Peptide Coated Nanoparticles as a Basis for a Non-Invasive Test for Cancer
A reliable, low-cost means of early detection of cancer would be of great benefit. Approaches to the treatment are advancing to the point at which very early stage cancer has a high rate of survival, and the side-effects of treatments for early stage cancer are becoming less onerous. In the ideal world, a yearly physical would include a low-cost cancer screen that robustly detects even small volumes of cancerous tissue. Various approaches are under development, such as those based on identification of signal molecules in the bloodstream. The alternative approach noted here, based on the use of engineered nanoparticles, is ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 27, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Elamipretide Increases Mitochondrial Production of ATP for a Short Time After Administration
Stealth BioTherapeutics develops elamipretide, a mitochondrially targeted peptide that appears to improve mitochondrial function in older individuals. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cell, producing the chemical energy store molecule ATP to power cellular operations. Mitochondria falter with age, however, negatively affecting tissue function throughout the body. Here, researchers note a short term gain in ATP production following elamipretide infusion. The results in detail make it clear that individual responses are highly variable, but the average settles down to a statistically significant 27% gain. Like...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 27, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Endothelial Cell Senescence Accelerates Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis, a condition in which fatty lesions form to narrow, weaken, and distort blood vessel walls, might be primarily thought of as a condition of macrophage dysfunction. The innate immune cells called macrophages are responsible for clearing out unwanted lipids from blood vessel walls. Unfortunately, the growing prevalence of oxidized lipids and an inflammatory environment arising in later life causes macrophages to falter at this task. Macrophages become inflammatory rather than helpful in the lesion environment, then are overwhelmed and die, but are still attracted in ever greater numbers to swell the size of t...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 26, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Discussion of Traditional Geriatric Assessment versus Biological Biomarkers to Measure Aging
The authors of this paper argue for a greater use of more traditional measures of age-related frailty as the research community expands efforts to find biological biomarkers to measure the progression of aging. It is true that some groups have used weighted combinations of existing clinical tests, such as grip strength, walking speed, and so forth, to produce biomarkers of aging that are not that different in accuracy when compared to epigenetic clocks and the like. It seems likely that there is more room for long term improvement in terms of accuracy and utility on the biomarker side of the house, however. Biolo...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 26, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

All Too Much of the Demographic Data on Survival to Extreme Old Age is of Poor Quality
There are many challenges inherent in trying to learn something about aging through analysis of the demographics of extreme human longevity. First of all, there are just not that many supercentenarians, making it very hard to obtain enough data to make statistically sound inferences about health, tied as it is to the many complex and varied processes of aging. Secondly, and as illustrated by the paper here, much of the data that might otherwise be useful is of poor quality due to issues of fraud and lax recordkeeping. The concentration of remarkable-aged individuals, within geographic regions or 'blue zones' or wi...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 26, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

It is Plausible that Continual Removal of Senescence Cells Would Impair Regeneration and Limit Benefits to Life Span
The accumulation of senescent cells with advancing age is harmful. Selectively destroying those cells, even as few as a third of them, and even just once in later life, produces significant benefits to health and life span in mice. Cells become senescent in response to molecular damage, or to the signaling of nearby senescent cells, or on reaching the Hayflick limit on cell replication, or in response to tissue injury. In youth, senescent cells are rapidly clearly by the immune system and programmed cell death, but in later life the balance of creation and destruction is tipped towards an ever-increasing number of such cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 23, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

