisms of aging are targeted, rather than only their consequences. In this popular press article, the author and the book are discussed. The views are sensible and forward-looking, suggesting that it may be worth picking up when it is published in a few months. The author began professional life as a physicist. As a child, he was fascinated by space, the wa...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Sensible Consideration of the State of the Art in the Treatment of Aging as a Medical Condition
It used to be the case that one could write up a summary of where the research community stood on the treatment of aging as a medical condition (which was varying shades of "not that far along towards practical applications, but definitely promising if they get their act together") and then not have to update it all that much for years. Research is slow and uncertain, for one, and secondly there was, for decades, a strong cultural prejudice in the scientific community against trying to apply what was learned about aging to the treatment of aging. Little progress was made as a result. Matters are proceeding...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Report from the 7th Annual Aging Research and Drug Discovery (ARDD) Meeting
Most 2020 conferences were held online as a result of COVID-19, curtailing the networking, discovery, and serendipitous discussion that is most of the point of attending a conference. Presentations were still given and research results announced, however. It remains useful to glance over conference reports for a sense of the mood and focus of the academic research and clinical development communities. A tremendous growth in the proportion of elderly people raises a range of challenges to societies worldwide. Healthy aging should therefore be a main priority for all countries across the globe. However, science behi...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Historical Gains in Life Expectancy Occurred at All Ages, not Just Due to Reduced Child Mortality
Historical gains in life expectancy in the past two centuries, much of it occurring prior to the advent of effective antibiotics, were largely a matter of control over infectious disease via public health measures such as sanitation, coupled to a rising standard of living. A sizable amount of the gain in life expectancy at birth is due to reduced infant mortality, but this isn't the whole story. It is worth noting, as in this article from a few months ago, that the data shows remaining life expectancy at all ages heading upward over time. Reducing the burden of infectious disease has effects at all ages, not only due to in...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Exercise as a Mild Senotherapeutic
Exercise is known to improve health and extend the healthy portion of life span, but not extend life span itself in mice. This is a much lesser effect than that of calorie restriction, which does extend maximum life span in addition to improving health. From a very high level view, both exercise and calorie restriction are similar, in that they trigger many of the same stress response mechanisms, making those mechanisms work harder to maintain cell function than they would otherwise have done. Evidently exercise and calorie restriction achieve this goal in quite different ways at the detail level, given the quite different...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Declining Resilience as a Manifestation of Aging
Resilience, meaning the ability to recover from wounds, infection, and other forms of damage, is more or less the flip side of frailty in aging. Frailty increases, resilience decreases. A damaged system is less robustly resilient to further damage, as reliability theory tells us. Degenerative aging is precisely an accumulation of cell and tissue damage at the molecular level, followed by all the myriad downstream dysfunctions and breakages caused by that damage. When we approach the treatment of aging, the guiding principle should be a focus on root cause damage and repair of that damage. Decline in biological res...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

A Subset of Fat Tissue Cells is Largely Responsible for the Inflammation Generated by Excess Visceral Fat Tissue
Scientists here suggest that the chronic inflammation generated by visceral fat tissue, an important form of metabolic disarray that drives age-related disease and dysfunction, is not produced by all fat cells. Indeed, it may be primarily produced by a specific type of progenitor cell lining blood vessels in fat tissue. This is an interesting demonstration, but it remains the case that the best solution to excess visceral fat is never to obtain it in the first place. The effects of visceral fat on metabolism quite literally accelerate the progression of degenerative aging. When a person consumes more calories than...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

An Update on Progress at Tissue Engineering Company Lygenesis
The development programs conducted at Lygenesis came about as a result of an academic researcher who followed up on the realization that the positioning of some organs in the body is arbitrary. Much of the function of organs like the liver and the thymus could be carried out in any location that is well-supplied with blood and easily accessible to roving cells. The liver is a chemical factory, producing and consuming various proteins and metabolites. The thymus is a cell factory; thymocytes migrate to the organ from the bone marrow, and once there are transformed into T cells of the adaptive immune system via their interac...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 4, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Longevity Industry Source Type: blogs

Frail Older Individuals Exhibit a Worse Response to Vaccination
Frailty is usually accompanied by greater immune dysfunction, given that chronic inflammation is a strong component of both immune aging and the various dysfunctions of frailty. Thus frail individuals exhibit a worse response to vaccinations intended to prevent infectious disease. This is unfortunate, as this is the population in greatest need of the defense of vaccination. This is illustrated every year by the toll of deaths due to influenza, and particularly this year by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. A great deal of effort goes into attempts to improve vaccine efficiency (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - January 4, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Moonshots for the Treatment of Aging: Less Incrementalism, More Ambition
There is far too much incrementalism in the present research and development of therapies to treat aging. Much of the field is engaged in mimicking calorie restriction or repurposing existing drugs that were found to increase mouse life span by a few percentage points. This will not meaningfully change the shape of human life, but nonetheless costs just as much as efforts to achieve far more. If billions of dollars and the efforts of thousands of researchers are to be devoted to initiatives to treat aging, then why not pursue the ambitious goal of rejuvenation and adding decades to healthy life spans? It is just as plausib...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 4, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, January 4th 2021
The objective of this study is to quantify the overall and cancer type-specific risks of subsequent primary cancers (SPCs) among adult-onset cancer survivors by first primary cancer (FPC) types and sex. Among 1,537,101 survivors (mean age, 60.4 years; 48.8% women), 156,442 SPC cases and 88,818 SPC deaths occurred during 11,197,890 person-years of follow-up (mean, 7.3 years). Among men, the overall risk of developing any SPCs was statistically significantly higher for 18 of the 30 FPC types, and risk of dying from any SPCs was statistically significantly higher for 27 of 30 FPC types as compared with risks in the general po...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 3, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Mitochondrial DNA in Extracellular Vesicles Declines with Age
A sizable fraction of cell signaling is conveyed via extracellular vesicles, tiny membrane-wrapped packages of molecules. Here researchers note that mitochondrial DNA is found inside extracellular vesicles, and that the amount declines with age. Other researchers have determined that entire mitochondria are exported and taken up by cells, so one has to carefully read the methods used in papers like this to ensure that researchers are in fact looking at the smaller extracellular vesicles only. These vesicles are sorted into category by size, and selecting by size is an established capability. It is speculated that tr...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 1, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Old Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplanted into Young Bone Marrow Do Not Regain Function
Epigenetic modifications to DNA, gene expression, and cell function all change for the worse in stem cells in old tissues. Researchers here show that putting old hematopoietic stem cells into a young tissue environment acts to reverse many of these changes to the transcriptome, the manufacture of RNA that is the first stage of gene expression, but has far less benefit when it comes to epigenetic changes and loss of cell function. Epigenetic modifications regulate gene expression, and gene expression determines cell behavior, so it is interesting to see such a divergence in outcomes between these properties of cells. Both r...
Source: Fight Aging! - January 1, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs