New research provides expanded insights into the brain's response to opioids
(Temple University Health System) Opioids are powerful painkillers that act on the brain, but they have a range of harmful side effects including addiction. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in collaboration with researchers from the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria, University of Innsbruck, and the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, have developed a tool that gives deeper insights into the brain's response to opioids. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 21, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Surface antibody maturation
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 21, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Scanlon, S. T. Tags: Biochemistry, Immunology twis Source Type: news

Antihomotypic affinity maturation improves human B cell responses against a repetitive epitope
Affinity maturation selects B cells expressing somatically mutated antibody variants with improved antigen-binding properties to protect from invading pathogens. We determined the molecular mechanism underlying the clonal selection and affinity maturation of human B cells expressing protective antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfCSP). We show in molecular detail that the repetitive nature of PfCSP facilitates direct homotypic interactions between two PfCSP repeat-bound monoclonal antibodies, thereby improving antigen affinity and B cell activation. These data pro...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 21, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Imkeller, K., Scally, S. W., Bosch, A., Marti, G. P., Costa, G., Triller, G., Murugan, R., Renna, V., Jumaa, H., Kremsner, P. G., Sim, B. K. L., Hoffman, S. L., Mordmüller, B., Levashina, E. A., Julien, J.-P., Wardemann, H. Tags: Biochemistry, Immunology reports Source Type: news

News from Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) In recent articles, scientists optimize experimental design for understanding potential chemotherapeutic agents, delve into crop responses to salt-water stress, and present a better way to ensure consistency in long-term proteomics studies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tattoo health warning for people with weakened immune systems
A woman with cystic fibrosis and lung transplants suffered chronic pain for three years after she had a tattoo on her thighGetting a tattoo if you have a weakened immune system could put you at risk of complications, doctors have warned. The caution comes after a woman with cystic fibrosis and lung transplants developed thigh and knee pain after having body art inked on her leg.Doctors say those taking immunosuppressant drugs should take precautions if considering body art. These medicines are often given after an organ transplant or to treat autoimmune conditions such as Crohn ’s disease, lupus or rheumatoid arthrit...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - June 18, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nicola Davis Tags: Tattoos Medical research Immunology Biochemistry and molecular biology Health Cystic fibrosis Diabetes Source Type: news

Two UCLA chemists selected as 2018 Pew scholars
UCLA chemistry professors Hosea Nelson and Jose Rodriguez have been selected among 22  Pew scholars in the biomedical sciences for 2018. The honor provides funding to outstanding young researchers whose work is relevant to the advancement of human health. The scholars, who were selected from 184 nominations, will receive four-year, $300,000 grants to advance their explorations of biological mechanisms underpinning human h ealth and disease.UCLA and UC San Diego each has two 2018 Pew scholars in the biomedical sciences; no other university has more than one.“These scientists have shown the boldness and creat...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 14, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

International research team finds brain changes linked to sleep need
(UT Southwestern Medical Center) We've all experienced going to bed tired and waking up refreshed, yet how that happens at the molecular level remains a mystery. An international study published today in Nature sheds new light on the biochemistry of sleep need in the brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ghost cytometry
Ghost imaging is a technique used to produce an object’s image without using a spatially resolving detector. Here we develop a technique we term "ghost cytometry," an image-free ultrafast fluorescence "imaging" cytometry based on a single-pixel detector. Spatial information obtained from the motion of cells relative to a static randomly patterned optical structure is compressively converted into signals that arrive sequentially at a single-pixel detector. Combinatorial use of the temporal waveform with the intensity distribution of the random pattern allows us to computationally reconstruct cell m...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ota, S., Horisaki, R., Kawamura, Y., Ugawa, M., Sato, I., Hashimoto, K., Kamesawa, R., Setoyama, K., Yamaguchi, S., Fujiu, K., Waki, K., Noji, H. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Near-atomic model of microtubule-tau interactions
Tau is a developmentally regulated axonal protein that stabilizes and bundles microtubules (MTs). Its hyperphosphorylation is thought to cause detachment from MTs and subsequent aggregation into fibrils implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. It is unclear which tau residues are crucial for tau-MT interactions, where tau binds on MTs, and how it stabilizes them. We used cryo–electron microscopy to visualize different tau constructs on MTs and computational approaches to generate atomic models of tau-tubulin interactions. The conserved tubulin-binding repeats within tau adopt similar extended structures along the cre...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kellogg, E. H., Hejab, N. M. A., Poepsel, S., Downing, K. H., DiMaio, F., Nogales, E. Tags: Biochemistry, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news

