SOCE, mitochondria, and inflammation
Store-operated calcium entry regulates mitochondrial function to support pathogenic TH17 cells and promote inflammation. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Foley, J. F. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Too close not to encyst: Polycystic kidney disease and interorganellar contact sites
Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) tethers mitochondria to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the 7 May 2019 issue of Science Signaling, Kuo et al. report that polycystin 2 (PC2), encoded by a gene mutated in type 2 autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), contributes to cystogenesis by affecting MFN2, thus extending the role of mitochondria-ER contact sites to a common genetic disorder. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lorenzi, I., Scorrano, L. Tags: STKE Focus Source Type: news

Miro2 is a Parkin receptor for selective removal of damaged mitochondria
(Science China Press) Defects in mitophagy are linked to a variety of human diseases including Parkinson's and cardiac disorders. At present, how the damaged mitochondria are selectively recognized and targeted by Parkin is not fully understood. Miro2, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, has been identified as a platform for Parkin translocation to damaged mitochondria. Miro2 senses both the depolarization and the Ca2+ release from mitochondria to ensure that only damaged mitochondria are targeted by Parkin for mitophagic clearance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondrial DNA, a powerful tool to decipher ancient human civilization from domestication to music, and to uncover historical murder cases - Merheb M, Matar R, Hodeify R, Siddiqui SS, Vazhappilly CG, Marton J, Azharuddin S, Al Zouabi H.
Mitochondria are unique organelles carrying their own genetic material, independent from that in the nucleus. This review will discuss the nature of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and its levels in the cell, which are the key elements to consider when trying to... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - May 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Commentary Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Why might smoking and drinking alcohol raise the risk of osteoporosis?
Study uncovers a stress signaling cell mechanism through which damage to mitochondria can disrupt bone creation-resorption balance to promote osteoporosis. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - May 13, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Osteoporosis Source Type: news

A link between mitochondrial damage and osteoporosis
(University of Pennsylvania) In healthy people, a tightly controlled process balances out the activity of osteoblasts, which build bone, and osteoclasts, which break it down. Damage to cells' mitochondria can make that process go awry, according to research led by University of Pennsylvania researchers. The findings shed light on how exposure to cigarette smoke, alcohol, and certain medications and environmental toxins can raise the risk of osteoporosis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 9, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Serotonin boosts neuronal powerplants protecting against stress
This study (Fanibunda et al., 2019) published in PNAS, identifies a previously unknown role for serotonin in regulating neuronal energetics. This has important implications for the stress buffering effects of serotonin, and identifies novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 9, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PC2 separates mitochondria from the ER
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 9, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wong, W. Tags: twis Source Type: news

Intelligence can link to health and aging
(University of Missouri-Columbia) For over 100 years, scientists have sought to understand what links a person's general intelligence, health and aging. In a new study, a University of Missouri scientist suggests a model where mitochondria, or small energy producing parts of cells, could form the basis of this link. This insight could provide valuable information to researchers studying various genetic and environmental influences and alternative therapies for age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 8, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Polycystin 2 regulates mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, bioenergetics, and dynamics through mitofusin 2
Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have an intimate functional relationship due to tethering proteins that bring their membranes in close (~30 nm) apposition. One function of this interorganellar junction is to increase the efficiency of Ca2+ transfer into mitochondria, thus stimulating mitochondrial respiration. Here, we showed that the ER cation-permeant channel polycystin 2 (PC2) functions to reduce mitochondria-ER contacts. In cell culture models, PC2 knockdown led to a 50% increase in mitofusin 2 (MFN2) expression, an outer mitochondrial membrane GTPase. Live-cell super-resolution and electron microscopy ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 7, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kuo, I. Y., Brill, A. L., Lemos, F. O., Jiang, J. Y., Falcone, J. L., Kimmerling, E. P., Cai, Y., Dong, K., Kaplan, D. L., Wallace, D. P., Hofer, A. M., Ehrlich, B. E. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

New cancer therapy target found in mitochondria for potential treatment of blood cancers
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center identified a new therapeutic target in cancer cells and explains how new anti-cancer drugs called imipridones work by inducing cancer cell death in blood cancers, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and mantle cell lymphoma. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 2, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Detection of brain specific cardiolipins in plasma after experimental pediatric head injury - Anthonymuthu TS, Kenny EM, Hier ZE, Clark RSB, Kochanek PM, Kagan VE, Bayir H.
Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondria-specific phospholipid that is central to maintenance and regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetic and metabolic functions. CL molecular species display great tissue variation with brain exhibiting a distinct, highly diver... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 17, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: TBI Source Type: news

A Baby Was Born With DNA from 3 People. Here ’s How That’s Possible
Researchers at the Institute of Life in Athens, Greece announced that a healthy baby boy was born on Tuesday morning to a 32-year-old woman who had experienced several failed cycles of IVF. The six-pound boy, who the doctors say in a statement is healthy, was born using a technique called maternal spindle transfer. In the procedure, the grouped-together DNA from a mother’s egg was removed and placed inside a donor egg from another woman, which had been emptied of its DNA. The donor’s egg with the mother’s genes was then fertilized and developed into an embryo that was transferred for pregnancy. The techn...
Source: TIME: Health - April 11, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized Genetics Reproductive Health Source Type: news

In mice, eliminating damaged mitochondria alleviates chronic inflammatory disease
(University of California - San Diego) Treatment with a choline kinase inhibitor prompts immune cells to clear away damaged mitochondria, thus reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and preventing inflammation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 11, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mount Sinai and IBM researchers uncover key to greater efficacy in cancer treatment
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Researchers from Mount Sinai and IBM reveal that the number of mitochondria in a cell is, in great part, associated with how the cancer responds to drug therapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 21, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Androgen receptor, treatment target for prostate cancer, imports into mitochondria
(University of Alabama at Birmingham) Androgens stimulate prostate cancer cells to grow. Many drugs to target that cancer focus on stopping androgen biosynthesis or blocking the androgen receptor, or AR. Researchers have discovered a new function of the AR in prostate cells -- the AR is imported into and localizes to mitochondria of the cell, where it plays a novel role in regulating multiple mitochondrial processes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How a mitochondrial enzyme can trigger cell death
(University of Groningen) Cytochrome c is a small enzyme that plays an important role in the production of energy by mitochondria. It is also involved in signaling dangerous problems that warrant apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Using solid-state NMR, University of Groningen Associate Professor Patrick van der Wel and colleagues from the University of Pittsburgh have discovered that the signal induced by cytochrome c is more controlled than expected. The results were published in the journal Structure. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Boy, 6, with rare neurological disorder denied experimental medicine that could extend his life 
Timothy Donohue, six, from Jacksonville, Florida, was diagnosed with Leigh's syndrome, a rare, neurodegenerative disorder that affects the mitochondria in February 2016. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - March 12, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Neuroprotective Effects of Targeted Temperature Management
Hypothermia has a number of potential neuroprotective effects; however, they can be broken down into two main properties: metabolic and neuronal protection. When mammals hibernate, they experience acidosis both from lactate and carbon dioxide, resulting in hypoxia and hypoglycemia. These conditions are not unlike those that occur post-cardiac arrest: Hypothermia decreases metabolic rate by about 6% per 1 degree C reduction in brain temperature. If blood flow and demand are coupled, it’s possible to see a 50% decline in cerebral metabolic after cooling the brain to 32 degrees C. The protective effects occur via reduct...
Source: JEMS Patient Care - February 27, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Brian J. O ’Neil, MD, FACEP, FAHA Tags: Cardiac & Resuscitation Top Story Exclusive Articles Patient Care Heart of America Source Type: news

Better together: Mitochondrial fusion supports cell division
(Washington University in St. Louis) New research from Washington University in St. Louis shows that when cells divide rapidly, their mitochondria are fused together. In this configuration, the cell is able to more efficiently use oxygen for energy. This work illuminates the inner workings of dividing cells and shows how mitochondria combine to help cells to multiply in unexpected ways. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Immunometabolism regulates TCR recycling and iNKT cell functions
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes that express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes glycolipid antigens presented on CD1d molecules. These cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct from conventional T cells. When we characterized the metabolic activity of iNKT cells, consistent with their activated phenotype, we found that they had much less mitochondrial respiratory capacity but increased glycolytic activity in comparison to naïve conventional CD4+ T cells. After TCR engagement, iNKT cells further increased aerobic glycolysis, which was important for the expre...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 26, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Fu, S., Zhu, S., Tian, C., Bai, S., Zhang, J., Zhan, C., Xie, D., Wang, L., Li, Z., Li, J., Zhang, H., Zhou, R., Tian, Z., Xu, T., Bai, L. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

What Is the Most Common Type of Cardiomyopathy?
Discussion Barth syndrome is characterized by a dilated cardiomyopathy, proximal skeletal muscle weakness, neutropenia and short stature that usually presents at birth or soon after. It is a rare X-linked recessive disease process caused by mutations in the TAZ gene. The TAZ gene codes for tafazzin which alters cardiolipin in mitochondria. Characteristic facies can be seen especially in infancy including a tall and broad forehead, prominent chin and full cheeks, larger ears, and deep-set eyes. Most patients present at birth or soon afterwards but some may not until later in life. Life expectancy is reduced with many childr...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - February 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Preventing Reperfusion Injury During Cardiac Arrest
Reperfusion injury is linked with several pathophysiological pathways leading to cell apoptosis. The metabolic processes associated with reperfusion injury are well described in the setting of a myocardial infarction and CVA and more recently in the setting of cardiac arrest. These processes include pro-apoptotic signaling and inflammatory response. The mitochondria plays a critical role and mitochondrial transition pore (MTP) opening and calcium release are important determinant in the apoptosis signaling.1,2 Increased no-flow and low-flow duration as well as poor quality of CPR are associated with more severe reperfusion...
Source: JEMS Patient Care - February 12, 2019 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Guillaume Debaty, MD, PhD Tags: Cardiac & Resuscitation Top Story Exclusive Articles Heart of America Source Type: news

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species enable proinflammatory signaling through disulfide linkage of NEMO
A major function of macrophages during infection is initiation of the proinflammatory response, leading to the secretion of cytokines that help to orchestrate the immune response. Here, we identify reactive oxygen species (ROS) as crucial mediators of proinflammatory signaling leading to cytokine secretion in Listeria monocytogenes–infected macrophages. ROS produced by NADPH oxidases (Noxes), such as Nox2, are key components of the macrophage response to invading pathogens; however, our data show that the ROS that mediated proinflammatory signaling were produced by mitochondria (mtROS). We identified the inhibitor of...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 12, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Herb, M., Gluschko, A., Wiegmann, K., Farid, A., Wolf, A., Utermöhlen, O., Krut, O., Krönke, M., Schramm, M. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Keep up-to-date with the latest developments in anti-obesity medications
(Bentham Science Publishers) The fourth volume of this series covers six reviews on anti-obesity treatment strategies including updates on obesity and Cancer prevention through dietary modulation, the role of anti-obesity medications in polycystic ovary syndrome, potential anti-obesity strategies targeting mitochondria, calcium silicate based formulations for anti-obesity therapy, and the identification of obesity medications from natural products and plants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 6, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

"Three-Parent" IVF Trialed for Infertility
A company announces the first pregnancy in a study of whether donor mitochondria can boost IVF's odds of success. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - January 25, 2019 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Placentas adapt when mothers have poor diets or low oxygen during pregnancy
(St John's College, University of Cambridge) Cambridge researchers have discovered the placenta regulates how much oxygen and nutrients it transports to babies during challenging pregnancies in the first study of its kind. The placenta is one of the least understood human organs and it is notoriously difficult to study. This new research focused on analysing the placental mitochondria and it is hoped the new findings could lead to tests to determine whether a mother's placenta is functioning properly. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 18, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Sea slug study illuminates how mitochondria move
(Scripps Research Institute) Defects in the transport of cells' energy organelles are a suspected cause of diseases including Alzheimer's, ALS, Huntington's and Parkinson's. A new study reveals the genetics behind mitochondrial shifts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Targeting an RNA-binding protein to fight aging
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) Researchers at EPFL found that the RNA-binding protein PUM2 contributes to the accumulation of defective mitochondria, a key feature of the aging process. Targeting PUM2 in old animals protects against age-related mitochondrial dysfunction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - January 10, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mitochondria play key role in disposal of dead cells
The body’s ability to clear dead cells depends on a finely tuned process, with mitochondria playing a starring role. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - January 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

An Experimental Procedure Could Help More Families Have Healthy Babies. But It ’s Not Allowed in the U.S.
When Noah Shulman was born a few days after Christmas 2016, his parents Kristelle and Evan had no reason to worry about him. The pregnancy went smoothly, and so did the birth. But within a few days of taking his first breath, Noah began to struggle. He wasn’t feeding, so he started losing weight. He was also lethargic. Several pediatricians reassured the Shulmans that they were probably just overly sensitive to Noah’s symptoms because Kristelle is a nurse and Evan is a physician assistant–a case of first-time-parent-white-coat syndrome. “They kind of dismissed us as neurotic parents,” says Eva...
Source: TIME: Science - January 3, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized fertility Research Source Type: news

An Experimental Procedure Could Help More Families Have Healthy Babies. But It ’s Not Allowed in the U.S.
When Noah Shulman was born a few days after Christmas 2016, his parents Kristelle and Evan had no reason to worry about him. The pregnancy went smoothly, and so did the birth. But within a few days of taking his first breath, Noah began to struggle. He wasn’t feeding, so he started losing weight. He was also lethargic. Several pediatricians reassured the Shulmans that they were probably just overly sensitive to Noah’s symptoms because Kristelle is a nurse and Evan is a physician assistant–a case of first-time-parent-white-coat syndrome. “They kind of dismissed us as neurotic parents,” says Eva...
Source: TIME: Health - January 3, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Alice Park Tags: Uncategorized fertility Research Source Type: news

A cause of possible genetic problems in mitochondria is revealed
(University of Seville) The loss of mitochondrial information and of mitochondria gives rise to defective cell metabolism. As well as the lack of capacity to generate the energy necessary for the cells, the loss of mitochondrial information can generate an increase in oxygen free radicals that attack and damage the genetic material or produce Iron-Sulphur protein deficiencies. All this brings about incorrect cell functioning and eventually cell death. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondria Play an Unexpected Role in Killing Bacteria
The energy-producing organelles also send out parcels with antimicrobial compounds to help destroy pathogen invaders in macrophages. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - January 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: The Literature Magazine Issue Source Type: news

Infographic: How Macrophage Mitochondria Help Destroy Pathogens
Researchers have uncovered a mechanism whereby macrophages employ their energy-generating organelles to aid in bacterial killing. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - January 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Infographics Magazine Issue Source Type: news

Mitochondria, metabolism and redox mechanisms in psychiatric disorders - Kim Y, Vadodaria KC, Lenkei Z, Kato T, Gage FH, Marchetto MC, Santos R.
Our current knowledge of the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms causing psychiatric disorders is modest, but genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are central to the etiology of these conditions. Autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - December 31, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news

Autophagy and mitochondria: Targets in neurodegenerative disorders
(Bentham Science Publishers) Cellular homeostasis depends on the timely clearance of damaged cellular organelles and proteins via pathways including autophagy. Mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagy play a vital role in cellular health and failure of these pathways can have a devastating effect on cellular homeostasis. Here, the researchers review the involvement of mitochondrial and autophagy dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders specifically focusing on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 26, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Winter issue of The Endocrinologist now available online
The winter issue of the Society’s quarterly magazineThe Endocrinologist is now available online. This issue, with the theme,'Stress: from mitochondria to man' delves into all aspects of stress, the‘health epidemic of the 21st century’. Learn about stress from cell metabolism right up to the psychological effects in people. In Society News, find out all you ever wanted to know about your new Society General and Programme Secretaries in our interviews, get involved with our new‘Images by Endocrinologists’ section, and the w...
Source: Society for Endocrinology - December 14, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Restricting mitochondrial GRK2 post-ischemia confers cardioprotection by reducing myocyte death and maintaining glucose oxidation
Increased abundance of GRK2 [G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2] is associated with poor cardiac function in heart failure patients. In animal models, GRK2 contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure after ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In addition to its role in down-regulating activated GPCRs, GRK2 also localizes to mitochondria both basally and post-IR injury, where it regulates cellular metabolism. We previously showed that phosphorylation of GRK2 at Ser670 is essential for the translocation of GRK2 to the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes post-IR injury in vitro and that this localization promotes c...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - December 11, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sato, P. Y., Chuprun, J. K., Grisanti, L. A., Woodall, M. C., Brown, B. R., Roy, R., Traynham, C. J., Ibetti, J., Lucchese, A. M., Yuan, A., Drosatos, K., Tilley, D. G., Gao, E., Koch, W. J. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

news analysis: Genetically Modified People Are Walking Among Us
And, so far, they ’ re just fine. America needs a sober debate about the pros and cons of Crispr instead of a paranoid ban on the technology. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - December 1, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Genetic Engineering Politics and Government Crispr (DNA) Mitochondria Food and Drug Administration He Jiankui Source Type: news

Formyl-methionine as an N-degron of a eukaryotic N-end rule pathway
In bacteria, nascent proteins bear the pretranslationally generated N-terminal (Nt) formyl-methionine (fMet) residue. Nt-fMet of bacterial proteins is a degradation signal, termed fMet/N-degron. By contrast, proteins synthesized by cytosolic ribosomes of eukaryotes were presumed to bear unformylated Nt-Met. Here we found that the yeast formyltransferase Fmt1, although imported into mitochondria, could also produce Nt-formylated proteins in the cytosol. Nt-formylated proteins were strongly up-regulated in stationary phase or upon starvation for specific amino acids. This up-regulation strictly required the Gcn2 kinase, whic...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 29, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kim, J.-M., Seok, O.-H., Ju, S., Heo, J.-E., Yeom, J., Kim, D.-S., Yoo, J.-Y., Varshavsky, A., Lee, C., Hwang, C.-S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Six UCLA professors named fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Six faculty members from UCLA have been selected as 2018 fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. They are to be honored by the association for their scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science or its applications.New fellows will be presented with an official certificate and a gold and blue rosette pin, representing science and engineering, on Feb. 16, at the association ’s annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Fellows will be formally announced in the “AAAS News and Notes” section of the journal Science on Nov. 29.UCLA ’s newest AAAS fellows are...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - November 27, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

{beta}-Barrel outer membrane proteins suppress mTORC2 activation and induce autophagic responses
The outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and mitochondria contain proteins with a distinct β-barrel tertiary structure that could function as a molecular pattern recognized by the innate immune system. Here, we report that purified outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from different bacterial and mitochondrial sources triggered the induction of autophagy-related endosomal acidification, LC3B lipidation, and p62 degradation. Furthermore, OMPs reduced the phosphorylation and therefore activation of the multiprotein complex mTORC2 and its substrate Akt in macrophages and epithelial cells. The cell surface receptor SlamF8 ...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - November 27, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Chaudhary, A., Kamischke, C., Leite, M., Altura, M. A., Kinman, L., Kulasekara, H., Blanc, M.-P., Wang, G., Terhorst, C., Miller, S. I. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Fish can detox too -- but not so well, when it comes to mercury
(McGill University) By examining the tissues at a subcellular level, the researchers discovered yelloweye rockfish were able to immobilize several potentially toxic elements within their liver tissues (cadmium, lead, and arsenic) thus preventing them from interacting with sensitive parts of the cell. But mercury was found in concentrations known to be toxic - and most of it was in sensitive sites, such as mitochondria and enzymes, within liver cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Channels for the supply of energy
(University of Freiburg) Freiburg scientists elucidate the mechanism for the transport of water-insoluble protein molecules in mitochondria (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Breaking mitochondria and hearts
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - November 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wong, W. Tags: twis Source Type: news

SFXN1 is a mitochondrial serine transporter required for one-carbon metabolism
One-carbon metabolism generates the one-carbon units required to synthesize many critical metabolites, including nucleotides. The pathway has cytosolic and mitochondrial branches, and a key step is the entry, through an unknown mechanism, of serine into mitochondria, where it is converted into glycine and formate. In a CRISPR-based genetic screen in human cells for genes of the mitochondrial pathway, we found sideroflexin 1 (SFXN1), a multipass inner mitochondrial membrane protein of unclear function. Like cells missing mitochondrial components of one-carbon metabolism, those null for SFXN1 are defective in glycine and pur...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kory, N., Wyant, G. A., Prakash, G., uit de Bos, J., Bottanelli, F., Pacold, M. E., Chan, S. H., Lewis, C. A., Wang, T., Keys, H. R., Guo, Y. E., Sabatini, D. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

A cytoskeletal anchor connects ischemic mitochondrial fission to myocardial senescence
The interplay between the actin cytoskeleton and mitochondria has been implicated in cell and tissue homeostasis and physiological function. In this issue of Science Signaling, Nishimura et al. demonstrate that inhibiting the interaction of filamin A, an actin cytoskeleton regulator, with Drp1, a modulator of mitochondrial dynamics, attenuates mitochondrial hyperfission and cardiomyocyte senescence after myocardial infarction. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - November 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Boyer, M. J., Eguchi, S. Tags: STKE Focus Source Type: news

Hypoxia-induced interaction of filamin with Drp1 causes mitochondrial hyperfission-associated myocardial senescence
Defective mitochondrial dynamics through aberrant interactions between mitochondria and actin cytoskeleton is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of cardiac fragility after myocardial infarction (MI). Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a mitochondrial fission–accelerating factor, is activated locally at the fission site through interactions with actin. Here, we report that the actin-binding protein filamin A acted as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Drp1 and mediated mitochondrial fission–associated myocardial senescence in mice after MI. In peri-infarct regions characterized by mitochondrial hy...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - November 13, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nishimura, A., Shimauchi, T., Tanaka, T., Shimoda, K., Toyama, T., Kitajima, N., Ishikawa, T., Shindo, N., Numaga-Tomita, T., Yasuda, S., Sato, Y., Kuwahara, K., Kumagai, Y., Akaike, T., Ide, T., Ojida, A., Mori, Y., Nishida, M. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

How mitochondria deploy a powerful punch against life-threatening bacteria
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) Researchers discover that mitochondria play an important role in supporting the immune system's response against MRSA infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 12, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news