Matter: Scott Kelly Spent a Year in Orbit. His Body Is Not Quite the Same.
NASA scientists compared the astronaut to his earthbound twin, Mark. The results hint at what humans will have to endure on long journeys through space. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - April 12, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Space and Astronomy Kelly, Scott J Kelly, Mark E (1964- ) Genetics and Heredity Chromosomes Immune System Radiation Twins Space Stations DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) Biology and Biochemistry International Space Station National Aero Source Type: news

Atmospheric scientists join pheromone quest
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kupferschmidt, K. Tags: Atmospheric Science, Biochemistry In Depth Source Type: news

Bone-cell regulation, fleshed out
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Structure and dynamics of the active human parathyroid hormone receptor-1
The parathyroid hormone receptor-1 (PTH1R) is a class B G protein–coupled receptor central to calcium homeostasis and a therapeutic target for osteoporosis and hypoparathyroidism. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of human PTH1R bound to a long-acting PTH analog and the stimulatory G protein. The bound peptide adopts an extended helix with its amino terminus inserted deeply into the receptor transmembrane domain (TMD), which leads to partial unwinding of the carboxyl terminus of transmembrane helix 6 and induces a sharp kink at the middle of this helix to allow the receptor to couple with G ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Zhao, L.-H., Ma, S., Sutkeviciute, I., Shen, D.-D., Zhou, X. E., de Waal, P. W., Li, C.-Y., Kang, Y., Clark, L. J., Jean-Alphonse, F. G., White, A. D., Yang, D., Dai, A., Cai, X., Chen, J., Li, C., Jiang, Y., Watanabe, T., Gardella, T. J., Melcher, K., Wa Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Ingredient In Whitening Strips May Harm Teeth, Research Says
(CNN) — Hydrogen peroxide, the active ingredient in over-the-counter whitening strips, may be harmful to the layer under the enamel of teeth, according to research presented Tuesday at a scientific meeting. Teeth are made up of three layers: the outer enamel, an underlying dentin layer and connective tissue that binds it to the gum. The middle layer, dentin, is rich in proteins, of which collagen is the most abundant. Most studies on the safety of hydrogen peroxide have focused on enamel. The chemical is known to penetrate the enamel and reach the dentin, although in miniscule amounts, explained Dr. Edmond Hewlett, a...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - April 9, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Health – CBS Boston Tags: Health News CNN Teeth Source Type: news

Using a promiscuous inhibitor to uncover cancer drug targets
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Scientists at Harvard Medical School and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have developed a method that exploits the multitargeted nature of a chemical inhibitor to pinpoint vulnerabilities within cancer cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - April 4, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

The plant resistosome comes into focus
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 4, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany twis Source Type: news

Ligand-triggered allosteric ADP release primes a plant NLR complex
Pathogen recognition by nucleotide-binding (NB), leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptors (NLRs) plays roles in plant immunity. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris effector AvrAC uridylylates the Arabidopsis PBL2 kinase, and the latter (PBL2UMP) acts as a ligand to activate the NLR ZAR1 precomplexed with the RKS1 pseudokinase. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structures of ZAR1-RKS1 and ZAR1-RKS1-PBL2UMP in an inactive and intermediate state, respectively. The ZAR1LRR domain, compared with animal NLRLRR domains, is differently positioned to sequester ZAR1 in an inactive state. Recognition of PBL2UMP is ex...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 4, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wang, J., Wang, J., Hu, M., Wu, S., Qi, J., Wang, G., Han, Z., Qi, Y., Gao, N., Wang, H.-W., Zhou, J.-M., Chai, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Reconstitution and structure of a plant NLR resistosome conferring immunity
Nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) perceive pathogen effectors to trigger plant immunity. Biochemical mechanisms underlying plant NLR activation have until now remained poorly understood. We reconstituted an active complex containing the Arabidopsis coiled-coil NLR ZAR1, the pseudokinase RKS1, uridylated protein kinase PBL2, and 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate (dATP), demonstrating the oligomerization of the complex during immune activation. The cryo–electron microscopy structure reveals a wheel-like pentameric ZAR1 resistosome. Besides the nucleotide-binding domain, the coiled-coil domain of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 4, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wang, J., Hu, M., Wang, J., Qi, J., Han, Z., Wang, G., Qi, Y., Wang, H.-W., Zhou, J.-M., Chai, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Botany, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Cochrane's 30 under 30: Meisser Madera
Cochrane is made up of  13,000 members and over 50,000 supporters come from more than 130 countries, worldwide. Our volunteers and contributors are researchers, health professionals, patients, carers, people passionate about improving health outcomes for everyone, everywhere.Cochrane is an incredible community of people who all play their part in improving health and healthcare globally. We believe that by putting trusted evidence at the heart of health decisions we can achieve a world of improved health for all.  Many  of our contributors are young people working with Cochrane ...
Source: Cochrane News and Events - April 3, 2019 Category: Information Technology Authors: Lydia Parsonson Source Type: news

Traffic jam in the cell: How are proteins assigned to specific transporters?
(University of Heidelberg) Special carriers ensure that proteins are transported to where they are needed in the cell. By combining innovative investigative techniques, biochemists at Heidelberg University have succeeded in comprehensively analysing two of these so-called transport vesicles - the COPI and COPII vesicles - for the first time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers awarded € 4 million in European Research Council grants
Two senior researchers from the University of Bristol have been awarded over € 4 million in European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grants in recognition of their ‘ excellent science ’ and potentially ground-breaking research. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - March 28, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Grants and Awards, Research; Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biochemistry, Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Arts, Bristol Institute for Research in the Humanities and Arts, Faculty of Life Sciences; Press Release Source Type: news

Packing of apolar side chains enables accurate design of highly stable membrane proteins
The features that stabilize the structures of membrane proteins remain poorly understood. Polar interactions contribute modestly, and the hydrophobic effect contributes little to the energetics of apolar side-chain packing in membranes. Disruption of steric packing can destabilize the native folds of membrane proteins, but is packing alone sufficient to drive folding in lipids? If so, then membrane proteins stabilized by this feature should be readily designed and structurally characterized—yet this has not been achieved. Through simulation of the natural protein phospholamban and redesign of variants, we define a st...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mravic, M., Thomaston, J. L., Tucker, M., Solomon, P. E., Liu, L., DeGrado, W. F. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news

Precise packing for membrane proteins
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

New Max Planck-Bristol Centre for Minimal Biology launched
Building stripped-down versions of life using protocells, genome delivery systems and synthetic cytoskeletons comprise some of the groundbreaking research due to take place at a new Centre launched at the University of Bristol today [Wednesday 27 March]. The Max Planck-Bristol Centre for Minimal Biology, a partnership between the University of Bristol and the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (MPG) in Germany, aims to advance the future of health and medicine by understanding the fundamental nature of life. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - March 27, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: International, Health, Business and Enterprise, Announcements, Research; Faculty of Life Sciences, Institutes, Bristol BioDesign Institute, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Science, School of Chemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biochemistry, Facu Source Type: news

New class of membranes shown to regenerate tissue and bone, viable solution for periodontitis
Periodontitis affects nearly half of Americans ages 30 and older, and in its advanced stages, it could lead to early tooth loss or worse. Recent studies have shown that periodontitis could also increase risk of heart disease and Alzheimer ’s disease. A team of UCLA researchers has developed methods that may lead to more effective and reliable therapy for periodontal disease — ones that promote gum tissue and bone regeneration with biological and mechanical features that can be adjusted based on treatment needs. Thestudy is published online in ACS Nano. Periodontitis is a chronic, destructive dise...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - March 25, 2019 Category: Dentistry Source Type: news

Matter: Why Would an Animal Trade One Body for Another?
Most species undergo metamorphosis, but scientists aren ’ t sure why the process evolved. One new theory: Metamorphosis gives animals greater access to food. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 25, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Animals metamorphosis Food Evolution (Biology) Biology and Biochemistry Anatomy and Physiology Hanna ten Brink your-feed-science Source Type: news

New class of membranes shown to regenerate tissue and bone, viable solution for periodontitis
Periodontitis affects nearly half of Americans ages 30 and older, and in its advanced stages, it could lead to early tooth loss or worse. Recent studies have shown that periodontitis could also increase risk of  heart disease and Alzheimer’s disease.A team of UCLA researchers has developed methods that may lead to more effective and reliable therapy for periodontal disease — ones that promote gum tissue and bone regeneration with biological and mechanical features that can be adjusted based on treatment needs. Thestudy is published online in ACS Nano.Periodontitis is a chronic, destructive diseas...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - March 22, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Artificial chemical DNA switch helps understand epigenetic mechanisms
(Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IOCB Prague)) Researchers from the Czech Academy of Sciences and Charles University constructed an artificial chemical DNA switch and made the first step towards artificial epigenetics -- targeted switching on and off of genes. Their paper was recently published in the journal Chemical Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sodium channels caught in the act
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Chowdhury, S., Chanda, B. Tags: Biochemistry perspective Source Type: news

Targeting sodium channels
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

How activation leads to gating
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Physiology twis Source Type: news

Molecular basis for pore blockade of human Na+ channel Nav1.2 by the {mu}-conotoxin KIIIA
We report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of human Nav1.2 bound to a peptidic pore blocker, the μ-conotoxin KIIIA, in the presence of an auxiliary subunit, β2, to an overall resolution of 3.0 angstroms. The immunoglobulin domain of β2 interacts with the shoulder of the pore domain through a disulfide bond. The 16-residue KIIIA interacts with the extracellular segments in repeats I to III, placing Lys7 at the entrance to the selectivity filter. Many interacting residues are specific to Nav1.2, revealing a molecular basis for KIIIA specificity. The structure establishes a framework for the rational ...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Pan, X., Li, Z., Huang, X., Huang, G., Gao, S., Shen, H., Liu, L., Lei, J., Yan, N. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news

Structures of human Nav1.7 channel in complex with auxiliary subunits and animal toxins
Voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 represents a promising target for pain relief. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structures of the human Nav1.7-β1-β2 complex bound to two combinations of pore blockers and gating modifier toxins (GMTs), tetrodotoxin with protoxin-II and saxitoxin with huwentoxin-IV, both determined at overall resolutions of 3.2 angstroms. The two structures are nearly identical except for minor shifts of voltage-sensing domain II (VSDII), whose S3-S4 linker accommodates the two GMTs in a similar manner. One additional protoxin-II sits on top of the S3-S4 linker in VSDIV. The st...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shen, H., Liu, D., Wu, K., Lei, J., Yan, N. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news

Structural basis of {alpha}-scorpion toxin action on Nav channels
Fast inactivation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels is essential for electrical signaling, but its mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we determined the structures of a eukaryotic Nav channel alone and in complex with a lethal α-scorpion toxin, AaH2, by electron microscopy, both at 3.5-angstrom resolution. AaH2 wedges into voltage-sensing domain IV (VSD4) to impede fast activation by trapping a deactivated state in which gating charge interactions bridge to the acidic intracellular carboxyl-terminal domain. In the absence of AaH2, the S4 helix of VSD4 undergoes a ~13-angstrom translation to unlatch the int...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Clairfeuille, T., Cloake, A., Infield, D. T., Llongueras, J. P., Arthur, C. P., Li, Z. R., Jian, Y., Martin-Eauclaire, M.-F., Bougis, P. E., Ciferri, C., Ahern, C. A., Bosmans, F., Hackos, D. H., Rohou, A., Payandeh, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

Green tea could reduce obesity risk
A study, published in theJournal of Nutritional Biochemistry, suggests that green tea can promote healthy gut bacteria, reduce inflammation and lower obesity risk in mice.Medical News Today (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Source: Society for Endocrinology - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

How to catch ovarian cancer earlier
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed too late for effective treatment. Israeli researchers are announcing a liquid biopsy-based diagnostic protocol for ovarian cancer, with higher sensitivity than previous approaches, that may help women in high-risk populations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - March 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Barbara Low, Whose Research Identified the Shape of Penicillin, Dies at 98
Her work with Dorothy Hodgkin unleashed a bonanza of lifesaving antibiotics and gave other female scientists a foothold in a male-dominated field. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 14, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: SAM ROBERTS Tags: Low, Barbara W (1920-2019) Biology and Biochemistry Research Antibiotics Columbia University Deaths (Obituaries) Source Type: news

Barbara Low, Whose Research Boosted Antibiotics, Dies at 98
Her work with Dorothy Hodgkin identified the structure of penicillin, enabling scientists to replicate it and develop drugs to treat other infections. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 14, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: SAM ROBERTS Tags: Low, Barbara Deaths (Obituaries) Biology and Biochemistry Research Antibiotics Columbia University Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot Source Type: news

Insilico to present at the 2019 Undoing Aging Conference
(InSilico Medicine, Inc.) Recent studies suggest that a set of biomarkers, rather than an individual biomarker, constitute the most effective means of assessing the health status. Daniil Polykovskiy will present 'Deep generative approach for transcriptome analysis of human aging' at the 2019 Undoing Aging Conference. He will share the latest development of comprehensive and robust aging biomarkers using deep learning, blood biochemistry, transcriptomics, and even imaging data, which is able to track the effectiveness of the various interventions that Insilico is developing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 12, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A small-molecule fusion inhibitor of influenza virus is orally active in mice
Recent characterization of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza virus identified the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stem as a target for development of universal vaccines and therapeutics. Although several stem bnAbs are being evaluated in clinical trials, antibodies are generally unsuited for oral delivery. Guided by structural knowledge of the interactions and mechanism of anti-stem bnAb CR6261, we selected and optimized small molecules that mimic the bnAb functionality. Our lead compound neutralizes influenza A group 1 viruses by inhibiting HA-mediated fusion in vitro, protects mice against lethal and...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: van Dongen, M. J. P., Kadam, R. U., Juraszek, J., Lawson, E., Brandenburg, B., Schmitz, F., Schepens, W. B. G., Stoops, B., van Diepen, H. A., Jongeneelen, M., Tang, C., Vermond, J., van Eijgen-Obregoso Real, A., Blokland, S., Garg, D., Yu, W., Goutier, W Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Structural basis for pH-dependent retrieval of ER proteins from the Golgi by the KDEL receptor
Selective export and retrieval of proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus is indispensable for eukaryotic cell function. An essential step in the retrieval of ER luminal proteins from the Golgi is the pH-dependent recognition of a carboxyl-terminal Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) signal by the KDEL receptor. Here, we present crystal structures of the chicken KDEL receptor in the apo ER state, KDEL-bound Golgi state, and in complex with an antagonistic synthetic nanobody (sybody). These structures show a transporter-like architecture that undergoes conformational changes upon KDEL binding and reveal a pH-...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Bräuer, P., Parker, J. L., Gerondopoulos, A., Zimmermann, I., Seeger, M. A., Barr, F. A., Newstead, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

A molecular assembly phase transition and kinetic proofreading modulate Ras activation by SOS
In this study, we designed a single-molecule assay to resolve the time between initial receptor-mediated membrane recruitment and the initiation of GEF activity of individual SOS molecules on microarrays of Ras-functionalized supported membranes. The rise-and-fall shape of the measured SOS activation time distribution and the long mean time scale to activation (~50 seconds) establish a basis for kinetic proofreading in the receptor-mediated activation of Ras. We further demonstrate that this kinetic proofreading is modulated by the LAT (linker for activation of T cells)–Grb2–SOS phosphotyrosine-driven phase tra...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Huang, W. Y. C., Alvarez, S., Kondo, Y., Lee, Y. K., Chung, J. K., Lam, H. Y. M., Biswas, K. H., Kuriyan, J., Groves, J. T. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Stoichiometry controls activity of phase-separated clusters of actin signaling proteins
Biomolecular condensates concentrate macromolecules into foci without a surrounding membrane. Many condensates appear to form through multivalent interactions that drive liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS). LLPS increases the specific activity of actin regulatory proteins toward actin assembly by the Arp2/3 complex. We show that this increase occurs because LLPS of the Nephrin–Nck–N-WASP signaling pathway on lipid bilayers increases membrane dwell time of N-WASP and Arp2/3 complex, consequently increasing actin assembly. Dwell time varies with relative stoichiometry of the signaling proteins in the phase-sepa...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Case, L. B., Zhang, X., Ditlev, J. A., Rosen, M. K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Direct stimulation of NADP+ synthesis through Akt-mediated phosphorylation of NAD kinase
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) is essential for producing NADPH, the primary cofactor for reductive metabolism. We find that growth factor signaling through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)–Akt pathway induces acute synthesis of NADP+ and NADPH. Akt phosphorylates NAD kinase (NADK), the sole cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NADP+ from NAD+ (the oxidized form of NADH), on three serine residues (Ser44, Ser46, and Ser48) within an amino-terminal domain. This phosphorylation stimulates NADK activity both in cells and directly in vitro, thereby increasing NADP+ production. A rare i...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hoxhaj, G., Ben-Sahra, I., Lockwood, S. E., Timson, R. C., Byles, V., Henning, G. T., Gao, P., Selfors, L. M., Asara, J. M., Manning, B. D. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Akt produces reducing power
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

A small molecule that targets influenza
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Organized for action
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Crystal structure of the KDEL receptor
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

UCLA-led study could point to ways to better control inflammation in autoimmune diseases
In autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis or lupus, the immune system goes into overdrive in response to people ’s own DNA being released from damaged cells — a reaction that can cause severe inflammation in the body.Until now, the molecular processes behind that immune response have not been fully understood by scientists, but a new UCLA-led study could help change that.Researchers at UCLA and three other institutions discovered that LL37 molecules, which are found in the immune system, play an important but unexpected role in revving up the body ’s self-defense response. The finding may bring scientists ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - March 5, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

UMMS scientists develop technology to give night vision to mammals
(University of Massachusetts Medical School) A new study in the journal Cell describes how UMass Medical School biochemist Gang Han, PhD, and colleagues developed technology to give night vision to mammals with a simple injection that contains nanoantennae, allowing the animals to see light beyond the visible spectrum, into the range of infrared light. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cool mechanism for sensing cool
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Structural basis of cooling agent and lipid sensing by the cold-activated TRPM8 channel
This study provides a platform for understanding the molecular mechanism of TRPM8 activation by cooling agents. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yin, Y., Le, S. C., Hsu, A. L., Borgnia, M. J., Yang, H., Lee, S.-Y. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news

Radiation-resistant E. coli evolved in the lab give view into DNA repair
(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Scientists in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Biochemistry are blasting E. coli bacteria with ionizing radiation once a week to watch evolution happen in real time as the bacteria become radiation resistant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Split-Sex Animals Are Unusual, Yes, but Not as Rare as You ’ d Think
From butterflies to chickens to lobsters, mixed male-female bodies offer clues as to why certain diseases strike one gender more often than the other. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 25, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: KAREN WEINTRAUB Tags: Genetics and Heredity Chromosomes Hormones Birds Butterflies and Moths Mammals your-feed-science Research Biology and Biochemistry Source Type: news

Outfitting T cell receptors to combat a widespread and sometimes deadly virus
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers have engineered 'antibody-like' T cell receptors that can specifically stick to cells infected with cytomegalovirus, or CMV, a virus that causes lifelong infection in more than half of all adults by age 40. These receptors represent a new potential treatment option, could aid the development of CMV vaccines and might also be used to target brain tumors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 22, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Structures and operating principles of the replisome
Visualization in atomic detail of the replisome that performs concerted leading– and lagging–DNA strand synthesis at a replication fork has not been reported. Using bacteriophage T7 as a model system, we determined cryo–electron microscopy structures up to 3.2-angstroms resolution of helicase translocating along DNA and of helicase-polymerase-primase complexes engaging in synthesis of both DNA strands. Each domain of the spiral-shaped hexameric helicase translocates sequentially hand-over-hand along a single-stranded DNA coil, akin to the way AAA+ ATPases (adenosine triphosphatases) unfold peptides. Two l...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Gao, Y., Cui, Y., Fox, T., Lin, S., Wang, H., de Val, N., Zhou, Z. H., Yang, W. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Hachimoji DNA and RNA: A genetic system with eight building blocks
We report DNA- and RNA-like systems built from eight nucleotide "letters" (hence the name "hachimoji") that form four orthogonal pairs. These synthetic systems meet the structural requirements needed to support Darwinian evolution, including a polyelectrolyte backbone, predictable thermodynamic stability, and stereoregular building blocks that fit a Schrödinger aperiodic crystal. Measured thermodynamic parameters predict the stability of hachimoji duplexes, allowing hachimoji DNA to increase the information density of natural terran DNA. Three crystal structures show that the synthetic building blocks...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hoshika, S., Leal, N. A., Kim, M.-J., Kim, M.-S., Karalkar, N. B., Kim, H.-J., Bates, A. M., Watkins, N. E., SantaLucia, H. A., Meyer, A. J., DasGupta, S., Piccirilli, J. A., Ellington, A. D., SantaLucia, J., Georgiadis, M. M., Benner, S. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

A pharmacological master key mechanism that unlocks the selectivity filter gate in K+ channels
Potassium (K+) channels have been evolutionarily tuned for activation by diverse biological stimuli, and pharmacological activation is thought to target these specific gating mechanisms. Here we report a class of negatively charged activators (NCAs) that bypass the specific mechanisms but act as master keys to open K+ channels gated at their selectivity filter (SF), including many two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels, voltage-gated hERG (human ether-à-go-go–related gene) channels and calcium (Ca2+)–activated big-conductance potassium (BK)–type channels. Functional analysis, x-ray crystallography, and ...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 21, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Schewe, M., Sun, H., Mert, U., Mackenzie, A., Pike, A. C. W., Schulz, F., Constantin, C., Vowinkel, K. S., Conrad, L. J., Kiper, A. K., Gonzalez, W., Musinszki, M., Tegtmeier, M., Pryde, D. C., Belabed, H., Nazare, M., de Groot, B. L., Decher, N., Fakler, Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news