A genome-wide screen uncovers multiple roles for mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase D in inflammasome activation
Noncanonical inflammasome activation by cytosolic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a critical component of the host response to Gram-negative bacteria. Cytosolic LPS recognition in macrophages is preceded by a Toll-like receptor (TLR) priming signal required to induce transcription of inflammasome components and facilitate the metabolic reprograming that fuels the inflammatory response. Using a genome-scale arrayed siRNA screen to find inflammasome regulators in mouse macrophages, we identified the mitochondrial enzyme nucleoside diphosphate kinase D (NDPK-D) as a regulator of both noncanonical and canonical inflammasomes. NDPK...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - August 3, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ernst, O., Sun, J., Lin, B., Banoth, B., Dorrington, M. G., Liang, J., Schwarz, B., Stromberg, K. A., Katz, S., Vayttaden, S. J., Bradfield, C. J., Slepushkina, N., Rice, C. M., Buehler, E., Khillan, J. S., McVicar, D. W., Bosio, C. M., Bryant, C. E., Sut Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

How cells control mitochondria
(University of Freiburg) Freiburg researchers discover a signaling protein that controls the assembly of human cellular " power plants " (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 19, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Powerhouse of the cell has self-preservation mechanism
(Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, convert sustenance into energy, fueling the cell's activities. In addition to power, mitochondria also produce reactive oxygen species, byproduct molecules primed to help facilitate communication among the other units in the cells. But when produced too abundantly, they damage DNA and render some cellular components dysfunctional. Now, an international research team has revealed how mitochondria keep their reactive oxygen species production in check. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 9, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

How an unfolding protein can induce programmed cell death
(University of Groningen) The death of cells is well regulated. If it occurs too much, it can cause degenerative diseases. Too little, and cells can become tumours. Mitochondria, the power plants of cells, play a role in this programmed cell death. Scientists from the University of Groningen (the Netherlands) and the University of Pittsburgh (U.S.) have obtained new insights in how mitochondria receive the signal to self-destruct. Their results were published in the Journal of Molecular Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 6, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Methylglyoxal detoxification deficits causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities
(Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science) We generated a mouse model for a subgroup of schizophrenia patients by feeding Glo1 knockout mice VB6-deficent diets (KO/VB6(-)). We found that the KO/VB6(-) mice accumulated methylglyoxal (MG) in the brain and showed schizophrenia-like behavioral impairments. Furthermore, we found aberrant gene expression related to mitochondria function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the KO/VB6(-) mice. Finally, we demonstrated abnormal mitochondrial respiratory function and enhanced oxidative stress in the PFC of KO/VB6(-) mice. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 2, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers identify muscle proteins whose quantity is reduced in type 2 diabetes
(University of Helsinki) A study conducted by the University of Helsinki, the Helsinki University Hospital and the Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research shows that the concentration of mitochondrial muscle proteins already decreases markedly in prediabetes. The new finding confirms the significance of muscle mitochondria in the development of type 2 diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel lncRNA, Caren, counteracts heart failure progression
(Kumamoto University) Researchers have identified a novel lncRNA, Caren, that is abundantly expressed in cardiomyocytes. It enhances energy production by increasing mitochondria in cardiomyocytes, and inhibits activation of the DNA damage response protein ATM, resulting in improvement of cardiac dysfunction. Caren RNA in cardiomyocytes is reduced by aging and hypertension, which can lead to heart failure, and markedly reduced in the hearts of heart failure patients. Caren activation could lead to new heart failure therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 23, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Leaving the damage behind
A mechanism by which migrating cells shed defective mitochondria is identified. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - June 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Wong, W. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Universal mechanism of regulation in plant cells discovered
(Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin f ü r Materialien und Energie) This involves the DYW deaminase domain of what is referred to as the RNA editosome. The DYW domain alters messenger RNA nucleotides in chloroplasts and mitochondria and contains a zinc ion whose activity is controlled by a very unusual mechanism. The team has now described this mechanism in detail for the first time. Their study is considered a breakthrough in the field of plant molecular biology and has far-reaching implications for bioengineering. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 21, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Aging impairs anti-tumor T-cell response via mitochondria dysfunction
(Medical University of South Carolina) MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researchers are finding solutions to the aging-related changes that reduce anti-cancer immunity. Their work, published in Cell Reports, sheds light on an important pathway that cannot be ignored during cancer treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 3, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Modulating rapamycin target protein promotes autophagy, lowering toxic Huntingtin protein
(Buck Institute for Research on Aging) Recent failed clinical trials of a drug designed to clear the mutant Huntingtin protein that causes Huntington's disease (HD) heightens the need for new approaches for the devastating, incurable, progressive neurodegenerative genetic disorder. Scientists at the Buck Institute have found that the targeting the protein called FK506-binding protein 51 or FKBP51 promotes the clearing of those toxic proteins via autophagy, a natural process whereby cells recycle damaged proteins and mitochondria and use them for nutrition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Solving the peroxisome puzzle
(University of California - Santa Barbara) The ability to make membrane-bound organelles is a defining characteristic of eukaryotic cells -- cells that constitute the bodies of all animals, plants and fungi on Earth. Membranes create enclosures that provide specialized environments for certain structures and their functions, such as the nuclei that store genetic information, or the mitochondria that produce energy for the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 27, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Proteomics reveals how exercise increases the efficiency of muscle energy production
(University of Copenhagen - The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) By applying mass spectrometry, scientists at the University of Copenhagen provide some of the most detailed data on how mitochondrial proteins cluster into supercomplexes - a process that makes mitochondria more efficient at producing energy. The findings, which were published in Cell Reports, is a precious resource for the scientific community, especially those tackling mitochondrial adaptations to exercise training or mitochondrial diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 26, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Too much salt suppresses phagocytes
(Max Delbr ü ck Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association) Small changes of sodium in the blood reduce the amount of energy produced in the mitochondria - the power plants of our cells. This has consequences for immune cells. An international research team led by MDC scientists hasdiscovered the mechanism behind this phenomenon and published their findings in the journal Circulation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 30, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A gene finding links severe canine juvenile epilepsy to mitochondrial dysfunction
(University of Helsinki) In a study conducted at the University of Helsinki, researchers found a cause for severe epilepsy resulting in death in Parson Russell Terrier puppies at a few months of age. A change in the PITRM1 gene can lead to a dysfunction of mitochondria, the cellular energy pumps. Concurrently, amyloid-β accumulation and widespread neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease were identified in the puppies' brains. Changes to the PITRM1 gene in humans also cause a severe but slowly progressing brain disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 20, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

DDAH2 suppresses RLR-MAVS-mediated innate antiviral immunity by stimulating nitric oxide-activated, Drp1-induced mitochondrial fission
The RIG-I–like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway is pivotal for innate immunity against invading viruses, and dysregulation of this molecular cascade has been linked to various diseases. Here, we identified dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2) as a potent regulator of the RLR-mediated antiviral response in human and mouse. Overexpression of DDAH2 attenuated RLR signaling, whereas loss of DDAH2 function enhanced RLR signaling and suppressed viral replication ex vivo and in mice. Upon viral infection, DDAH2 relocated to mitochondria, where it induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the activation of...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - April 13, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Huang, S., Li, Z., Wu, Z., Liu, C., Yu, M., Wen, M., Zhang, L., Wang, X. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Researchers awarded $500,000 to test novel strategies using mitochondria therapy
(University of Tennessee Health Science Center) Researchers from the University of Tennessee Health Science Center have received a $500,000 grant over three years from the Department of Defense to test a novel strategy using mitochondria transplantation therapy for restoration of neuromuscular structure and function after injury. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 12, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Metabolic changes in fat tissue in obesity associated with adverse health effects
(University of Helsinki) A twin study recently completed at the University of Helsinki indicates that the machinery responsible for energy handling in fat tissue is working poorly in obesity. In the study, a clear reduction was seen in the activity of mitochondrial genes in obesity in fat tissue, while similar genome-level change in muscle mitochondria was minor. A link with adverse health effects was identified in the mitochondria of fat tissue only. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 9, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Can HIIT Exercise Be Bad For Your Health?
A new study hints that excessive HIIT may harm your mitochondria, the energy generators found in every cell of your body. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 24, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Gretchen Reynolds Tags: Exercise Mitochondria Muscles Cell Metabolism (Journal) Karolinska Institute Source Type: news

Too Much High-Intensity Exercise May Be Bad for Your Health
A new study hints that excessive HIIT may harm your mitochondria, the energy generators found in every cell of your body. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 24, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Gretchen Reynolds Tags: Exercise Mitochondria Muscles Cell Metabolism (Journal) Karolinska Institute Source Type: news

Autoimmunity origins may lie in defective mitochondria
NIEHS scientists led a gene study that suggests accumulation of damaged mitochondria activated immune system of mice, similar to Sjogren’s syndrome. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - March 3, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

Messaging by mitochondria
Intercellular mitochondrial transfer promotes metabolic homeostasis and stimulates wound healing. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - March 2, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Wong, W. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

New research on mitochondrial function can play significant part in serious disease
(Karolinska Institutet) Disorders of the cells' energy supply can cause a number of serious diseases, but also seem to be connected to ageing. More research is needed on mitochondrial function to find future treatments. A new study involving researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows how an important molecule inside the mitochondria affects their function in mice and fruit flies. The study, which is published in Science Advances, adds valuable knowledge on formerly relatively unexplored protein modifications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Electron cryo-microscopy sheds light on how bioenergy makers are made in our body
(Science For Life Laboratory) Scientists uncover how the body's energy makers are made. A new paper published in Science by Alexey Amunts' laboratory with an international team of researchers reports the molecular mechanism of membrane-tethered protein synthesis in mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 18, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A glimpse into the formation of mitoribosome
(Science For Life Laboratory) SciLifeLab Fellow Alexey Amunts and his team together with researchers from the Czech Academy of Sciences report an assembly intermediate of the ribosome in mitochondria. It reveals 22 associated factors that cooperatively organize the biogenesis process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 16, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study helps understand why kids of obese mothers may be susceptible to metabolic diseases
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) The phenomenon may be associated with a deficiency of the protein mitofusin-2 in the mother's eggs, which affects the shape and functioning of mitochondria. The finding was based on experiments with mice conducted at the Federal University of S ã o Carlos and reported in the journalMolecular Human Reproduction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondria and early-life adversity - Zitkovsky EK, Daniels TE, Tyrka AR.
Early-life adversity (ELA), which includes maltreatment, neglect, or severe trauma in childhood, increases the life-long risk for negative health outcomes. Mitochondria play a key role in the stress response and may be an important mechanism by which stres... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - January 25, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Infants and Children Source Type: news

New findings help explain how COVID-19 overpowers the immune system
Seeking to understand why COVID-19 is able to suppress the body's immune response, new research from the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology suggests that mitochondria are one of the first lines of defense against COVID-19 and identifies key differences in how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, interacts with mitochondrial genes when compared to other viruses. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - January 11, 2021 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

One in five brain cancers fueled by overactive mitochondria
(Columbia University Irving Medical Center) A new study has found that up to 20% of aggressive brain cancers are fueled by overactive mitochondria and new drugs in development may be able to starve the cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

New findings help explain how COVID-19 overpowers the immune system
(University of Southern California) Seeking to understand why COVID-19 is able to suppress the body's immune response, new research from the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology suggests that mitochondria are one of the first lines of defense against COVID-19 and identifies key differences in how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, interacts with mitochondrial genes when compared to other viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

UCLA scientists develop high-throughput mitochondria transfer device
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) Scientists from the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed a simple, high-throughput method for transferring isolated mitochondria and their associated mitochondrial DNA into mammalian cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New drug inhibits the growth of cancer cells
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Blocking gene expression in mitochondria in mice stops cancer cells from growing (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Blood pressure drug may be key to increasing lifespan, new study shows
(Osaka City University) A stress response of mitochondria, the part of our cells that produce energy to power bodily functions, is important to a longer life. A team of scientists from Osaka City University, Japan, searched through a chemical " library " of existing drugs to find one that can activate this stress response in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. They found that an anti-hypertension drug called metolazone prolongs C. elegans lifespan, marking the first step in developing anti-aging pharmaceuticals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - December 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Quality control in mitochondria
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - November 26, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry twis Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dysfunction, disease explored through prestigious award
Interactions between mitochondria and other organelles, and how disruptions may harm health, are the focus of a new project led by NIEHS. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - November 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

New tricks for old antibiotics
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) The study published in the journal Immunity reveals that tetracyclines (broad spectre antibiotics), by partially inhibiting cell mitochondria activity, induce a compensatory response on the organism that decreases tissue damage caused during infection. This finding opens new doors in the field of disease tolerance and positions this group of antibiotics as potential adjuvant treatment for sepsis, due to their effects that go beyond the control of bacterial burden. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - October 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mammalian lipid droplets are innate immune hubs integrating cell metabolism and host defense
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and the antimicrobial cathelicidin, assemble into complex clusters on LDs. LPS additionally promotes the physical and functional uncoupling of LDs from mitochondria, reducing fatty acid metabolism while increasing LD-bacterial con...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bosch, M., Sanchez-Alvarez, M., Fajardo, A., Kapetanovic, R., Steiner, B., Dutra, F., Moreira, L., Lopez, J. A., Campo, R., Mari, M., Morales-Paytuvi, F., Tort, O., Gubern, A., Templin, R. M., Curson, J. E. B., Martel, N., Catala, C., Lozano, F., Tebar, F Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Enzyme SSH1 impairs disposal of accumulating cellular garbage, leading to brain cell death
(University of South Florida (USF Health)) The protein p62 plays a major role in clearing misfolded tau proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy powerhouse in all cells including neurons. Neuroscientists at the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Byrd Alzheimer's Center report for the first time that the protein phosphatase Slingshot-1, or SSH1 for short, disrupts p62's ability to function as an efficient 'garbage collector' and thereby impairs the disposal of both damaged tau and mitochondria leaking toxins. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Coronavirus (Covid-19) sepsis: revisiting mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis, aging, inflammation, and mortality
Conclusion(s): Aging is associated with worse outcomes in sepsis. Modulating Sirtuin activity is emerging as therapeutic agent in sepsis. HIF-alpha, levels of mitochondrial DNA, and other mitochondrial DAMP molecules may also serve as useful biomarker and need to be investigated. These mechanisms should be explored specifically for Covid-19-related sepsis. Understanding newly discovered regulatory mechanisms may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - October 9, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Gladstone investigator receives NIH Director's New Innovator Award
(Gladstone Institutes) The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted an NIH Director's New Innovator Award to Seth Shipman, PhD, assistant investigator at Gladstone Institutes. The award will support the development of innovative technologies to edit the DNA found in mitochondria--energy-producing structures within human cells. Shipman's efforts could lead to new treatments for a range of currently incurable diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Changes to epigenome driven by energy powerhouse of cells
NIEHS study shows that disruptions to mitochondria can alter how genes are expressed, with long-lasting ramifications. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - October 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

'Cheater mitochondria' may profit from cellular stress coping mechanisms
(eLife) Cheating mitochondria may take advantage of cellular mechanisms for coping with food scarcity in a simple worm to persist, even though this can reduce the worm's wellbeing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Feeding off fusion or the immortalization of tumor cells
(IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) Despite all recent progress, cancer remains one of the deadliest human diseases. In a new publication that appeared in the journal Cell, researchers from J ü rgen Knoblich's lab at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - found a very surprising and unexpected connection between the formation of tumors and mitochondria, the power house of the cells, that allows neural stem cells that normally build our brain to become deadly tumor cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dynamics in postmitotic cells regulate neurogenesis
We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 12, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Iwata, R., Casimir, P., Vanderhaeghen, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news

The mitophagy effector FUNDC1 controls mitochondrial reprogramming and cellular plasticity in cancer cells
Mitochondria are signaling hubs in eukaryotic cells. Here, we showed that the mitochondrial FUN14 domain–containing protein-1 (FUNDC1), an effector of Parkin-independent mitophagy, also participates in cellular plasticity by sustaining oxidative bioenergetics, buffering ROS production, and supporting cell proliferation. Targeting this pathway in cancer cells suppressed tumor growth but rendered transformed cells more motile and invasive in a manner dependent on ROS-mediated mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial repositioning to the cortical cytoskeleton. Global metabolomics and proteomics profiling identified a FU...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Li, J., Agarwal, E., Bertolini, I., Seo, J. H., Caino, M. C., Ghosh, J. C., Kossenkov, A. V., Liu, Q., Tang, H.-Y., Goldman, A. R., Languino, L. R., Speicher, D. W., Altieri, D. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

What Are Common Fatty Acid Oxidation Metabolic Disorders?
Discussion All cells and particularly their mitochondria need an energy source. Glucose is one of the most common ones, but also fatty acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketones, and amino acids. Fatty acids are formed with a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic carbon chain usually with even numbers of carbon atoms (usually 4-28 most commonly). Most are unbranched and in foods are usually found in the form of esters. Fatty acids are important energy sources for the heart (50-70%) but also skeletal muscle where resting muscle uses both glucose and fatty acids. During fasting or increased stress fatty acids become a major source o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Single cells have their own defenses against pathogens
New Yale research describes the role played by the mitochondria in creating an anti-microbial compound capable of combatting the cause of typhoid fever. (Source: Yale Science and Health News)
Source: Yale Science and Health News - July 24, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Itaconate is an effector of a Rab GTPase cell-autonomous host defense pathway against Salmonella
The guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab32 coordinates a cell-intrinsic host defense mechanism that restricts the replication of intravacuolar pathogens such as Salmonella. Here, we show that this mechanism requires aconitate decarboxylase 1 (IRG1), which synthesizes itaconate, a metabolite with antimicrobial activity. We find that Rab32 interacts with IRG1 on Salmonella infection and facilitates the delivery of itaconate to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Mice defective in IRG1 rescued the virulence defect of a S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant specifically defective in its ability to counter the Rab32 defense me...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chen, M., Sun, H., Boot, M., Shao, L., Chang, S.-J., Wang, W., Lam, T. T., Lara-Tejero, M., Rego, E. H., Galan, J. E. Tags: Immunology, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

High-fat diet with antibiotic use linked to gut inflammation
(University of California - Davis Health) UC Davis researchers have found that combining a Western-style high-fat diet with antibiotic use significantly increases the risk of developing pre- inflammatory bowel disease. This combination shuts down the mitochondria in cells of the colon lining, leading to gut inflammation. Mesalazine can help restart the mitochondria and treat pre-IBD condition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Cancer cells with defective oxidative phosphorylation require endoplasmic reticulum-to-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer for survival
Spontaneous Ca2+ signaling from the InsP3R intracellular Ca2+ release channel to mitochondria is essential for optimal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and ATP production. In cells with defective OXPHOS, reductive carboxylation replaces oxidative metabolism to maintain amounts of reducing equivalents and metabolic precursors. To investigate the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in regulating bioenergetics in these cells, we used OXPHOS-competent and OXPHOS-defective cells. Inhibition of InsP3R activity or mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake increased α-ketoglutarate (αKG) abundance and the NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cardenas, C., Lovy, A., Silva-Pavez, E., Urra, F., Mizzoni, C., Ahumada-Castro, U., Bustos, G., Jana, F., Cruz, P., Farias, P., Mendoza, E., Huerta, H., Murgas, P., Hunter, M., Rios, M., Cerda, O., Georgakoudi, I., Zakarian, A., Molgo, J., Foskett, J. K. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news