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A biochemical sulfur delivery service
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Rosenzweig, A. C. Tags: Biochemistry perspective Source Type: news

Silken promises
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Service, R. F. Tags: Biochemistry, Chemistry Feature Source Type: news

A spinner's secrets
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E., Service, R. F. Tags: Biochemistry, Evolution, Physiology Feature Source Type: news

Refueling an enzyme
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Structure of human mTORC1 components
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

A strategy for drug discovery
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Crystal structure of the human lysosomal mTORC1 scaffold complex and its impact on signaling
The LAMTOR [late endosomal and lysosomal adaptor and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) activator] complex, also known as "Ragulator," controls the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) on the lysosome. The crystal structure of LAMTOR consists of two roadblock/LC7 domain–folded heterodimers wrapped and apparently held together by LAMTOR1, which assembles the complex on lysosomes. In addition, the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) associated with the pentamer through their carboxyl-terminal domains, predefining the orientation for interaction with mTORC1. I...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: de Araujo, M. E. G., Naschberger, A., Fürnrohr, B. G., Stasyk, T., Dunzendorfer-Matt, T., Lechner, S., Welti, S., Kremser, L., Shivalingaiah, G., Offterdinger, M., Lindner, H. H., Huber, L. A., Scheffzek, K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Destruction and reformation of an iron-sulfur cluster during catalysis by lipoyl synthase
Lipoyl synthase (LipA) catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the lipoyl cofactor, which is the attachment of two sulfhydryl groups to C6 and C8 of a pendant octanoyl chain. The appended sulfur atoms derive from an auxiliary [4Fe-4S] cluster on the protein that is degraded during turnover, limiting LipA to one turnover in vitro. We found that the Escherichia coli iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster carrier protein NfuA efficiently reconstitutes the auxiliary cluster during LipA catalysis in a step that is not rate-limiting. We also found evidence for a second pathway for cluster regeneration involving the E. coli protein Is...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: McCarthy, E. L., Booker, S. J. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

D4 dopamine receptor high-resolution structures enable the discovery of selective agonists
Dopamine receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of nearly every neuropsychiatric disorder. Although thousands of drugs interact with these receptors, our molecular understanding of dopaminergic drug selectivity and design remains clouded. To illuminate dopamine receptor structure, function, and ligand recognition, we determined crystal structures of the D4 dopamine receptor in its inactive state bound to the antipsychotic drug nemonapride, with resolutions up to 1.95 angstroms. These structures suggest a mechanism for the control of constitutive signaling, and their unusually high resolution enabled a s...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 19, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Wang, S., Wacker, D., Levit, A., Che, T., Betz, R. M., McCorvy, J. D., Venkatakrishnan, A. J., Huang, X.-P., Dror, R. O., Shoichet, B. K., Roth, B. L. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

Royal Society of Chemistry to sell Biochemical Society journals
The Royal Society of Chemistry and Portland Press, the wholly-owned publishing arm of the Biochemical Society, have agreed a partnership enabling the Royal Society of Chemistry to sell Portland Press journals content. Speaking from the Frankfurt Book Fair, our commercial director, Dan Dyer said: “I am excited by the opportunities this announcement presents to both the Royal Society of Chemistry and the Biochemical Society.” “With the strategic alliance of the two societies, our customers will benefit by having a single sales contact to discuss all their chemistry and biochemistry content requirements.&rdq...
Source: News from STM - October 17, 2017 Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: STM Publishing News Tags: Editorial Featured Source Type: news

Crowdsourced game aims to find solutions to aflatoxin
(University of California - Davis) Mars, Inc., UC Davis and partners have launched a crowdsourcing initiative to solve the problem of aflatoxin contamination of crops. A series of aflatoxin puzzles will go online on Foldit, a platform that allows gamers to explore how amino acids are folded together to create proteins. Successful candidates from the computer game will be tested in the laboratory of Justin Siegel, assistant professor of chemistry, biochemistry and molecular medicine at UC Davis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Microbes leave 'fingerprints' on Martian rocks
(University of Vienna) Scientists around Tetyana Milojevic from the Faculty of Chemistry at the University of Vienna are in search of unique biosignatures, which are left on synthetic extraterrestrial minerals by microbial activity. The biochemist and astrobiologist investigates these signatures at her own miniaturized 'Mars farm' where she can observe interactions between the archaeon Metallosphaera sedula and Mars-like rocks. These microbes are capable of oxidizing and integrating metals into their metabolism. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Untangling vitamin D activation pathways in inflammation and bone health
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers have identified a region of the genome that regulates vitamin D activation in the kidneys, opening the door for more sophisticated treatments of diseases, including bone and immune disorders, involving vitamin D. The results of this research will be published in the Oct. 20 issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

BU researcher receives NIH award to better understand wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis
(Boston University School of Medicine) Lawreen H. Connors, PhD, associate professor of pathology and laboratory medicine and biochemistry at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM), is the recipient of a National Institutes of Health (NIH) High Priority, Short-Term Project Award, for her research 'molecular mechanism of senile cardiac amyloidosis.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 16, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Medical News Today: A brief introduction to enzymes
In this article, we explain what enzymes are, what they do, how they work, and give some common examples. We also explain cofactors and inhibition. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - October 12, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

Innovative scattering analysis shows that hydrophobic disordered proteins are expanded in water
A substantial fraction of the proteome is intrinsically disordered, and even well-folded proteins adopt non-native geometries during synthesis, folding, transport, and turnover. Characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is challenging, in part because of a lack of accurate physical models and the difficulty of interpreting experimental results. We have developed a general method to extract the dimensions and solvent quality (self-interactions) of IDPs from a single small-angle x-ray scattering measurement. We applied this procedure to a variety of IDPs and found that even IDPs with low net charge and hig...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 12, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Riback, J. A., Bowman, M. A., Zmyslowski, A. M., Knoverek, C. R., Jumper, J. M., Hinshaw, J. R., Kaye, E. B., Freed, K. F., Clark, P. L., Sosnick, T. R. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

Anti-Markovnikov alkene oxidation by metal-oxo-mediated enzyme catalysis
Catalytic anti-Markovnikov oxidation of alkene feedstocks could simplify synthetic routes to many important molecules and solve a long-standing challenge in chemistry. Here we report the engineering of a cytochrome P450 enzyme by directed evolution to catalyze metal-oxo–mediated anti-Markovnikov oxidation of styrenes with high efficiency. The enzyme uses dioxygen as the terminal oxidant and achieves selectivity for anti-Markovnikov oxidation over the kinetically favored alkene epoxidation by trapping high-energy intermediates and catalyzing an oxo transfer, including an enantioselective 1,2-hydride migration. The ant...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 12, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Hammer, S. C., Kubik, G., Watkins, E., Huang, S., Minges, H., Arnold, F. H. Tags: Biochemistry, Chemistry reports Source Type: news

An expanded view of disordered proteins
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 12, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Teaching an enzyme to switch sites
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 12, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Yeston, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Chemistry twis Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Targeting 'simple proteins' may extend metabolic healthspan
Scientists have found that deficient levels of fatty acid-binding proteins protect against diabetes, obesity, inflammation, and other age-related diseases. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - October 10, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

A molecular garbage disposal complex has a role in packing the genome
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New research from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology, to be published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry on Oct. 13, has found that the proteasome, an essential protein complex that breaks down proteins in cells, has another unexpected function: directly regulating the packing of DNA in the nucleus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 10, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Webinar | Overcoming the evils of fixation and storage: Getting the most out of your FFPE samples
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 5, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gupta, M., (Zhihong) Zhang, J., Strengman, E. E. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Development, Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology opms-sups Source Type: news

Fibril structure of amyloid-{beta}(1-42) by cryo-electron microscopy
We present the structure of an Aβ(1–42) fibril composed of two intertwined protofilaments determined by cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to 4.0-angstrom resolution, complemented by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The backbone of all 42 residues and nearly all side chains are well resolved in the EM density map, including the entire N terminus, which is part of the cross-β structure resulting in an overall "LS"-shaped topology of individual subunits. The dimer interface protects the hydrophobic C termini from the solvent. The characteristic staggering of the nonplanar su...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 5, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gremer, L., Schölzel, D., Schenk, C., Reinartz, E., Labahn, J., Ravelli, R. B. G., Tusche, M., Lopez-Iglesias, C., Hoyer, W., Heise, H., Willbold, D., Schröder, G. F. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

The molecular basis of Alzheimer's plaques
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 5, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Pospich, S., Raunser, S. Tags: Biochemistry perspective Source Type: news

Neandertal genome reveals greater legacy in the living
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 5, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gibbons, A. Tags: Anthropology, Biochemistry In Depth Source Type: news

Revelations about rhythm of life rewarded
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - October 5, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Stokstad, E., Vogel, G. Tags: Biochemistry, Scientific Community In Depth Source Type: news

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 - Cool microscope technology revolutionises biochemistry
We may soon have detailed images of life's complex machineries in atomic resolution. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017 is awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson for the development of cryo-electron microscopy, which both simplifies and improves the imaging of biomolecules. This method has moved biochemistry into a new era. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - October 4, 2017 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Development Research and Development Source Type: news

Scientists reveal 7 alternative natural cleaning hacks
Toxic cleaning chemicals bring risks of breathing problems and allergies, experts, commissioned by Norwegian biochemists have warned. But there are healthy alternatives to get your home spotless. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - October 3, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

The Anti-Aging Benefits of Curcumin
I've met a lot of people in my travels over the past few decades. I don't remember all of the names and faces, but there are some that I'll remember for the rest of my life… One is an older woman I met while I was studying Ayurvedic medicine in India in the 1990s. I assumed by her appearance that she was in her late 70s. She was active and engaging. I remember thinking she looked great for her age. And then she dropped the bomb… She told me she was 109! I thought she was pulling my leg at first. But when she introduced me to her 75-year-old granddaughter, I knew she wasn't kidding. When I ask...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - October 3, 2017 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Al Sears Tags: Anti-Aging Nutrition Source Type: news

What a rare blood disease can teach us about blood clotting
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New research in the Journal of Biological Chemistry yields insight into how antithrombin works, which could lead to treatments not only for patients with antithrombin deficiency, but also to better-designed drugs for other blood disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 2, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When HIV drugs don't cooperate
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Researchers at Thomas Jefferson University studying combinations of drugs against HIV have discovered why some drugs sometimes act synergistically but sometimes do not. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 2, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Flexible association comes at a price
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 28, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Kinetics of dCas9 target search in Escherichia coli
How fast can a cell locate a specific chromosomal DNA sequence specified by a single-stranded oligonucleotide? To address this question, we investigate the intracellular search processes of the Cas9 protein, which can be programmed by a guide RNA to bind essentially any DNA sequence. This targeting flexibility requires Cas9 to unwind the DNA double helix to test for correct base pairing to the guide RNA. Here we study the search mechanisms of the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) in living Escherichia coli by combining single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and bulk restriction-protection assays. We find that it takes a...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 28, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Jones, D. L., Leroy, P., Unoson, C., Fange, D., Curic, V., Lawson, M. J., Elf, J. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news

Webinar | The rise of whole genome microbial sequencing: A new era for human microbiome analysis
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 28, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Segre, J., Pollard, K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Development, Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology opms-sups Source Type: news

OU research group awarded $10.5 million NIH COBRE grant
(University of Oklahoma) An OU research team led by Ann West, professor of chemistry and biochemistry in the OU College of Arts and Sciences, has been awarded a five-year, $10.5 million National Institutes of Health grant to support an IDeA Center of Biomedical Research Excellence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF grant supports biochemistry research and mentoring outreach
(Wake Forest University) The National Science Foundation recently awarded a $680,000 grant to Wake Forest University Associate Professor of Chemistry Patricia Dos Santos. In addition to funding research that helps scientists better understand life on earth, the grant also enables her to mentor students from other Triad-area colleges. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 26, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biochemists discover mechanism that helps flu viruses evolve
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A new study from MIT reveals that flu viruses' rapid evolution relies in part on hijacking some of the cellular machinery of the infected host cell -- a group of proteins called chaperones, which help other proteins fold into the correct shape. When viruses are unable to get help from these proteins, they do not evolve as rapidly. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - September 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Grants awarded to pediatric cancer researcher at UCLA Mattel Children ’s Hospital
UCLA Mattel Children ’s Hospital has received two awards totaling $300,000 to fund research into treatments for various pediatric cancers: a $150,000 award from the Hyundai Hope On Wheels Foundation and a $150,000 award from Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation. The awards will support the work of Dr. Steven Jonas, clinical fellow in the division of pediatric hematology/oncology and trainee at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research. He is one of 40 recipients of the Hyundai Hope  on Wheels Young Investigator Grant, presented during September for National ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - September 26, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Discovering what makes organelles connect could help understand neurodegenerative diseases
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Organelles must exchange signals and materials to make the cell operate correctly. New technologies are allowing researchers to see and understand the networks that connect these organelles, allowing them to build maps of the trade routes that exist within a cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 25, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PAF1 regulation of promoter-proximal pause release via enhancer activation
Gene expression in metazoans is regulated by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) promoter-proximal pausing and its release. Previously, we showed that Pol II–associated factor 1 (PAF1) modulates the release of paused Pol II into productive elongation. Here, we found that PAF1 occupies transcriptional enhancers and restrains hyperactivation of a subset of these enhancers. Enhancer activation as the result of PAF1 loss releases Pol II from paused promoters of nearby PAF1 target genes. Knockout of PAF1-regulated enhancers attenuates the release of paused Pol II on PAF1 target genes without major interference in the establishment...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Chen, F. X., Xie, P., Collings, C. K., Cao, K., Aoi, Y., Marshall, S. A., Rendleman, E. J., Ugarenko, M., Ozark, P. A., Zhang, A., Shiekhattar, R., Smith, E. R., Zhang, M. Q., Shilatifard, A. Tags: Biochemistry, Development reports Source Type: news

Multitalented enhancers
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Development twis Source Type: news

Phase separation and cellular organization
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Researchers parse ecosystems fueled by chemistry, not light
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Biochemistry, Ecology, Evolution, Oceanography In Depth Source Type: news

Liquid phase condensation in cell physiology and disease
Phase transitions are ubiquitous in nonliving matter, and recent discoveries have shown that they also play a key role within living cells. Intracellular liquid-liquid phase separation is thought to drive the formation of condensed liquid-like droplets of protein, RNA, and other biomolecules, which form in the absence of a delimiting membrane. Recent studies have elucidated many aspects of the molecular interactions underlying the formation of these remarkable and ubiquitous droplets and the way in which such interactions dictate their material properties, composition, and phase behavior. Here, we review these exciting dev...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Shin, Y., Brangwynne, C. P. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology review Source Type: news

Ironing out a puzzle
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Biochemist Alison Butler receives the 2018 Alfred Bader Award for 'elucidating the bioinorganic chemistry of the marine environment'. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 18, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Letters: Sir Patrick Bateson obituary
Steven Rose writes:I first metPat Bateson in the late 60s, as we shared a mutual interest in the brain mechanisms involved in learning and memory. We became firm friends, and it was the start of a decade-long, and I believe unique, collaboration between Pat, a behavioural biologist,Gabriel Horn, an anatomist, and me as a biochemist. Pat ’s favoured model was the day-old chick, primed to learn to recognise its mother – imprinting. Together, we identified the brain regions required for such learning to take place, and the cellular and molecular mechanisms that encoded the memory.Years later, we made a memorable t...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - September 17, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Steven Rose, Michael Yudkin and Karl Sabbagh Tags: Animal behaviour Biology University of Cambridge Source Type: news

Sugary secrets of a cancer-related protein
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Proteins in human cells are decorated with different types of sugars, a phenomenon called glycosylation. These modifications greatly increase the diversity of protein structure and function, affecting how proteins fold, how they behave, and where they go in cells. New research that will be published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry on Sept. 22 demonstrates that a rare type of glycosylation profoundly affects the function of a protein important for human development and cancer progression. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 15, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A cargo-sorting DNA robot
Two critical challenges in the design and synthesis of molecular robots are modularity and algorithm simplicity. We demonstrate three modular building blocks for a DNA robot that performs cargo sorting at the molecular level. A simple algorithm encoding recognition between cargos and their destinations allows for a simple robot design: a single-stranded DNA with one leg and two foot domains for walking, and one arm and one hand domain for picking up and dropping off cargos. The robot explores a two-dimensional testing ground on the surface of DNA origami, picks up multiple cargos of two types that are initially at unordere...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 14, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Thubagere, A. J., Li, W., Johnson, R. F., Chen, Z., Doroudi, S., Lee, Y. L., Izatt, G., Wittman, S., Srinivas, N., Woods, D., Winfree, E., Qian, L. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Webinar | Deciphering cancer: Understanding tumor invasion and the metastatic microenvironment
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 14, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Lyden, D. C., Rafii, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Development, Medicine, Diseases, Molecular Biology opms-sups Source Type: news

Structures of the CRISPR genome integration complex
We present crystal structures of Cas1-Cas2 bound to both donor and target DNA in intermediate and product integration complexes, as well as a cryo–electron microscopy structure of the full CRISPR locus integration complex, including the accessory protein IHF (integration host factor). The structures show unexpectedly that indirect sequence recognition dictates integration site selection by favoring deformation of the repeat and the flanking sequences. IHF binding bends the DNA sharply, bringing an upstream recognition motif into contact with Cas1 to increase both the specificity and efficiency of integration. These r...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 14, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Wright, A. V., Liu, J.-J., Knott, G. J., Doxzen, K. W., Nogales, E., Doudna, J. A. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news