What Has Omics Data Taught Us About Dementia?
An enormous amount of biological data can now be obtained from any given study population, and at reasonable cost. The resulting databases have grown to become very large. The epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, microbiome, and much more, are at the fingertips of every epidemiological researcher, at multiple time points, before and after interventions, and at different ages. It is easy enough to find differences in the data between more healthy subjects and patients suffering from one or more age-related conditions. It is a harder task to build upon that data in order to find useful therapies. Aging causes swee...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 4, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Senescent Cells as a Contributing Cause of Inflammatory Gum Disease
Gum disease has bacterial causes, but the activities of senescent cells are implicated in the progression of the condition, as well as consequent bone loss and potential for oral cancer. When present in even comparatively small numbers, lingering senescent cells can disrupt tissue structure and function with their pro-growth, pro-inflammatory signaling. Many degenerative conditions characterized by chronic inflammation might be improved by the application of senolytic therapies capable of selectively destroying senescent cells. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which accumulates over the course...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 4, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Cell Membrane Changes in Brain Aging
Researchers here discuss what is know of changes that take place with age in cell membranes in the brain, and how they might negatively affect cell function. Like many aspects of aging, connecting these changes to the set of underlying mechanisms that cause aging is a challenging prospect, yet to be accomplished. Everything changes with age, and drawing connections between any two of those changes in order to demonstrate causation is a hard task. Aging affects the plasma membrane of all the cells of the body, not only its composition and structure but also the function of its different components. Any change in th...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 4, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reviewing Approaches to Treating Transthyretin Amyloidosis
Transthyretin amyloidosis may be a primary component of the present limit on human longevity. Transthyretin is one of the few proteins in the human body that can misfold in ways that encourage other molecules of the same protein to misfold in the same way, joining together form solid aggregates that disrupt cell and tissue function. This is particularly an issue in the cardiovascular system, and while it is presently thought that transthyretin amyloidosis only contributes to a minority of fatal cardiovascular disease in younger old age, autopsies of supercentenarians suggested that it is the major cause of death in the old...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

What is the Relationship Between Hearing Loss and Alzheimer's Disease?
Age-related hearing loss correlates with the risk of onset and progression of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. There is some question as to whether this correlation exists because similar processes of neurodegeneration produce both outcomes, or whether one drives the other, or whether there is a bidirectional relationship. It seems plausible that reduced sensory input can accelerate decline of neural networks that run on a "use it or lose it" basis, though current thinking is also focused on reduced quality of sensory input causing functional issues in neural processing. Either way, the question re...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

BDNF-TrkB Interaction as a Potential Target for Novel Senolytic Therapies
In this study, a drug library screen uncovered TrkB (NTRK2) inhibitors capable of triggering apoptosis of several senescent, but not proliferating, human cells. Senescent cells expressed high levels of TrkB, which supported senescent cell viability, and secreted the TrkB ligand BDNF. The reduced viability of senescent cells after ablating BDNF signaling suggested an autocrine function for TrkB and BDNF, which activated ERK5 and elevated BCL2L2 levels, favoring senescent cell survival. Treatment with TrkB inhibitors reduced the accumulation of senescent cells in aged mouse organs. We propose that the activation of Tr...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 3, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Growth Hormone Receptor Knockout in Adipose Tissue Extends Life in Mice
The record for mouse life span is held by growth hormone receptor knockout lineages, approaching a 70% gain, but a lot of that increase is due to early life effects. These animals are very small in comparison to their peers. In comparison, growth hormone receptor knockout in adulthood has a greater impact on female mice than on male mice, and the gain in life span is much reduced. In today's open access paper, researchers demonstrate another approach, generating a lineage of mice in which growth hormone receptor is only disabled in fat tissue. Again, the outcomes are different in male and female mice, and smaller than thos...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 2, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Control of Blood Pressure Reduces Dementia Risk
Raised blood pressure produces damage to tissues throughout the body. That control of blood pressure via antihypertensive drugs, forcing better function without addressing any of the underlying causative damage of aging, does in fact reduce mortality in later life is a compelling indication of the degree to which raised blood pressure is directly harmful. In the brain, manifestations of this harm include an acceleration of the processes of atherosclerosis, disruption of the blood-brain barrier leading to brain inflammation, and an increase in the pace at which capillaries and other small vessels rupture, all of this damage...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 2, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Alex Zhavoronkov's Longevity Pledge
Alex Zhavoronkov founded one of the earlier companies in the now growing longevity industry, In Silico Medicine. There is a cycle in every industry, in which founders of successful companies tend to invest a fraction of their gains in new startups, either directly or via industry-focused funds, and act as philanthropists in support of relevant academic research. This reinforces and accelerates growth. The early longevity industry contains a good number of zealots willing to do more than invest only a fraction of their wealth. Thinking a great deal about health, aging, mortality, and medicine tends to focus the mind on what...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 2, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Prevention of Microgliosis Reduces Early Progression of Alzheimer's Disease in Mice
Microglia are innate immune cells of the brain, akin to macrophages elsewhere in the body, but with a larger portfolio of tasks, extending beyond defense against pathogens and aiding in tissue repair to include assisting in neural function and maintenance of synaptic networks. A sizable body of evidence points to increasing inflammatory activation of microglia as an important factor in the development of age-related neurodegeneration. Microglia react to signals, such as DNA debris from stressed and dying cells, or the secreted cytokines produced by senescent cells, that become more common with advancing age. When this infl...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 1, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

Intermittent Fasting Promotes Initial Regeneration from Injury in Mice
An interesting effect of intermittent fasting is here demonstrated in mice. Given a rotator cuff injury, mice undergoing intermittent fasting exhibit improved regeneration, but only in the early stages following injury. The researchers provide evidence for this effect to be mediated by changes in the gut microbiome. Various microbial populations generate metabolites that are connected to a range of cellular activities, so the microbiome is a reasonable place to search for mechanisms related to effects of fasting. Mice underwent rotator cuff injury were treated with intermittent fasting or fed ad libitum. Fasting b...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 1, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Clearing Microglia Reverses Age-Related Disruption of Sleeping Patterns in Mice
In this study, we systematically examined the brain vigilance and microglia morphology in aging mice (3, 6, 12, and 18 months old), and determined how microglia affect the aging-related wake/sleep alterations in mice. We found that from young adult to aged mice there was a clear decline in stable wakefulness at nighttime, and a decrease of microglial processes length in various brain regions involved in wake/sleep regulation. The decreased stable wakefulness can be restored following the time course of microglia depletion and repopulation in the adult brain. Microglia repopulation in the aging brain restored age-rel...
Source: Fight Aging! - November 1, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation from Young Mice Improves Function in Old Progeroid Mice
This study shows that fecal microbiota transplantation from younger donors can delay aging-related declines in locomotor and exploration ability in mice by changing the gut microbiome. (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - October 31, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

10% of Older People Suffer Dementia, Another 20% Exhibit Mild Cognitive Impairment
In conclusion, the national prevalence of dementia and MCI in 2016 found in this cross-sectional study was similar to that of other US-based studies. Link: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2022.3543 (Source: Fight Aging!)
Source: Fight Aging! - October 31, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

Reprogramming as an Approach to Reduce T Cell Exhaustion
T cell exhaustion occurs following repeated stimulation, such as when faced with a growing cancer or persistent viral infection. It manifests as a progressive loss of function, the T cells no longer attacking pathogens or errant cells. Finding a way to minimize this phenomenon would assist in a range of conditions, such as by improving the outcome of T cell immunotherapies targeting cancer, and might help improve the aged immune system, in which T cell exhaustion is also observed. Here, the use of partial reprogramming is suggested as an approach to achieve this goal. In partial reprogramming, cells are exposed to the fact...
Source: Fight Aging! - October 31, 2022 Category: Research Authors: Reason Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs