DDAH2 suppresses RLR-MAVS-mediated innate antiviral immunity by stimulating nitric oxide-activated, Drp1-induced mitochondrial fission
The RIG-I–like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is pivotal for innate immunity against invading viruses, and dysregulation of this molecular cascade has been linked to various diseases. Here, we identified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) as a potent regulator of the RLR-mediated antiviral response in human and mouse. Overexpression of DDAH2 attenuated RLR signaling, whereas loss of DDAH2 function enhanced RLR signaling and suppressed viral replication ex vivo and in mice. Upon viral infection, DDAH2 relocated to mitochondria, where it induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the activation of...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - April 13, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Huang, S., Li, Z., Wu, Z., Liu, C., Yu, M., Wen, M., Zhang, L., Wang, X. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

$10.8 million NIH grant to establish metabolic research center
(University of Arkansas) A $10.8 million grant from the National Institutes of Health will enable an interdisciplinary team of researchers at the University of Arkansas and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences to address the role of cell and tissue metabolism in rare and common diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity and mitochondrial disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 6, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

WAVE2 suppresses mTOR activation to maintain T cell homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity
Cytoskeletal regulatory protein dysfunction has been etiologically linked to inherited diseases associated with immunodeficiency and autoimmunity, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Here, we show that conditional Wave2 ablation in T cells causes severe autoimmunity associated with increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and metabolic reprogramming that engender spontaneous activation and accelerated differentiation of peripheral T cells. These mice also manifest diminished antigen-specific T cell responses associated with increased inhibitory receptor expression, dysregulated mitocho...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Liu, M., Zhang, J., Pinder, B. D., Liu, Q., Wang, D., Yao, H., Gao, Y., Toker, A., Gao, J., Peterson, A., Qu, J., Siminovitch, K. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

< a href= " /news-events/nih-research-matters/mitochondrial-dna-involved-sickle-cell-disease " > Mitochondrial DNA involved in sickle cell disease < /a >
People with sickle cell disease have high levels of mitochondrial DNA in their blood, which may help trigger damaging inflammation. (Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH))
Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) - March 16, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Eight ways chemical pollutants harm the body
(Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health) A new review of existing evidence proposes eight hallmarks of environmental exposures that chart the biological pathways through which pollutants contribute to disease: oxidative stress and inflammation, genomic alterations and mutations, epigenetic alterations, mitochondrial dysfunction, endocrine disruption, altered intercellular communication, altered microbiome communities, and impaired nervous system function. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 5, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers find effective combination of therapies for managing mitochondrial disease
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Researchers have demonstrated how one combination of therapies may be beneficial for patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders. This preclinical research paves the way to develop more tailored treatment options for patients with inherited mitochondrial disease and acquired energy disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 2, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Advanced imaging technology captures translation of the maternal genome
(University of Helsinki) An international collaboration among researchers from Finland, Sweden, UK and the USA has captured ribosomes translating messenger RNA expressed from the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome. Utilising the latest advances in cryo-electron microscopy, the group discovered a novel mechanism that mitochondrial ribosomes use for the synthesis and delivery of newly made proteins to prevent premature misfolding. Disruptions to protein folding can lead to devastating human diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 22, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New research on mitochondrial function can play significant part in serious disease
(Karolinska Institutet) Disorders of the cells' energy supply can cause a number of serious diseases, but also seem to be connected to ageing. More research is needed on mitochondrial function to find future treatments. A new study involving researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows how an important molecule inside the mitochondria affects their function in mice and fruit flies. The study, which is published in Science Advances, adds valuable knowledge on formerly relatively unexplored protein modifications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Zinc may help with fertility during COVID-19 pandemic, researchers report
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) Wayne State University School of Medicine researchers have reported that zinc supplements for men and women attempting to conceive either naturally or through assisted reproduction during the COVID-19 pandemic may prevent mitochondrial damage in young egg and sperm cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - February 4, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Inhibition of prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-PGDH rejuvenates aged muscle mass and strength
Treatments are lacking for sarcopenia, a debilitating age-related skeletal muscle wasting syndrome. We identifed increased amounts of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–degrading enzyme, as a hallmark of aged tissues, including skeletal muscle. The consequent reduction in PGE2 signaling contributed to muscle atrophy in aged mice and results from 15-PGDH–expressing myofibers and interstitial cells, such as macrophages, within muscle. Overexpression of 15-PGDH in young muscles induced atrophy. Inhibition of 15-PGDH, by targeted genetic depletion or a small-molecule inhibi...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 28, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Palla, A. R., Ravichandran, M., Wang, Y. X., Alexandrova, L., Yang, A. V., Kraft, P., Holbrook, C. A., Schürch, C. M., Ho, A. T. V., Blau, H. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Mitochondrial mutation increases the risk of diabetes in Japanese men
(University of Southern California) A new study of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Japanese populations has uncovered a previously uncharacterized genetic variant that puts male carriers at greater risk for the disease, as well as the mechanism by which it does so. The impact of the variant was most pronounced in sedentary men; those with the variant had a 65% greater rate of T2D than sedentary men without it. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Rapid blood test identifies COVID-19 patients at high risk of severe disease
(Washington University School of Medicine) Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that a relatively simple and rapid blood test can predict which patients with COVID-19 are at highest risk of severe complications or death. The blood test measures levels of mitochondrial DNA, which normally resides inside the energy factories of cells. Mitochondrial DNA spilling out of cells and into the bloodstream is a sign that a particular type of violent cell death is taking place in the body. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New findings help explain how COVID-19 overpowers the immune system
(University of Southern California) Seeking to understand why COVID-19 is able to suppress the body's immune response, new research from the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology suggests that mitochondria are one of the first lines of defense against COVID-19 and identifies key differences in how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, interacts with mitochondrial genes when compared to other viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mitochondrial DNA alterations underlie an irreversible shift to aerobic glycolysis in fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cancer
Understanding the mechanisms of the Warburg shift to aerobic glycolysis is critical to defining the metabolic basis of cancer. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an aggressive cancer characterized by biallelic inactivation of the gene encoding the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase, an early shift to aerobic glycolysis, and rapid metastasis. We observed impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in tumors from patients with HLRCC. Biochemical and transcriptomic analyses revealed that respiratory chain dysfunction in the tumors was due to loss of expression of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)&n...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 5, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Crooks, D. R., Maio, N., Lang, M., Ricketts, C. J., Vocke, C. D., Gurram, S., Turan, S., Kim, Y.-Y., Cawthon, G. M., Sohelian, F., De Val, N., Pfeiffer, R. M., Jailwala, P., Tandon, M., Tran, B., Fan, T. W.- M., Lane, A. N., Ried, T., Wangsa, D., Malayeri Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Gene Therapy Shows No Long-Term Harm in Animals: Study
FRIDAY, Dec. 11, 2020 -- Results from a long-term study of a gene therapy technique to prevent inherited mitochondrial disease show promise, researchers say. Studies of the technique at Oregon Health& Science University in Portland show no... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - December 11, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Comparative host-coronavirus protein interaction networks reveal pan-viral disease mechanisms
The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a grave threat to public health and the global economy. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to the more lethal but less transmissible coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Here, we have carried out comparative viral-human protein-protein interaction and viral protein localization analyses for all three viruses. Subsequent functional genetic screening identified host factors that functionally impinge on coronavirus proliferation, including Tom70, a mitochondrial chaperone protein that i...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gordon, D. E., Hiatt, J., Bouhaddou, M., Rezelj, V. V., Ulferts, S., Braberg, H., Jureka, A. S., Obernier, K., Guo, J. Z., Batra, J., Kaake, R. M., Weckstein, A. R., Owens, T. W., Gupta, M., Pourmal, S., Titus, E. W., Cakir, M., Soucheray, M., McGregor, M Tags: Engineering, Microbiology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

TTUHSC scientist takes next step in search for bone disease treatment
(Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center) For more than a decade, TTUHSC's Hiranmoy Das, Ph.D., has been investigating how KLF2 influences the development of bone and musculoskeletal diseases. Most recently, Das attempted to determine if inducing KLF2 levels in dental pulp derived stem cells will promote osteoblast and the building of new bone. His study, " KLF2 regulates dental pulp-derived stem cell differentiation through the induction of mitophagy and altering mitochondrial metabolism, " was published in the September issue of Redox Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dysfunction, disease explored through prestigious award
Interactions between mitochondria and other organelles, and how disruptions may harm health, are the focus of a new project led by NIEHS. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - November 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

Coupling of NMDA receptors and TRPM4 guides discovery of unconventional neuroprotectants
Excitotoxicity induced by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is thought to be intimately linked to high intracellular calcium load. Unexpectedly, NMDAR-mediated toxicity can be eliminated without affecting NMDAR-induced calcium signals. Instead, excitotoxicity requires physical coupling of NMDARs to TRPM4. This interaction is mediated by intracellular domains located in the near-membrane portions of the receptors. Structure-based computational drug screening using the interaction interface of TRPM4 in complex with NMDARs identified small molecules that spare NMDAR-induced calcium signaling but disrupt the NMDAR/TRPM4 complex. These i...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 8, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yan, J., Bengtson, C. P., Buchthal, B., Hagenston, A. M., Bading, H. Tags: Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Gladstone investigator receives NIH Director's New Innovator Award
(Gladstone Institutes) The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted an NIH Director's New Innovator Award to Seth Shipman, PhD, assistant investigator at Gladstone Institutes. The award will support the development of innovative technologies to edit the DNA found in mitochondria--energy-producing structures within human cells. Shipman's efforts could lead to new treatments for a range of currently incurable diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers solve decades old mitochondrial mystery that could lead to new disease treatments
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Penn Medicine researchers have solved a decades old mystery around a key molecule fueling the power plant of cells that could be exploited to find new ways to treat diseases, from neurodegenerative disorders to cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Single-cell analysis provides new insights into mitochondrial diseases
(Massachusetts General Hospital) Investigators led by a team at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have made discoveries at the single cell level to uncover new details concerning mitochondrial diseases-- inherited disorders that interfere with energy production in the body and currently have no cure. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - August 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What Are Common Fatty Acid Oxidation Metabolic Disorders?
Discussion All cells and particularly their mitochondria need an energy source. Glucose is one of the most common ones, but also fatty acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketones, and amino acids. Fatty acids are formed with a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic carbon chain usually with even numbers of carbon atoms (usually 4-28 most commonly). Most are unbranched and in foods are usually found in the form of esters. Fatty acids are important energy sources for the heart (50-70%) but also skeletal muscle where resting muscle uses both glucose and fatty acids. During fasting or increased stress fatty acids become a major source o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Neural vulnerability in Huntington's disease tied to release of mitochondrial RNA
(Picower Institute at MIT) A uniquely comprehensive survey of gene expression by cell type in humans and mice revealed several deficits affecting the most vulnerable neurons in Huntigton's disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - July 17, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New connections: Flux and distance in Ca2+ signaling
Understanding ER-to-mitochondrial Ca2+ flux may provide ways to correct mitochondrial dysfunction in various diseases. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wong, W. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Scientists pinpoint surprising new function for histones
FINDINGSUCLA scientists have identified a new function for histones, the spool-shaped proteins that regulate gene expression and help pack long strands of DNA into cells. The resulting matrix, called chromatin, provides the structural foundation for chromosomes.In a surprising finding thatreceived more than 1,400 “likes” and more than 600 shares on Twitter within the first several days after the study was published, the researchers discovered that histones also function asenzymes that convertcopper into a form that can be used by the body ’s cells.Scientists had assumed that copper spontaneously converted...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

First successful delivery of mitochondria to liver cells in animals
(University of Connecticut) This experiment marks the first time researchers have ever successfully introduced mitochondria into specific cells in living animals. The study lays the groundwork to address a serious gap in treatment for liver diseases and may even eventually be used to treat other maladies throughout the body affected by mitochondrial malfunction or damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Quantifying the building blocks of DNA is now easier thanks to a novel technique
(University of Helsinki) A highly sensitive and easy-to-use technique applicable for tissue samples can be useful, for example, to researchers specialised in mitochondrial diseases and cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 24, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New technique allows scientists to measure mitochondrial respiration in frozen tissue
FINDINGSScientists led by Dr. Orian Shirihai, director of themetabolism theme at theDavidGeffen School of Medicine at UCLA,have developed a method for restoring oxygen-consumption activity to previously frozen mitochondria samples, even years after they have been collected. The process of freezing and thawing mitochondria depresses their oxygen consumption and, until now, has hindered researchers ’ ability to accurately carry out large-scale studies examining the crucial role of mitochondria in both health and disease.BACKGROUNDThe mitochondria in our cells consume 90% of the oxygen we breathe and use that oxygen to ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 22, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence
The effect of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. In this work, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria owing to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself act...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Desdin-Mico, G., Soto-Heredero, G., Aranda, J. F., Oller, J., Carrasco, E., Gabande-Rodriguez, E., Blanco, E. M., Alfranca, A., Cusso, L., Desco, M., Ibanez, B., Gortazar, A. R., Fernandez-Marcos, P., Navarro, M. N., Hernaez, B., Alcami, A., Baixauli, F., Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

Study reveals importance of mitochondrial small proteins in energy production
(Duke-NUS Medical School) A small mitochondrial protein is necessary for energy production and its malfunction could be behind a range of degenerative diseases, according to study by Duke-NUS Medical School and their collaborators. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 16, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Neurons' energy organelle protected from damage linked to ALS, Alzheimer's
(Scripps Research Institute) Mitochondrial damage is increasingly recognized as a key factor underlying neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. A new screening platform has identified a set of drug-like compounds that may protect them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Stealth Bio's neuromuscular disorder drug fails trial; shares plummet
Stealth BioTherapeutics Corp's shares crashed on Friday after its lead neuromuscular disorder drug candidate failed to help patients walk better and reduce fatigue, a major setback to the company's wide mitochondrial diseases pipeline. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - December 20, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news

VDAC oligomers form mitochondrial pores to release mtDNA fragments and promote lupus-like disease
Mitochondrial stress releases mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, thereby triggering the type I interferon (IFN) response. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which is required for mtDNA release, has been extensively studied in apoptotic cells, but little is known about its role in live cells. We found that oxidatively stressed mitochondria release short mtDNA fragments via pores formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) oligomers in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, the positively charged residues in the N-terminal domain of VDAC1 interact with mtDNA, promoting VDAC1 oligomerizat...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 18, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kim, J., Gupta, R., Blanco, L. P., Yang, S., Shteinfer-Kuzmine, A., Wang, K., Zhu, J., Yoon, H. E., Wang, X., Kerkhofs, M., Kang, H., Brown, A. L., Park, S.-J., Xu, X., Zandee van Rilland, E., Kim, M. K., Cohen, J. I., Kaplan, M. J., Shoshan-Barmatz, V., Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology reports Source Type: news