YAP Upregulation as a Potentially Broad Basis for Cancer Therapies
The future of cancer therapy, and ultimately an end to cancer, will be built atop mechanisms that are as close to universal as possible, such as inhibition of telomere lengthening, or that are relevant to a large fraction of cancers, such as the example noted here. Only broadly applicable mechanisms allow for the cost-effective development of therapies, treatments that can be proven in a few forms of cancers and then immediately deployed to treat many other forms of cancer. Biochemically, cancers are highly variable, even within the same type, and the cancer subtype by cancer subtype approach to medical development has bee...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 23, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Treating Aging as a Medical Condition Should Long Have Been a Priority
Aging kills most people in the world, and near all people in the wealthier parts of the world. It doesn't just kill, but also produces decades of declining health and capabilities, increased pain and suffering. Addressing the causes of aging, uncovering the mechanisms of aging and treating them, should have been the top priority in medicine ever since the advent of modern antibiotics allowed for control over the majority of infectious disease. Decades in which meaningful progress could have taken place have been wasted, and work on the mechanisms of aging is still only a small field within the life sciences, a small indust...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 23, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cellular Senescence in Lung Fibrosis
Senescent cells accumulate in tissues throughout the body with age. The produce inflammatory sections that actively maintain a disrupted state of tissue maintenance, structure, and function. Targeted removal of senescent cells has produced rejuvenation in mice, reversal of measures of aging and the progression of numerous age-related conditions. One of the ways in which tissue is affected by senescent cells is the development of fibrosis, a malfunction of tissue maintenance that leads to the inappropriate deposition of scar-like structures and consequent loss of function. This occurs in numerous organs with age, notably th...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Aortic Stiffness Correlates with Cognitive Decline in Older Individuals
Many aspects of aging correlate with one another, only some of which are directly causally connected, rather than emerging from the same underlying cell and tissue damage that drives aging as a whole. We might expect dysfunction in the vascular system to contribute directly to neurodegeneration and loss of function in the brain. Stiffening of blood vessel walls causes hypertension, which in turn leads to a greater pace of rupture of capillaries throughout the body. Each of these events is individually insignificant, a very tiny stroke in effect, but this adds up over time. The more structural damage to the brain, the worse...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing Mechanisms of Vascular Aging
In conclusion, HIF-1α may be a potential therapeutic target in vascular diseases, particularly in vascular aging. Link: https://doi.org/10.1002/agm2.12151 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - July 22, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Foresight Institute Salons on Aging Biomarkers and Clocks
The Foresight Institute folk have been quite active over the course of a year of lockdown, running virtual gatherings and regular presentations, in which you'll find more than just the usual Bay Area communities of forward-looking individuals. The interests of the Foresight Institute principals include molecular nanotechnology, artificial general intelligence, and rejuvenation biotechnology, and so you will probably find at least a few of this year's salon presentations interesting. The selection of events noted below are linked by the theme of biomarkers to measure the progression of degenerative aging. Aging is th...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Development of a Safe Mitochondrial Uncoupler, OPC-163493
We describe here the optimization process from initial screening hit compound to a liver-localized mitochondrial uncoupler OPC-163493, which recently demonstrated its potent antidiabetic and cardiovascular beneficial effects with acceptable safety. Link: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01993 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Towards Minimally Invasive Exosome Therapies for Internal Organ Regeneration
Targeted delivery of therapeutics remains one of the thorny issues in medical development. Everyone wants a way to deliver high doses of a therapeutic to a specific location in the body without it also ending up everywhere else. The major issue is that systemic administration will send the majority of whatever is injected into the body into the liver and lungs, and that limits the dose that can be applied to any other tissue. One approach is to conduct localized injections, but these remain a good option for internal organs only in cases of serious damage. For example, researchers here report on the adaptation of keyhole s...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 21, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

The Expectation of a Poor Quality of Later Life Encourages People to Want an Earlier Death
This study investigated the relationship between six hypothetic situations and PLE: dementia, spousal death, becoming a burden, poverty, loneliness, or chronic pain. The finding that dementia had the strongest negative effect on PLE concurs with prior studies suggesting a widespread fear of dementia. Chronic pain was also strongly associated with lower PLE in this study. For many people, chronic pain has been found to reduce quality of life and limit opportunities for social activities. It is also noteworthy that the third-highest ranked reason for lower PLE in this study was the belief that one represents a burden. Percei...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Of Interest Source Type: blogs

The Road to Low Cost Universal Cells and Tissues, For Transplantation into Any Patient
An area of intense interest in the academic and biotechnology communities is the development of cells that do not provoke an immune response due to mismatch of cell surface receptors. As a general rule, cells from one individual are rejected by any other individual. It is possible to minimize this outcome by eliminating MHC receptors, but there are other complex interactions between cell surface chemistry and portions of the immune system that can still act as a barrier to transplantation. A number of groups have developed approaches to address specific parts of this problem space, but no one winner has yet emerged. At the...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Immune Aging Clock Identifies CXCL9 as a Target to Suppress Age-Related Inflammation
Researchers are increasingly making use of machine learning approaches in order to produce measures of biological age, known as clocks, derived from weighted combinations of biological data: epigenetic status, protein levels, transcript levels, and so forth. In most such clocks, it is unclear as to how the underlying processes of aging act to produce the identified epigenetic marks or differences in protein levels. Researchers here build a protein-based clock that is restricted to immune system signaling molecules that are found in blood samples. Working backwards from the proteins identified as being important to the cloc...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 20, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