Missing enzymes in the biosynthesis of the anticancer drug vinblastine in Madagascar periwinkle
Vinblastine, a potent anticancer drug, is produced by Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) in small quantities, and heterologous reconstitution of vinblastine biosynthesis could provide an additional source of this drug. However, the chemistry underlying vinblastine synthesis makes identification of the biosynthetic genes challenging. Here we identify the two missing enzymes necessary for vinblastine biosynthesis in this plant: an oxidase and a reductase that isomerize stemmadenine acetate into dihydroprecondylocarpine acetate, which is then deacetoxylated and cyclized to either catharanthine or tabersonine via two ...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Caputi, L., Franke, J., Farrow, S. C., Chung, K., Payne, R. M. E., Nguyen, T.-D., Dang, T.-T. T., Soares Teto Carqueijeiro, I., Koudounas, K., Duge de Bernonville, T., Ameyaw, B., Jones, D. M., Vieira, I. J. C., Courdavault, V., OConnor, S. E. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany reports Source Type: news

Photochemistry beyond the red limit in chlorophyll f-containing photosystems
We present biophysical studies on the photosystems from a cyanobacterium grown in far-red light (750 nm). The few long-wavelength chlorophylls present are well resolved from each other and from the majority pigment, chlorophyll a. Charge separation in photosystem I and II uses chlorophyll f at 745 nm and chlorophyll f (or d) at 727 nm, respectively. Each photosystem has a few even longer-wavelength chlorophylls f that collect light and pass excitation energy uphill to the photochemically active pigments. These photosystems function beyond the red limit using far-red pigments in only a few key positions. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nürnberg, D. J., Morton, J., Santabarbara, S., Telfer, A., Joliot, P., Antonaru, L. A., Ruban, A. V., Cardona, T., Krausz, E., Boussac, A., Fantuzzi, A., Rutherford, A. W. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

Tackling microtubule-tau interactions
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Neuroscience twis Source Type: news

How to make bioactive alkaloids
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany twis Source Type: news

Seeing ghosts
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Lower-energy photons do the work, too
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Funk, M. A. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Fat cell filling, ketogenic diet, and the history of biochemistry
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Recent articles in the Journal of Lipid Research investigate how brown fat converts to white, how cells in the liver fill fat droplets, and how eating a ketogenic or calorie-restricted diet may change a mouse's metabolism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 13, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fat cell filling, ketogenic diet, and the history of biochemistry:
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Recent articles in the Journal of Lipid Research investigate how brown fat converts to white, how cells in the liver fill fat droplets, and how eating a ketogenic or calorie-restricted diet may change a mouse's metabolism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Predicting the outcome of the arms race between man and bacteria
Through computer simulations, scientists can predict if bacteria can be stopped with popular antibacterial therapies or not – a breakthrough which will help select and develop effective treatments for bacterial infections. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - June 7, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Research; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biochemistry; Press Release Source Type: news

Paul Boyer, who was awed by cells and won a Nobel Prize for deducing how they use energy, dies at 99
Paul Boyer, a UCLA biochemist who won the Nobel Prize for discovering the “three-cylinder engine” that powers all life as we know it, has died at his home in Los Angeles.He was 99 years old when he died Saturday, and would have celebrated his 100th birthday on July 31.Boyer spent the majority... (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Source: Los Angeles Times - Science - June 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Deborah Netburn Source Type: news

Antenna switches partners in the shade
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Funk, M. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany twis Source Type: news

Structure of the maize photosystem I supercomplex with light-harvesting complexes I and II
We report the structure of maize PSI-LHCI-LHCII solved by cryo–electron microscopy, revealing the recognition site between LHCII and PSI. The PSI subunits PsaN and PsaO are observed at the PSI-LHCI interface and the PSI-LHCII interface, respectively. Each subunit relays excitation to PSI core through a pair of chlorophyll molecules, thus revealing previously unseen paths for energy transfer between the antennas and the PSI core. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pan, X., Ma, J., Su, X., Cao, P., Chang, W., Liu, Z., Zhang, X., Li, M. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany reports Source Type: news

Scientists see inner workings of enzyme telomerase, which plays key roles in aging, cancer
Cancer, aging-related diseases and other illnesses are closely tied to an important enzyme called “telomerase.” UCLA researchersreport in the journal  Cell the deepest scientific understanding yet of this once-mysterious enzyme, whose catalytic core — where most of its activity occurs — can now be seen in near atomic resolution.“We’re now seeing not just the face of the clock, we’re seeing how the components inside interact to make it work,” said Juli Feigon, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry in the UCLA College and a senior author of the study. “At ea...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 6, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Doctors hail world first as woman ’s advanced breast cancer is eradicated
Immune cells from the woman ’s own body used to wipe out tumoursA woman with advanced breast cancer which had spread around her body has been completely cleared of the disease by a groundbreaking therapy that harnessed the power of her immune system to fight the tumours.It is the first time that a patient with late-stage breast cancer has been successfully treated by a form of immunotherapy that uses the patient ’s own immune cells to find and destroy cancer cells that have formed in the body.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - June 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ian Sample and Jessica Glenza Tags: Cancer research Breast cancer Immunology Health Medical research Science Biochemistry and molecular biology Source Type: news

How just drops of viper venom pack a deadly punch
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at Brazil's largest producer of antivenoms report a structural analysis of glycans modifying venom proteins in several species of lancehead viper. The snakes are among the most dangerous in South America. The report offers insight into the solubility and stability of toxic proteins from venom, and into how venoms from different species vary. Scientists are now working to map glycan structures back onto the proteins they modify. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Iron-sulfur cluster research offers new avenues of investigating disease
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the University of Kentucky have discovered that disruptions in the construction of iron-sulfur clusters can lead to the buildup of fat droplets in certain cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 30, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

From Haifa to Tokyo: Medical detectives team up on selenoprotein1/EPT1
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Ordinary tests couldn't diagnose an Israeli infant's developmental disorder. Until they completed whole-exome sequencing, his doctors were stumped. After finding a homozygous rare allele, they teamed up with Japanese experts on the affected enzyme to describe its hitherto unknown role in myelination. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Tu named finalist for innovative metabolism research
(UT Southwestern Medical Center) UT Southwestern biochemist Dr. Benjamin Tu has been selected as one of 31 finalists for the 2018 Blavatnik National Awards for Young Scientists for his innovative studies of molecules that could help improve treatments for cancer and conditions associated with aging. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

What happens to plasmalogens, the phospholipids nobody likes to think about
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) In a paper to be published in the June 2 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers at Washington University in St. Louis provide the first report of an enzyme that breaks down plasmalogens, a breakthrough in understanding the molecular processes that occur during Alzheimer's and other diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 29, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

RIOCATH, a revolutionary type of catheter inspired by a snail's eye
(Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IOCB Prague)) A revolutionary type of catheter, RIOCATH ® (Reversal Inside-Out CATHeterisation), greatly reduces the risk of introducing infection into the body as well as the trauma of sensitive tissues. Clinical trials will begin by the end of this year and the first product market entry is expected in 2019. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - May 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Bristol Professor awarded £ 1.5 million to look deeper into our cell ’ s quality control mechanism
Professor Christiane Berger-Schaffitzel from the School of Biochemistry has won a £ 1.5 million Wellcome Trust Investigator Award in Science Application to study an essential quality control mechanism in our cells. The mechanism, known as ‘ nonsense-mediated mRNA decay ’ (NMD) is of fundamental importance for cellular function in health and disease. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - May 24, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Grants and Awards; Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, School of Biochemistry; Press Release Source Type: news

Painless real-time proteomics may one day speed up cancer surgery
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at the University of Lille developed a matrix-assisted ion source for mass spectrometry that can liberate lipids and metabolites from the skin without causing pain. Now, they have optimized protein measurement using this device. The device can be used to differentiated normal from cancerous tissues. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Matter: Every Cell in Your Body Has the Same DNA. Except It Doesn ’ t.
The genome obviously varies from person to person. But it can also vary from cell to cell, even within the same individual. The implications of “ mosaicism ” are enormous. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - May 21, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Genetics and Heredity Brain DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Chromosomes Biology and Biochemistry Harvard University Stanford University Darwin, Charles Robert Source Type: news

Trilobites: The Thing Inside Your Cells That Might Determine How Long You Live
You may have forgotten about the nucleolus since you took biology class, but scientists think this structure inside every cell in your body may play an important role in aging. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - May 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: JOANNA KLEIN Tags: Biology and Biochemistry Longevity Proteins Antebi, Adam Trends in Cell Biology (Journal) Source Type: news

UT Health SA gets millions from state to bring talent back home
UT Health San Antonio has been awarded $6 million in grant funding from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas, which enabled the local institution to recruit a leading researcher and professor. UT Health San Antonio is using the money — which was among $30 million across nine new grants awarded by CPRIT — to recruit Dr. Patrick Sung, professor of biophysics, biochemistry, therapeutic radiology and epidemiology at Yale University. He will occupy the Robert A. Welch Distinguished… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - May 18, 2018 Category: Biotechnology Authors: W. Scott Bailey Source Type: news

What bacteria can teach us about combating atrazine contamination
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Australia, or CSIRO, are interested in harnessing the bacterial ability to degrade atrazine in order to remediate atrazine-polluted environments. In a new research paper published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, a team from CSIRO and Australian National University describe previously unknown proteins involved in atrazine degradation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Old drug provides promising new avenue for treatment of MND
(University of Liverpool) An international study led by biochemists at the University of Liverpool has shown that the drug-molecule ebselen can correct many of the toxic characteristics of a protein that causes some cases of hereditary motor neurone disease (MND). (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Reading histone modifications, an oncoprotein is modified in return
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Turning genes on and off is an intricate process involving communication between many different types of proteins that interact with DNA. These communications can go awry, resulting in conditions like cancer. Researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have uncovered an unusual form of cross-talk between proteins that affect gene expression, suggesting new ways of inhibiting metastasis in cancer. The findings are published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

NUFIP1 is a ribosome receptor for starvation-induced ribophagy
The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the master growth regulator mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1], and is associated with human disease. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of rapidly isolated lysosomes and found that nutrient levels and mTOR dynamically modulate the lysosomal proteome. Upon mTORC1 inhibition, NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation–interacting protein 1) redistributes from the nucleus to autophagosomes and lysosomes. Upon these conditions, NUFIP1 interacts with ribosomes and delivers them to autophagosomes by directly binding to microtu...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wyant, G. A., Abu-Remaileh, M., Frenkel, E. M., Laqtom, N. N., Dharamdasani, V., Lewis, C. A., Chan, S. H., Heinze, I., Ori, A., Sabatini, D. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

A selective autophagy receptor identified
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Cellular valve structure opens up potential novel therapies
(University of Zurich) Biochemists at the University of Zurich have determined the detailed structure of a volume-regulated chloride channel. This cellular valve is activated in response to swelling to prevent the cell from bursting. The protein also plays an important role in the uptake of chemotherapeutics and the release of neurotransmitters after a stroke. The controlled regulation of its activity thus opens up a promising strategy for novel therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 16, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

AJE, a division of Research Square, promotes three PhDs to top executive level positions
American Journal Experts (AJE), provider of author services to researchers worldwide, is proud to announce the promotion of three long time employees to executive positions. Dr. Sarah Taylor, PhD, has been promoted to General Manager of American Journal Experts (AJE). She will have the primary responsibility of converting vision into execution across the company and all teams. She joined the company in 2010 and quickly rose to several supervisory and management positions. Dr. Taylor was most recently the Vice President of Operations. She received her PhD in Vascular Biology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel H...
Source: News from STM - May 15, 2018 Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: STM Publishing News Tags: Editorial Source Type: news

Measurement of cerebral biomarkers proving traumatic brain injuries in post-mortem body fluids - Ondruschka B, Sieber M, Kirsten H, Franke H, Dressler J.
Until now, it is impossible to identify a fatal traumatic brain injury (TBI) before post-mortem radiological investigations or an autopsy take place. It would be preferable to have an additional diagnostic tool like post-mortem biochemistry to get greater ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - May 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news

Study shows how bacteria guide electron flow for efficient energy generation
(University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Biochemists at the University of Illinois have isolated a protein supercomplex from a bacterial membrane that, like a battery, generates a voltage across the bacterial membrane. The voltage is used to make ATP, a key energy currency of life. The new findings, reported in the journal Nature, will inform future efforts to obtain the atomic structures of large membrane protein supercomplexes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

News from the Journal of Lipid Research
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Recent articles in the Journal of Lipid Research found a surprising insight into healthy octogenarians' arteries; a microRNA key to the puzzle of killing fat cells; and a change in cultured cell signaling that may affect experimental outcomes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New method of marine alkaloid synthesis has discovered by FEFU scientists
(Far Eastern Federal University) The development of this method will allow one to get previously inaccessible compounds and to study their biological activity. The work of the young researcher has been published in the authoritative international journal Tetrahedron Letters, which presents the latest achievements in organic synthesis, biochemistry, and medicinal chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Medical News Today: What happens to the body after death?
After death, the body enters a long process of decomposition, as its organic elements split into simpler components. What happens, and why learn about it? (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - May 11, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

Using proteomics to understand pathogens
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Recent studies in the journal Molecular& Cellular Proteomics have shed light on pathogenic mechanisms of the sexually-transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and the HIV-associated opportunistic lung fungus Aspergillus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 10, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

High-resolution cryo-EM analysis of the yeast ATP synthase in a lipid membrane
Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase comprises a membrane embedded Fo motor that rotates to drive ATP synthesis in the F1 subunit. We used single-particle cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain structures of the full complex in a lipid bilayer in the absence or presence of the inhibitor oligomycin at 3.6- and 3.8-angstrom resolution, respectively. To limit conformational heterogeneity, we locked the rotor in a single conformation by fusing the F6 subunit of the stator with the subunit of the rotor. Assembly of the enzyme with the F6- fusion caused a twisting of the rotor and a 9° rotation of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Srivastava, A. P., Luo, M., Zhou, W., Symersky, J., Bai, D., Chambers, M. G., Faraldo-Gomez, J. D., Liao, M., Mueller, D. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Structure, mechanism, and regulation of the chloroplast ATP synthase
The chloroplast adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses the electrochemical proton gradient generated by photosynthesis to produce ATP, the energy currency of all cells. Protons conducted through the membrane-embedded Fo motor drive ATP synthesis in the F1 head by rotary catalysis. We determined the high-resolution structure of the complete cF1Fo complex by cryo–electron microscopy, resolving side chains of all 26 protein subunits, the five nucleotides in the F1 head, and the proton pathway to and from the rotor ring. The flexible peripheral stalk redistributes differences in torsional energy across three unequal ...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hahn, A., Vonck, J., Mills, D. J., Meier, T., Kühlbrandt, W. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Structural basis for recognition of frizzled proteins by Clostridium difficile toxin B
Clostridium difficile infection is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in developed countries. The major virulence factor, C. difficile toxin B (TcdB), targets colonic epithelia by binding to the frizzled (FZD) family of Wnt receptors, but how TcdB recognizes FZDs is unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of a TcdB fragment in complex with the cysteine-rich domain of human FZD2 at 2.5-angstrom resolution, which reveals an endogenous FZD-bound fatty acid acting as a co-receptor for TcdB binding. This lipid occupies the binding site for Wnt-adducted palmitoleic acid in FZDs. TcdB binding locks th...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Chen, P., Tao, L., Wang, T., Zhang, J., He, A., Lam, K.-h., Liu, Z., He, X., Perry, K., Dong, M., Jin, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Microbiology reports Source Type: news