Geffen School of Medicine honors doctor for his groundbreaking research on immune response
In recognition of his groundbreaking work on the mechanisms underlying the cellular response to infection, Dr. Zhijian “James” Chen of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas has received the 2019 Switzer Prize awarded by the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.At the prize ceremony on the UCLA campus, during which Chen delivered a lecture about his research focused on the role of DNA in triggering immune defense and autoimmune diseases, the scientist said he was honored to receive the award and then joked that “to this day, I still don’t know who nominated me.”C...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - November 21, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Mitocellular communication: Shaping health and disease
Throughout the animal kingdom, mitochondria are the only organelles that retain their own genome and the transcription and translation machineries that are all essential for energy harvesting. Mitochondria have developed a complex communication network, allowing them to stay in tune with cellular needs and nuclear transcriptional programs and to alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review recent findings on the wide array of mechanisms that contribute to these mitocellular communication networks, spanning from well-studied messenger molecules to mitonuclear genetic interactions. Based on these observations and dev...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 13, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mottis, A., Herzig, S., Auwerx, J. Tags: Cell Biology special/review Source Type: news

Keeping a cell's powerhouse in shape
(Max Delbr ü ck Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association) A German-Swiss team around Professor Oliver Daumke from the MDC has investigated how a protein of the dynamin family deforms the inner mitochondrial membrane. The results, which also shed light on a hereditary disease of the optic nerve, have been published in Nature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Host mitochondria influence gut microbiome diversity: A role for ROS
Changes in the gut microbiota and the mitochondrial genome are both linked with the development of disease. To investigate why, we examined the gut microbiota of mice harboring various mutations in genes that alter mitochondrial function. These studies revealed that mitochondrial genetic variations altered the composition of the gut microbiota community. In cross-fostering studies, we found that although the initial microbiota community of newborn mice was that obtained from the nursing mother, the microbiota community progressed toward that characteristic of the microbiome of unfostered pups of the same genotype within 2 ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 1, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yardeni, T., Tanes, C. E., Bittinger, K., Mattei, L. M., Schaefer, P. M., Singh, L. N., Wu, G. D., Murdock, D. G., Wallace, D. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

David Geffen School of Medicine names 2019 winner of Switzer Prize
Dr. Zhijian (James) Chen of the UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas will be the 2019 recipient of the Switzer Prize, awarded by the  David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. Chen has performed groundbreaking work on the mechanisms underlying the cellular response to infection.Chen ’s group has been instrumental in the identification of immune response pathways that have significantly added to scientists’ understanding of how these pathways work in microbial infections and autoimmune diseases.Most significantly, his team at UT Southwestern discovered the DNA-sensing enzyme cGAS, which helps launch the ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 17, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Reneo Pharmaceuticals Raises $50 Million to Develop Therapeutics to Treat Genetic Mitochondrial Diseases
SAN DIEGO, May 20, 2019 -- (Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network) -- Reneo Pharmaceuticals, a clinical stage pharmaceutical company, today announced that it has completed a $50 million Series A financing to develop therapies for diseases associated with d... Biopharmaceuticals, Venture Capital Reneo Pharmaceuticals, mitochondrial diseases (Source: HSMN NewsFeed)
Source: HSMN NewsFeed - May 20, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Miro2 is a Parkin receptor for selective removal of damaged mitochondria
(Science China Press) Defects in mitophagy are linked to a variety of human diseases including Parkinson's and cardiac disorders. At present, how the damaged mitochondria are selectively recognized and targeted by Parkin is not fully understood. Miro2, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, has been identified as a platform for Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. Miro2 senses both the depolarization and the Ca2+ release from mitochondria to ensure that only damaged mitochondria are targeted by Parkin for mitophagic clearance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biomarker may help identify men with prostate cancer at greater risk of tumor metastasis
(Elsevier) Ten percent of patients with prostate cancer develop locally invasive and metastatic disease, which increases the severity of the disease and likelihood of death and limits treatment options. A report in The American Journal of Pathology indicates that a significantly lower presence of syntaphilin (SNPH) -- a mitochondrial protein -- within the tumor's central core versus at the tumor's invasive outer edge, may identify patients at increased risk of metastasis. These patients may require more rigorous testing, surveillance, and treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Polycystin 2 regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, bioenergetics, and dynamics through mitofusin 2
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have an intimate functional relationship due to tethering proteins that bring their membranes in close (~30 nm) apposition. One function of this interorganellar junction is to increase the efficiency of Ca2+ transfer into mitochondria, thus stimulating mitochondrial respiration. Here, we showed that the ER cation-permeant channel polycystin 2 (PC2) functions to reduce mitochondria-ER contacts. In cell culture models, PC2 knockdown led to a 50% increase in mitofusin 2 (MFN2) expression, an outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase. Live-cell super-resolution and electron microscopy ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 6, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kuo, I. Y., Brill, A. L., Lemos, F. O., Jiang, J. Y., Falcone, J. L., Kimmerling, E. P., Cai, Y., Dong, K., Kaplan, D. L., Wallace, D. P., Hofer, A. M., Ehrlich, B. E. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Environmental pollutants could impact cellular signs of aging
(American Chemical Society) Researchers have linked some environmental pollutants with diseases, a decreased life span and signs of premature aging, such as wrinkles and age spots. But can accelerated aging be detected at the cellular level in healthy people exposed to pollutants? Now, researchers in the ACS journal Environmental Science& Technology report that although pollutant exposure can affect two hallmarks of aging in people (mitochondrial DNA content and telomere length), the results are not so clear-cut. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A Baby Was Born With DNA from 3 People. Here ’s How That’s Possible
Researchers at the Institute of Life in Athens, Greece announced that a healthy baby boy was born on Tuesday morning to a 32-year-old woman who had experienced several failed cycles of IVF. The six-pound boy, who the doctors say in a statement is healthy, was born using a technique called maternal spindle transfer. In the procedure, the grouped-together DNA from a mother’s egg was removed and placed inside a donor egg from another woman, which had been emptied of its DNA. The donor’s egg with the mother’s genes was then fertilized and developed into an embryo that was transferred for pregnancy. The techn...
Source: TIME: Health - April 11, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized Genetics Reproductive Health Source Type: news

Baby born with three-person DNA
Doctors used a donor egg to combat mother's mitochondrial disease Related items fromOnMedica Embryology proposals approved by MPs Charity asks Government to pay for NI abortions Women complain of 'confusing and contradictory' fertility advice MHRA tightens licence restrictions on valproate for women Colleges urge GPs to take on maternity care (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Source: OnMedica Latest News - April 10, 2019 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Visual defects and ageing - Sacc à SC, Cutolo CA, Rossi T.
Many diseases are related to age, among these neurodegeneration is particularly important. Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's and Glaucoma have many common pathogenic events including oxidative damage, Mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial alterations and ch... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - March 24, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Elder Adults Source Type: news

Gene behind long-recognized mitochondrial disease has highly varied effects
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Mutations in the mitochondrial gene mt-ATP6, which encodes an essential part of the mitochondrial motor known as ATP synthase that generates cellular energy, are much more variable than previously thought. This prompts the need to develop more precise clinical tests that can better determine the course of treatment for patients affected by mitochondrial disorder. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

An existing drug may have therapeutic potential in mitochondrial disease
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) New preclinical findings from extensive cell and animal studies suggest that a drug already used for a rare kidney disease could benefit patients with some mitochondrial disorders -- complex conditions with severe energy deficiency for which no proven effective treatments exist. Future clinical research is needed to explore whether the drug, cysteamine bitartrate, will meaningfully benefit patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What Is the Most Common Type of Cardiomyopathy?
Discussion Barth syndrome is characterized by a dilated cardiomyopathy, proximal skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia and short stature that usually presents at birth or soon after. It is a rare X-linked recessive disease process caused by mutations in the TAZ gene. The TAZ gene codes for tafazzin which alters cardiolipin in mitochondria. Characteristic facies can be seen especially in infancy including a tall and broad forehead, prominent chin and full cheeks, larger ears, and deep-set eyes. Most patients present at birth or soon afterwards but some may not until later in life. Life expectancy is reduced with many childr...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - February 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news