SENS Research Foundation Raises at Least $20 Million in the First Two Days of the Pulse Chain Airdrop
A warning: we're going to be talking about the strange world of blockchains and cryptocurrency today, about which I am far less informed than is the case for matters relating to aging. Blockchains are a way to solve problems in distributed collaboration, allowing enforcement of transactions and outcomes without the need for a trusted third party. Implementations to date, most notably Bitcoin and Ethereum, have used the cost of large amounts of computation as the barrier that prevents cheating, but that requires a collectively equally large ongoing expenditure on computation on the part of participants in the network. That ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Activism, Advocacy and Education Source Type: blogs

Flies Raised in a Germ-Free Environment Exhibit Normal Aging by Some Measures and Very Little Aging by Other Measures
Raising animals in germ-free environments, including the absence of a gut microbiome, is a difficult and expensive undertaking, but it is known to slow the pace of aging in a variety of species, including mice. Researchers here work with flies, digging deeper into the mechanisms by which the absence of microbial species produces this outcome. At the high level we might take these studies to underscore the importance of the immune system in aging, and the degree to which it is negatively impacted by life-long interaction with various microbial species. That removal of pathogens is beneficial tells us something about the pri...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Older People Are Largely Not Active Enough for Good Health
If regular exercise were a drug, it would be prescribed for everyone - and particularly older people, given that the reductions in risk of mortality and many age-related conditions are sizable in comparison to what can be achieved via medical technology at the present time. Frailty and sarcopenia in particular are amenable to treatment via structured exercise programs: a perhaps surprisingly large degree of the loss of muscle mass and strength is a matter of disuse in later life, rather than the presently unavoidable damage of aging. Yet we live in a world in which near everyone in wealthier regions of the world exercises ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 19, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 19th 2021
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 18, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Assessing Risk of Age-Related Disease is a Hard Problem, as Presently Attempted
As is discussed in today's open access paper, determining the risk of age-related disease is far from a solved problem. This is true even for cardiovascular disease, caused by degenerative processes that occur in every individual over the course of later life, and which would kill everyone in a world absent other fatal age-related conditions. Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk has received decades of sizable funding, large studies, and considerable attention from the research and medical communities. And yet it is still possible to write a lengthy paper on the very real shortcomings of present assessment approaches....
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

The Interaction of Senescent Cells and Macrophages in Fibrosis
The interaction between senescent cells and macrophages is of great importance to wound healing. Differences in the behavior of these two cell types appear critical to proficient regeneration in species like salamanders versus poor regeneration and scarring in mammals. Fibrosis is a malfunction of tissue maintenance and regeneration, in which excessive scarring takes place, disrupting tissue function and structure. This too is connected to the presence and behavior of senescent cells and macrophages. In old individuals, there is a background of raised inflammatory signaling and a growth in lingering senescent cells. One wa...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

It is Easy to Produce Omics Data, Harder to Achieve Useful Progress Based on that Data
The enormous reduction in cost and increase in capacity for analysis of living biochemistry over the past 20 years has led to vast warehouses of omics data: information on genomes, epigenomes, expression of transcripts and proteins, and more. Making something of this data in a reliable way is a more challenging proposition, and remains a work in progress. More data is almost always good in the long run, but the goal of science is understanding, not implementation. The data revolution in biotechnology may not greatly change the nature of the fastest path to human rejuvenation, which is to implement the SENS proposals for da...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 16, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

SENS Research Foundation is Hiring Scientists to Work on the Foundations of Human Rejuvenation
The SENS Research Foundation is hiring scientists! This is a chance to work at one of the hubs of the field of aging research, with a highly influential group of researchers and patient advocates. The SENS Research Foundation and its network of allies have played an important role in turning investigation of the mechanisms of aging from a toy field, in which intervention was never considered, into a serious field of translational research that has given rise to a growing biotech industry focused on slowing and reversing the processes of aging. In addition to advocacy, the SENS Research Foundation staff work to unblock slow...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Healthy Life Extension Community Source Type: blogs

Ferroptosis in Aging
Ferroptosis is a mode of programmed cell death that manages to be both fairly well explored in the broader research community and far less visible than other programmed cell death processes. It was first named and described about a decade ago, though of course researchers have long explored aspects of its biochemistry. There is some thought that ferroptosis may be connected to lysosomal dysfunction and accumulation of molecular waste in long-lived cells of the central nervous system, but in general it isn't much mentioned in the aging research field. This paper here provides an overview of why ferroptosis might be an inter...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Chronic Inflammation Negatively Impacts Proteostasis in Aging Tissues
Proteostasis describes the steady state of a cell, maintaining an appropriate balance of various forms of protein machinery in order to enable continued normal function. With advancing age, proteostasis becomes disrupted in numerous complicated ways. This is a downstream outcome of underlying molecular damage, the reactions to that damage, and immediate consequences of that damage. When a machine becomes worn and broken, it functions poorly. That is a simple thing to observe in a simple machine, but a cell is an enormously complex machine, and exhibits enormously complex dysfunctions as it departs from the proteostasis tha...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 15, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat Chronic Inflammation and Frailty
Today's open access commentary is a good companion piece to a recent paper covering the use of mesenchymal stem cell therapies to suppress age-related chronic inflammation. These first generation stem cell therapies have proven to be unreliable when it comes to the original goal of regeneration of organ function, but they do reliably reduce excessive inflammation for some months. Transplanted stem cells near all fail to survive and engraft. Some clinics report better results than others on this front, but there is little understanding at present as to why similar cells sources and methodologies can produce wildly different...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

CD40L Inhibition as an Approach to Reduce Inflammation in Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory condition. It is caused by dysfunction in the macrophage populations responsible for maintaining blood vessel walls, allowing fatty plaques to form, eventually leading to heart attack and stroke. This dysfunction is aggravated by a background of inflammatory signaling, and so there is some interest in finding ways to selectively interfere without preventing the beneficial activation of inflammation needed for normal immune function. That said, studies suggest that targeting inflammation in atherosclerosis is no more helpful than reductions in blood cholesterol, which is to say a modest re...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Dihomo- γ-linoleic Acid as a Basis for Senolytic Therapy
This interview with a researcher working on the biochemistry of senescent cells notes the exploration of dihomo-γ-linoleic acid and derived compounds as potential senotherapeutics, capable of reducing the burden of senescent cells in old animals. At the end of the day there will be a very large number of such approaches, as the animal data for rejuvenation resulting from the clearance of senescent cells is impressive enough to drive a considerable growth in funding and interest. A sizable number of biotech companies are working on drugs to selectively destroy senescent cells, and many more programs are in earlier sta...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 14, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Why Do Some Older People Retain a Good Memory?
The myriad ways in which the brain changes with age are in some ways very well explored, but overall still a dark forest, little understood in fine detail. One approach to gain greater understanding of the processes that cause declining cognitive function with age is to compare people with good function and people with poor function, first categorizing, and then secondly assessing the properties of the brain, as best researchers are able to do so, given limited access to the inside of the cranium. Today's research materials are an example of this sort of research, focused on trying to better understand why some older peopl...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Castration Delays Epigenetic Aging in Male Sheep
In this study, we developed the first epigenetic clock for domesticated sheep (Ovis aries), which can predict chronological age with a median absolute error of 5.1 months. We have discovered that castrated male sheep have a decelerated aging rate compared to intact males, mediated at least in part by the removal of androgens. Furthermore, we identified several androgen-sensitive CpG dinucleotides that become progressively hypomethylated with age in intact males, but remain stable in castrated males and females. Comparable sex-specific methylation differences in MKLN1 also exist in bat skin and a range of mouse tissu...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearance of Senescent Cells as an Approach to Limit Scar Formation in Nerve Injury
Senescent cell behavior following injury is different and the clearance of these cells much more efficient in species like zebrafish and salamanders capable of regrowing organs. Researchers here suggest that senolytic therapies to selectively destroy senescent cells could be used in mammals to limit the scar formation that follows nerve injury, an important goal in enabling regrowth and restoration of nerve function. Their particular interest is spinal cord injury, their work should be applicable to the rest of the nervous system as well. Mammals have a poor ability to recover after a spinal cord injury which can ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 13, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Is Depletion of Soluble Amyloid- β the Reason Why Amyloid is Important in Alzheimer's Disease?
The long years of failure to improve outcomes in Alzheimer's disease patients via the development of immunotherapies targeting amyloid-β has provoked a great deal of alternative theorizing and new exploration regarding the causes of the condition. The amyloid cascade hypothesis of the progression of Alzheimer's disease is being modified in numerous ways. In its original form, the formation of deposits of misfolded amyloid-β causes inflammation and other forms of disarray that sets the stage for later aggregation of tau into neurofibrillary tangles, which leads to the widespread death of neurons. Some resea...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

A Reminder that Merely Elevated Blood Pressure Still Increases Cardiovascular Disease Risk
The old guidelines for systolic blood pressure drew the line for increased risk of cardiovascular disease at 140 mmHg, with higher systolic blood pressure defined as hypertension. That dividing line was then moved down to 130 mmHg. In the past few years, further evidence has shown that elevated systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg or above still produces increased risk, and that one shouldn't feel comfortable and safe in the 120-129 mmHg range. The risk of cardiovascular disease scales up with increasing blood pressure, and as noted here, also with the modern lifestyle choices leading to excess fat tissue, metabolic disease...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Towards Direct Reprogramming of Cardiac Cells to Induce Regeneration in the Heart
Researchers have for some years proposed reprogramming of scar tissue cells in the injured heart as a way to produce a regrowth of healthy tissue, an outcome that does not normally occur. The heart is one of the least regenerative organs in mammals, and injury produces scarring and loss of function. A great deal of effort has gone towards the establishment of cell therapies to treat heart injuries, with some limited success, but reprogramming of native cells may prove to be a better option in the long term. As noted here, however, there is a great deal of work left to accomplish between the present state of the art and a f...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 12, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fight Aging! Newsletter, July 12th 2021
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated cumulative SBP or DBP was independently associated with increased risk of CVD in the Chinese population. Among participants with 15-year cumulative BP levels higher than the median, that is, 1970.8/1239.9 mmHg-year for cumulative SBP/DBP, which was equivalent to maintaining SBP/DBP level higher than 131/83 mmHg in 15 years, the CVD risk would increase significantly irrespective of whether or not the BP measurements at one examination was high. Our findings emphasize the importance of cumulative BP level in identifying individuals with high risk of CVD in the future. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 11, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

Disruption of Elastin in the Aging Skin, and the Little that Can Presently Be Done About It
The flexibility of skin, and other elastic tissue such as blood vessel walls, depends upon the structural arrangement of elastin in the extracellular matrix. Elastin is largely laid down during the developmental period of life, and not much repaired thereafter. Disruption of this structure is progressive over time, and is a major contribution to the changing physical properties and appearance of aging skin. The effects on blood vessels and other internal tissues are more important: loss of elasticity in blood vessels cascades to cause a great deal of downstream damage and dysfunction via its effects on blood pressure, on d...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Delivery of α-klotho as a Basis for Neuroprotective Treatments
Klotho is one of the few well-established longevity-associated genes that works in both directions in animal models: less klotho shortens life span, while more klotho extends life. Klotho also improves cognitive function. The mechanisms by which klotho produces these outcomes remain poorly understood: there is the usual grab-bag of identified mechanisms, and little idea as to which are more or less important than the others, or as to whether the list is even near complete. In recent years, research results have indicated that klotho likely undertakes its important functions in the kidneys rather than the brain, and its eff...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Glucose Metabolism Becomes Insufficient to Meet the Energy Demands of the Aging Hippocampus
This study sought to investigate the activity-dependent changes in glucose metabolism of the mouse hippocampus during aging. In brief, after 1 hour of contextual exploration in an enriched environmental condition or 1 hour in a familiar home cage condition, metabolites were measured from the hippocampus of both young adult and aged mice with metabolomic profiling. Compared to the home cage context, the enriched contextual exploration condition resulted in changes in the concentration of 11 glucose metabolism-related metabolites in the young adult hippocampus. In contrast, glucose metabolism-related metabolite change...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 9, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Using Supercentenarian Data to Estimate Future Increases in Maximum Human Life Span
In today's research materials, scientists attempt to model future increases in maximum human longevity based on past data for supercentenarians, people aged 110 and older. This is an interesting exercise, but I think that all of the results have to be taken with a sizable grain of salt. Firstly, the data for extreme human outliers in longevity isn't great. A lot of it is of poor quality, and the portions that are well maintained do not include a sizable number of people. There are few survivors to such exceptional ages, which makes it hard to call any analysis of that data truly robust. This is a problem that afflicts all ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Cellular Processes Involved in Brain Aging
The paper here is a representative example of much of the mainstream of research into aging, in that it is focused on processes that are well downstream of the causes of aging. In effect they are mechanistic symptoms of aging, the taxonomy of disruptions to the normal operation of cells and tissues that is the result of the underlying processes of damage accumulation that drive aging. It is likely that focusing on downstream outcomes of aging will result in an expensive path to poor therapies, at least in comparison to a focus on the underlying causes of these outcomes. The results of damage are more complicated to underst...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Epigenetic Rejuvenation During Embryogenesis
It is well established that early embryonic development involves a process of rejuvenation. As much as possible of the molecular damage characteristic of adult cells is stripped away. The development of cellular reprogramming to produce induced pluripotent stem cells has provided researchers with additional insight into some of this mechanisms of this process of embryonic rejuvenation, such as the resetting of epigenetic patterns and restoration of mitochondrial function. Using epigenetic clocks to assess embryonic cells at various stages of development produces interesting results, as shown here. Aging is charact...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 8, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cellular Senescence in the Context of Aging, Metabolism, and Epigenetics
The accumulation of senescent cells is clearly an important contribution to the progression of degenerative aging. This was firmly established to be the case not by the careful examination of mechanisms, because it is very challenging to assign relative significance to the many different processes involved in aging, but rather by the selective removal of senescent cells in mice. The best way, and possibly the only practical way at the present time, to establish the relevance of a mechanism to aging and disease is to very selectively block just that mechanism and then observe the results. In the case of senescent cel...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Applying Chimeric Receptor Antigens to Natural Killer Cells to Target Solid Cancers
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology was first applied to T cells of the adaptive immune system. A patient's T cells are extracted, engineered to express a surface feature that matches to the patient's cancer cells, expanded in culture, and introduced back into the body. This has proven to be highly effective against forms of leukemia. Researchers are attempting to apply this approach to other varieties of immune cell, and thus allow a greater range of efficacy against various classes of cancer. Here, researchers report on their efforts to engineer natural killer cells to recognize patient cancers. Modified ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Tryptophan and Age-Related Changes in the Gut Microbiome
Researchers here suggest that reduced tryptophan intake can change the balance of populations in the gut microbiome to favor inflammatory microbes. Diet in late life is often deficient, with consequences that can approach outright malnutrition. It seems unlikely that this is a major issue earlier in life, however, and the gut microbiome exhibits harmful shifts in composition as early as the mid-30s. The influence of changes in the gut microbiome on health may be in a similar range to those of exercise, so it is a topic of growing interest in the research community. Ways to preserve or reset the gut microbiome have been dem...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 7, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Macrophage Dysfunction is the Important Target if Seeking to Treat Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of fatty plaques in blood vessel walls, narrowing and weakening vessels. It leads to heart failure, as well as heart attack and stroke as the result of rupture of a blood vessel or plaque. Near all treatments for atherosclerosis are preventative, which is the better approach to medicine, and are focused on the outcome of lowering LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream, which is, unfortunately, not the better approach to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is, at root, a condition caused by macrophage dysfunction. Macrophages are the innate immune cells tasked with clearing ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Indoles Produced by the Gut Microbiome Increase Neurogenesis
There is good evidence for butyrate produced by the gut microbiome to increase neurogenesis via upregulation of BDNF. Here researchers show that indoles produced by gut microbes, via processing of tryptophan, also result in the outcome of increased neurogenesis. The balance of microbial species in the gut microbiome changes with age in ways that reduce this production of beneficial metabolites, as well as increasing the activity of harmful species that provoke the immune system into chronic inflammation. The combination of these issues may be as influential as physical activity on long-term health, judging from the benefit...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Combined Duration and Degree of Hypertension a Better Correlation with Cardiovascular Risk
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated cumulative SBP or DBP was independently associated with increased risk of CVD in the Chinese population. Among participants with 15-year cumulative BP levels higher than the median, that is, 1970.8/1239.9 mmHg-year for cumulative SBP/DBP, which was equivalent to maintaining SBP/DBP level higher than 131/83 mmHg in 15 years, the CVD risk would increase significantly irrespective of whether or not the BP measurements at one examination was high. Our findings emphasize the importance of cumulative BP level in identifying individuals with high risk of CVD in the future. ...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 6, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Telomerase and Follistatin Gene Therapies Delivered via Cytomegalovirus Extend Life in Mice
Upregulation of telomerase expression and, separately, follistatin expression have been shown to extend life in mice. In recent news, researchers report a novel approach to delivering these two genes via gene therapy, making use of cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a vector. CMV is actually a major threat to human health, and might be responsible for a great deal of the age-related decline of the immune system. Near everyone is infected by the time old age rolls around. Nonetheless, one can develop viral vectors in which replication (and thus any threat of infection) is disabled, and these are widely used as tools in research and d...
Source: Fight Aging! - July 5, 2021 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs