Clinical Biochemistry PhD at the University of Cambridge
Applications are open for a 4-year research based Clinical Biochemistry PhD at the University of Cambridge, starting Oct 2019, in the labs of Dr Giles Yeo titled,‘Characterization of human neurons expressing the glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor (GLP1-R).’ ContactDr Giles Yeo directly for more information. Deadline for applications is noon 7 December. (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Source: Society for Endocrinology - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

How a common drug causes liver failure
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) A study of liver cells exposed to the common painkiller acetaminophen found a novel mechanism for the drug's toxicity at high doses. Researchers say a protein modification called glutathionylation, kicked off by acetaminophen treatment, impairs liver cell mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Dimerization quality control ensures neuronal development and survival
Aberrant complex formation by recurrent interaction modules, such as BTB domains, leucine zippers, or coiled coils, can disrupt signal transduction, yet whether cells detect and eliminate complexes of irregular composition is unknown. By searching for regulators of the BTB family, we discovered a quality control pathway that ensures functional dimerization [dimerization quality control (DQC)]. Key to this network is the E3 ligase SCFFBXL17, which selectively binds and ubiquitylates BTB dimers of aberrant composition to trigger their clearance by proteasomal degradation. Underscoring the physiological importance of DQC, SCF...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mena, E. L., Kjolby, R. A. S., Saxton, R. A., Werner, A., Lew, B. G., Boyle, J. M., Harland, R., Rape, M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Structure and dynamics of the yeast SWR1-nucleosome complex
The yeast SWR1 complex exchanges histone H2A in nucleosomes with Htz1 (H2A.Z in humans). The cryo–electron microscopy structure of the SWR1 complex bound to a nucleosome at 3.6-angstrom resolution reveals details of the intricate interactions between components of the SWR1 complex and its nucleosome substrate. Interactions between the Swr1 motor domains and the DNA wrap at superhelical location 2 distort the DNA, causing a bulge with concomitant translocation of the DNA by one base pair, coupled to conformational changes of the histone core. Furthermore, partial unwrapping of the DNA from the histone core takes place...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Willhoft, O., Ghoneim, M., Lin, C.-L., Chua, E. Y. D., Wilkinson, M., Chaban, Y., Ayala, R., McCormack, E. A., Ocloo, L., Rueda, D. S., Wigley, D. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Systematic discovery of natural CRISPR-Cas12a inhibitors
Cas12a (Cpf1) is a CRISPR-associated nuclease with broad utility for synthetic genome engineering, agricultural genomics, and biomedical applications. Although bacteria harboring CRISPR-Cas9 or CRISPR-Cas3 adaptive immune systems sometimes acquire mobile genetic elements encoding anti-CRISPR proteins that inhibit Cas9, Cas3, or the DNA-binding Cascade complex, no such inhibitors have been found for CRISPR-Cas12a. Here we use a comprehensive bioinformatic and experimental screening approach to identify three different inhibitors that block or diminish CRISPR-Cas12a–mediated genome editing in human cells. We also find ...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Watters, K. E., Fellmann, C., Bai, H. B., Ren, S. M., Doudna, J. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Genetics reports Source Type: news

From DNA unwrapping to histone exchange
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

A way to prevent deadly interaction
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Seed oils are best for LDL cholesterol
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Using a statistical technique called network meta-analysis, researchers have combined the results of dozens of studies of dietary oils to identify those with the best effect on patients' LDL cholesterol and other blood lipids. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 9, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Matter: Deep in Human DNA, a Gift From the Neanderthals
The Neanderthals probably infected modern humans with viruses, perhaps even an ancient form of H.I.V. But our extinct relatives also gave us genetic defenses. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - October 4, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Genetics and Heredity Proteins Neanderthal Man Viruses Evolution (Biology) Biology and Biochemistry Cell (Journal) Source Type: news

It takes two to signal
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Two Patched molecules engage distinct sites on Hedgehog yielding a signaling-competent complex
Aberrant Hedgehog (HH) signaling leads to various types of cancer and birth defects. N-terminally palmitoylated HH initiates signaling by binding its receptor Patched-1 (PTCH1). A recent 1:1 PTCH1-HH complex structure visualized a palmitate-mediated binding site on HH, which was inconsistent with previous studies that implied a distinct, calcium-mediated binding site for PTCH1 and HH co-receptors. Our 3.5-angstrom resolution cryo–electron microscopy structure of native Sonic Hedgehog (SHH-N) in complex with PTCH1 at a physiological calcium concentration reconciles these disparate findings and demonstrates that one SH...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 4, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Qi, X., Schmiege, P., Coutavas, E., Li, X. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Is YOUR child a 'fussy eater'? They may just have a food intolerance
Dr Gill Hart, a biochemist at British food intolerance testing firm YorkTest, claims parents should not automatically assume their youngsters are being picky. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - September 25, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Sperm quality study updates advice for couples trying to conceive
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New clinical and molecular evidence shows sperm quality and reproductive outcomes are improved when semen is provided after just 1-3 hours of abstinence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 17, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How cells handle a sticky, toxic, but absolutely essential molecule
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) A team of researchers at the Lerner Research Institute of the Cleveland Clinic has solved a long-standing puzzle by identifying the protein that 'chaperones' free heme in cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 14, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Big data studies scrutinize links between fatty liver disease and how cells make energy
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Three recent studies investigate changes in mitochondria, the cell's energy producers, as fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progresses to steatohepatosis (NASH). The first two studies illuminate how mitochondrial energy production stutters and fails; the third describes how changes to the liver during disease progression affect the organ's use of nutrients to produce energy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 14, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

UCLA-led team develops new system for tracking chemicals in the brain
UCLA and Columbia University researchers have developed a new method for tracking the activities of small molecules in the brain, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.“Understanding the fundamentals of how neurotransmission occurs will help us understand not only how our brains work, but what’s going on in psychiatric disorders,” said Anne Andrews, the study’s lead author, a UCLA professor of psychiatry and chemistry.The research, which was published in the journal Science, is part of the BRAIN Initiative, a collaboration among government, private industry, nonprofits, and colleges...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 13, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

RUDN biochemists found out how ROS affect cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells
(RUDN University) A team of sciences from RUDN Institute of Medicine found out how reactive oxygen species affect the resistance of ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy on the example of cisplatin -- an antitumor drug used to treat this type of malignant growth. Practical application of the research results would help improve medical treatment schemes for cancer patients. The article of the scientists was published in the materials of FEBS Congress (FEBS Open Bio). (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 13, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

RNA takes over DNA repair
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

A protein designed to sense metabolites
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Metals brought together do more
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Funk, M. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

ER-SURF protein import into mitochondria
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

A designed heme-[4Fe-4S] metalloenzyme catalyzes sulfite reduction like the native enzyme
We report a designed heteronuclear heme-[4Fe-4S] cofactor in cytochrome c peroxidase as a structural and functional model of the enzyme sulfite reductase. The initial model exhibits spectroscopic and ligand-binding properties of the native enzyme, and sulfite reduction activity was improved—through rational tuning of the secondary sphere interactions around the [4Fe-4S] and the substrate-binding sites—to be close to that of the native enzyme. By offering insight into the requirements for a demanding six-electron, seven-proton reaction that has so far eluded synthetic catalysts, this study provides strategies fo...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mirts, E. N., Petrik, I. D., Hosseinzadeh, P., Nilges, M. J., Lu, Y. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

Semisynthetic sensor proteins enable metabolic assays at the point of care
Monitoring metabolites at the point of care could improve the diagnosis and management of numerous diseases. Yet for most metabolites, such assays are not available. We introduce semisynthetic, light-emitting sensor proteins for use in paper-based metabolic assays. The metabolite is oxidized by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and the sensor changes color in the presence of the reduced cofactor, enabling metabolite quantification with the use of a digital camera. The approach makes any metabolite that can be oxidized by the cofactor a candidate for quantitative point-of-care assays, as shown for phenylalanine, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yu, Q., Xue, L., Hiblot, J., Griss, R., Fabritz, S., Roux, C., Binz, P.-A., Haas, D., Okun, J. G., Johnsson, K. Tags: Biochemistry, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

An ER surface retrieval pathway safeguards the import of mitochondrial membrane proteins in yeast
In this study, we used a genome-wide screen in yeast and identified factors critical for the intracellular sorting of the mitochondrial inner membrane protein Oxa1. The screen uncovered an unexpected path, termed ER-SURF, for targeting of mitochondrial membrane proteins. This pathway retrieves mitochondrial proteins from the ER surface and reroutes them to mitochondria with the aid of the ER-localized chaperone Djp1. Hence, cells use the expanse of the ER surfaces as a fail-safe to maximize productive mitochondrial protein targeting. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hansen, K. G., Aviram, N., Laborenz, J., Bibi, C., Meyer, M., Spang, A., Schuldiner, M., Herrmann, J. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Ribonucleotide incorporation enables repair of chromosome breaks by nonhomologous end joining
The nonhomologous end–joining (NHEJ) pathway preserves genome stability by ligating the ends of broken chromosomes together. It employs end-processing enzymes, including polymerases, to prepare ends for ligation. We show that two such polymerases incorporate primarily ribonucleotides during NHEJ—an exception to the central dogma of molecular biology—both during repair of chromosome breaks made by Cas9 and during V(D)J recombination. Moreover, additions of ribonucleotides but not deoxynucleotides effectively promote ligation. Repair kinetics suggest that ribonucleotide-dependent first-strand ligation is fo...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pryor, J. M., Conlin, M. P., Carvajal-Garcia, J., Luedeman, M. E., Luthman, A. J., Small, G. W., Ramsden, D. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

Animal welfare and research 3Rs symposium
Scientists at the University of Bristol's second Animal Welfare and Research 3Rs symposium, held earlier this year, had the opportunity to find out about current research and share best practice of the '3Rs': Replace, Reduce and Refine. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - September 12, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Research; Faculty of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Science, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Li Source Type: news

UCLA scientist shares 2018 Lasker Prize for figuring out how genes turn on and off
Michael Grunstein, a longtime professor of biological chemistry at UCLA who uncovered the key role that DNA ’s “packing material” plays in turning genes on and off, haswon the Albert Lasker award for basic medical research.He shares the prize with Rockefeller University biochemist C. David Allis,... (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Source: Los Angeles Times - Science - September 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Melissa Healy Source Type: news

Basics: How Teeth Became Tusks, and Tusks Became Liabilities
Humans, mice, narwhals — most mammals rely on ancient genes to produce teeth and tusks. But the tuskless elephants of Africa show that nature can quickly alter the code. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - September 11, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: NATALIE ANGIER Tags: Elephants Ivory Poaching (Wildlife) Teeth and Dentistry Whales and Whaling Genetics and Heredity Evolution (Biology) Biology and Biochemistry Africa Source Type: news

UCLA ’s Michael Grunstein wins 2018 Lasker Award for medical research
Michael Grunstein, a distinguished professor of biological chemistry at theDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, has been awarded the 2018 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award for his groundbreaking research on gene expression. He shares the award with C. David Allis of Rockefeller University in New York.Grunstein provided the first demonstration that histones — the proteins that package DNA within chromosomes — are more than inert structures that serve simply as spools for DNA. Working with his team at UCLA, he showed via experiments with yeast that histones actually play an important role in gene exp...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 11, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

RUDN biochemists described a new mechanism for autoimmunity suppression
(RUDN University) RUDN biochemists suggested a new mechanism following which a human body prevents the development of autoimmune diseases (i.e. conditions caused by the damaging influence of the immune system on a body's own organs and tissues), allergies, and implant rejection. It turned out that regulatory T-cells are able to suppress the reproduction of autoimmune cells. The work was published in the Molecular Immunology journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - September 7, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Structure of the human PKD1-PKD2 complex
Mutations in two genes, PKD1 and PKD2, account for most cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, one of the most common monogenetic disorders. Here we report the 3.6-angstrom cryo–electron microscopy structure of truncated human PKD1-PKD2 complex assembled in a 1:3 ratio. PKD1 contains a voltage-gated ion channel (VGIC) fold that interacts with PKD2 to form the domain-swapped, yet noncanonical, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel architecture. The S6 helix in PKD1 is broken in the middle, with the extracellular half, S6a, resembling pore helix 1 in a typical TRP channel. Three positively charged,...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 6, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Su, Q., Hu, F., Ge, X., Lei, J., Yu, S., Wang, T., Zhou, Q., Mei, C., Shi, Y. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Senior Research Laboratory Technician (Fixed Term)
We are looking for an experienced and enthusiastic individual to join the groups ofProfessor Abigail Fowden andDr Andrew Murray.Collectively, their research focuses on mitochondrial function during development and ageing, and how conditions during early life programme development can increase susceptibility to adult-onset degenerative diseases.The position is fixed-term, with funds available for 2 years in the first instance. The post holder will provide mainly molecular biology support, as well as some assistance with animal work, to ensure that the objectives of the research project are achieved.&nb...
Source: Society for Endocrinology - September 5, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Deadly venoms may drive medical advances
According to a recent paper, naturally produced venoms could help design treatments for a range of diseases, including diabetes and chronic pain. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - September 2, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

UTA biochemists study enzymes to provide keys for drug development
(University of Texas at Arlington) UTA biochemists are mapping the function of specific enzymes which may facilitate development of new drugs to fight bacterial infection, cancer and potentially neurodegenerative diseases like autism, Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - August 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New pain drugs may lower overdose and addiction risk
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Service, R. F. Tags: Biochemistry, Medicine, Diseases, Pharmacology, Toxicology In Depth Source Type: news

Single-particle cryo-EM--How did it get here and where will it go
Cryo–electron microscopy, or simply cryo-EM, refers mainly to three very different yet closely related techniques: electron crystallography, single-particle cryo-EM, and electron cryotomography. In the past few years, single-particle cryo-EM in particular has triggered a revolution in structural biology and has become a newly dominant discipline. This Review examines the fascinating story of its start and evolution over the past 40-plus years, delves into how and why the recent technological advances have been so groundbreaking, and briefly considers where the technique may be headed in the future. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Cheng, Y. Tags: Biochemistry special/review Source Type: news

Visualizing and discovering cellular structures with super-resolution microscopy
Super-resolution microscopy has overcome a long-held resolution barrier—the diffraction limit—in light microscopy and enabled visualization of previously invisible molecular details in biological systems. Since their conception, super-resolution imaging methods have continually evolved and can now be used to image cellular structures in three dimensions, multiple colors, and living systems with nanometer-scale resolution. These methods have been applied to answer questions involving the organization, interaction, stoichiometry, and dynamics of individual molecular building blocks and their integration into func...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sigal, Y. M., Zhou, R., Zhuang, X. Tags: Biochemistry special/review Source Type: news

Response to Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"
Best et al. claim that we provide no convincing basis to assert that a discrepancy remains between FRET and SAXS results on the dimensions of disordered proteins under physiological conditions. We maintain that a clear discrepancy is apparent in our and other recent publications, including results shown in the Best et al. comment. A plausible origin is fluorophore interactions in FRET experiments. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Riback, J. A., Bowman, M. A., Zmyslowski, A., Knoverek, C. R., Jumper, J., Kaye, E. B., Freed, K. F., Clark, P. L., Sosnick, T. R. Tags: Biochemistry t-comment Source Type: news

Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"
Riback et al. (Reports, 13 October 2017, p. 238) used small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments to infer a degree of compaction for unfolded proteins in water versus chemical denaturant that is highly consistent with the results from Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. There is thus no "contradiction" between the two methods, nor evidence to support their claim that commonly used FRET fluorophores cause protein compaction. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Best, R. B., Zheng, W., Borgia, A., Buholzer, K., Borgia, M. B., Hofmann, H., Soranno, A., Nettels, D., Gast, K., Grishaev, A., Schuler, B. Tags: Biochemistry t-comment Source Type: news

Comment on "Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water"
Editors at Science requested our input on the above discussion (comment by Best et al. and response by Riback et al.) because both sets of authors use our data from Fuertes et al. (2017) to support their arguments. The topic of discussion pertains to the discrepant inferences drawn from SAXS versus FRET measurements regarding the dimensions of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) in aqueous solvents. Using SAXS measurements on labeled and unlabeled proteins, we ruled out the labels used for FRET measurements as the cause of discrepant inferences between the two methods. Instead, we propose that FRET and SAXS provide co...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 30, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Fuertes, G., Banterle, N., Ruff, K. M., Chowdhury, A., Pappu, R. V., Svergun, D. I., Lemke, E. A. Tags: Biochemistry t-comment Source Type: news

Scientists sweep cellular neighborhoods where Zika hides out
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers report a comprehensive analysis of interactions between Zika virus proteins and native human proteins. One of their findings gives insight into how Zika escapes immune signaling and where the virus proliferates inside the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - August 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

International team makes rare discovery of new fatty acids
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) Decades after scientists discovered hundreds of different fatty acids in vegetable oils, two that had managed to elude detection have finally revealed themselves to a team led by the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Huazhong Agricultural University in China. The discovery may be the first of its kind since the 1960s and 1970s, the researchers said, when biochemists identified troves of new fatty acids in various vegetable oils. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 27, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Buildings made from fungi? Meet London ’s pop-up bio-lab innovators
A shipping container complex in a Shepherd ’s Bush market is the unlikely home to a community of startup research projectsIf there ’s one place you wouldn’t expect a new biotech research lab to be built, it’s slap bang in the middle of a busy London market.Yet navigate through stalls selling fish, fabric and phone cases in west London ’s Shepherd’s Bush market and you’ll find a brightly painted courtyard and a small A4 sign that reads: “THIS AREA MAY LOOK EXCITING, BUT IT’S REALLY NOT, SO PLEASE DON’T GO THROUGH! THANKS.”Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - August 25, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tom Ireland Tags: Biochemistry and molecular biology Environment Genetics Construction industry Fashion Science Source Type: news

Improving cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers describe a new set of cell surface markers on dopaminergic progenitor cells, which allow isolation of a more beneficial population of induced neurons for cell replacement therapy. Animals that received transplanted cells that had been selected for the new marker fared better than their counterparts with a typical transplant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - August 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Severing enzymes amplify microtubule arrays through lattice GTP-tubulin incorporation
Spastin and katanin sever and destabilize microtubules. Paradoxically, despite their destructive activity they increase microtubule mass in vivo. We combined single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy to show that the elemental step in microtubule severing is the generation of nanoscale damage throughout the microtubule by active extraction of tubulin heterodimers. These damage sites are repaired spontaneously by guanosine triphosphate (GTP)–tubulin incorporation, which rejuvenates and stabilizes the microtubule shaft. Consequently, spastin and katanin increase microtubu...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 23, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Vemu, A., Szczesna, E., Zehr, E. A., Spector, J. O., Grigorieff, N., Deaconescu, A. M., Roll-Mecak, A. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Severing to build microtubules
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 23, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

20 'facts' about the human body that are complete myths
Biochemist and author Matt Brown, from London, is on a mission to debunk the greatest medical myths about our bodies. Here, he reveals the truth about our most common misconceptions... (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - August 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Targeting one enzyme could treat cancer, diabetes, and obesity
A study into the enzyme PI3KC2A reveals its role in internal cell signaling processes, the disruption of which can lead to cancer, obesity, and diabetes. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - August 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

Madden Launches DartCF
Dean Madden, Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and Director of the COBRE Institute for Biomolecular Targeting, has received a new NIH program project award to establish the Dartmouth Cystic Fibrosis Research Center (DartCF). This collaborative effort supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases will […] Read More (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)
Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School - August 17, 2018 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Heather Smith Tags: News Source Type: news

Building on nature: Scientists improve on a plastic-digesting enzyme to stem plastic waste
(Natural News) Plastic products are a considerable part of modern civilization, but disposing of them is one of today’s greatest environmental problems. A research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute reported, in a study published in the journal Biochemistry, how they found the means to improve a natural enzyme’s ability to decompose plastic, offering the possibility... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - August 17, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news