New research on mitochondrial function can play significant part in serious disease
(Karolinska Institutet) Disorders of the cells' energy supply can cause a number of serious diseases, but also seem to be connected to ageing. More research is needed on mitochondrial function to find future treatments. A new study involving researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows how an important molecule inside the mitochondria affects their function in mice and fruit flies. The study, which is published in Science Advances, adds valuable knowledge on formerly relatively unexplored protein modifications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 19, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Electron cryo-microscopy sheds light on how bioenergy makers are made in our body
(Science For Life Laboratory) Scientists uncover how the body's energy makers are made. A new paper published in Science by Alexey Amunts' laboratory with an international team of researchers reports the molecular mechanism of membrane-tethered protein synthesis in mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 18, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news
A glimpse into the formation of mitoribosome
(Science For Life Laboratory) SciLifeLab Fellow Alexey Amunts and his team together with researchers from the Czech Academy of Sciences report an assembly intermediate of the ribosome in mitochondria. It reveals 22 associated factors that cooperatively organize the biogenesis process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 16, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Study helps understand why kids of obese mothers may be susceptible to metabolic diseases
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) The phenomenon may be associated with a deficiency of the protein mitofusin-2 in the mother's eggs, which affects the shape and functioning of mitochondria. The finding was based on experiments with mice conducted at the Federal University of S ã o Carlos and reported in the journalMolecular Human Reproduction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 26, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Mitochondria and early-life adversity - Zitkovsky EK, Daniels TE, Tyrka AR.
Early-life adversity (ELA), which includes maltreatment, neglect, or severe trauma in childhood, increases the life-long risk for negative health outcomes. Mitochondria play a key role in the stress response and may be an important mechanism by which stres... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - January 25, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Infants and Children Source Type: news
New findings help explain how COVID-19 overpowers the immune system
Seeking to understand why COVID-19 is able to suppress the body's immune response, new research from the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology suggests that mitochondria are one of the first lines of defense against COVID-19 and identifies key differences in how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, interacts with mitochondrial genes when compared to other viruses. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - January 11, 2021 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news
One in five brain cancers fueled by overactive mitochondria
(Columbia University Irving Medical Center) A new study has found that up to 20% of aggressive brain cancers are fueled by overactive mitochondria and new drugs in development may be able to starve the cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 11, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
New findings help explain how COVID-19 overpowers the immune system
(University of Southern California) Seeking to understand why COVID-19 is able to suppress the body's immune response, new research from the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology suggests that mitochondria are one of the first lines of defense against COVID-19 and identifies key differences in how SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, interacts with mitochondrial genes when compared to other viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 8, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
UCLA scientists develop high-throughput mitochondria transfer device
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) Scientists from the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed a simple, high-throughput method for transferring isolated mitochondria and their associated mitochondrial DNA into mammalian cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 29, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
New drug inhibits the growth of cancer cells
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Blocking gene expression in mitochondria in mice stops cancer cells from growing (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Blood pressure drug may be key to increasing lifespan, new study shows
(Osaka City University) A stress response of mitochondria, the part of our cells that produce energy to power bodily functions, is important to a longer life. A team of scientists from Osaka City University, Japan, searched through a chemical " library " of existing drugs to find one that can activate this stress response in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. They found that an anti-hypertension drug called metolazone prolongs C. elegans lifespan, marking the first step in developing anti-aging pharmaceuticals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - December 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Mitochondrial dysfunction, disease explored through prestigious award
Interactions between mitochondria and other organelles, and how disruptions may harm health, are the focus of a new project led by NIEHS. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - November 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news
New tricks for old antibiotics
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) The study published in the journal Immunity reveals that tetracyclines (broad spectre antibiotics), by partially inhibiting cell mitochondria activity, induce a compensatory response on the organism that decreases tissue damage caused during infection. This finding opens new doors in the field of disease tolerance and positions this group of antibiotics as potential adjuvant treatment for sepsis, due to their effects that go beyond the control of bacterial burden. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - October 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Mammalian lipid droplets are innate immune hubs integrating cell metabolism and host defense
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and the antimicrobial cathelicidin, assemble into complex clusters on LDs. LPS additionally promotes the physical and functional uncoupling of LDs from mitochondria, reducing fatty acid metabolism while increasing LD-bacterial con...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bosch, M., Sanchez-Alvarez, M., Fajardo, A., Kapetanovic, R., Steiner, B., Dutra, F., Moreira, L., Lopez, J. A., Campo, R., Mari, M., Morales-Paytuvi, F., Tort, O., Gubern, A., Templin, R. M., Curson, J. E. B., Martel, N., Catala, C., Lozano, F., Tebar, F Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Enzyme SSH1 impairs disposal of accumulating cellular garbage, leading to brain cell death
(University of South Florida (USF Health)) The protein p62 plays a major role in clearing misfolded tau proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy powerhouse in all cells including neurons. Neuroscientists at the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Byrd Alzheimer's Center report for the first time that the protein phosphatase Slingshot-1, or SSH1 for short, disrupts p62's ability to function as an efficient 'garbage collector' and thereby impairs the disposal of both damaged tau and mitochondria leaking toxins. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Coronavirus (Covid-19) sepsis: revisiting mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis, aging, inflammation, and mortality
Conclusion(s): Aging is associated with worse outcomes in sepsis. Modulating Sirtuin activity is emerging as therapeutic agent in sepsis. HIF-alpha, levels of mitochondrial DNA, and other mitochondrial DAMP molecules may also serve as useful biomarker and need to be investigated. These mechanisms should be explored specifically for Covid-19-related sepsis. Understanding newly discovered regulatory mechanisms may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - October 9, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Gladstone investigator receives NIH Director's New Innovator Award
(Gladstone Institutes) The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted an NIH Director's New Innovator Award to Seth Shipman, PhD, assistant investigator at Gladstone Institutes. The award will support the development of innovative technologies to edit the DNA found in mitochondria--energy-producing structures within human cells. Shipman's efforts could lead to new treatments for a range of currently incurable diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Changes to epigenome driven by energy powerhouse of cells
NIEHS study shows that disruptions to mitochondria can alter how genes are expressed, with long-lasting ramifications. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - October 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news
'Cheater mitochondria' may profit from cellular stress coping mechanisms
(eLife) Cheating mitochondria may take advantage of cellular mechanisms for coping with food scarcity in a simple worm to persist, even though this can reduce the worm's wellbeing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Feeding off fusion or the immortalization of tumor cells
(IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) Despite all recent progress, cancer remains one of the deadliest human diseases. In a new publication that appeared in the journal Cell, researchers from J ü rgen Knoblich's lab at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - found a very surprising and unexpected connection between the formation of tumors and mitochondria, the power house of the cells, that allows neural stem cells that normally build our brain to become deadly tumor cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Mitochondrial dynamics in postmitotic cells regulate neurogenesis
We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 12, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Iwata, R., Casimir, P., Vanderhaeghen, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
The mitophagy effector FUNDC1 controls mitochondrial reprogramming and cellular plasticity in cancer cells
Mitochondria are signaling hubs in eukaryotic cells. Here, we showed that the mitochondrial FUN14 domain–containing protein-1 (FUNDC1), an effector of Parkin-independent mitophagy, also participates in cellular plasticity by sustaining oxidative bioenergetics, buffering ROS production, and supporting cell proliferation. Targeting this pathway in cancer cells suppressed tumor growth but rendered transformed cells more motile and invasive in a manner dependent on ROS-mediated mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial repositioning to the cortical cytoskeleton. Global metabolomics and proteomics profiling identified a FU...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Li, J., Agarwal, E., Bertolini, I., Seo, J. H., Caino, M. C., Ghosh, J. C., Kossenkov, A. V., Liu, Q., Tang, H.-Y., Goldman, A. R., Languino, L. R., Speicher, D. W., Altieri, D. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
What Are Common Fatty Acid Oxidation Metabolic Disorders?
Discussion All cells and particularly their mitochondria need an energy source. Glucose is one of the most common ones, but also fatty acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketones, and amino acids. Fatty acids are formed with a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic carbon chain usually with even numbers of carbon atoms (usually 4-28 most commonly). Most are unbranched and in foods are usually found in the form of esters. Fatty acids are important energy sources for the heart (50-70%) but also skeletal muscle where resting muscle uses both glucose and fatty acids. During fasting or increased stress fatty acids become a major source o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Single cells have their own defenses against pathogens
New Yale research describes the role played by the mitochondria in creating an anti-microbial compound capable of combatting the cause of typhoid fever. (Source: Yale Science and Health News)
Source: Yale Science and Health News - July 24, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Itaconate is an effector of a Rab GTPase cell-autonomous host defense pathway against Salmonella
The guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab32 coordinates a cell-intrinsic host defense mechanism that restricts the replication of intravacuolar pathogens such as Salmonella. Here, we show that this mechanism requires aconitate decarboxylase 1 (IRG1), which synthesizes itaconate, a metabolite with antimicrobial activity. We find that Rab32 interacts with IRG1 on Salmonella infection and facilitates the delivery of itaconate to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Mice defective in IRG1 rescued the virulence defect of a S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant specifically defective in its ability to counter the Rab32 defense me...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chen, M., Sun, H., Boot, M., Shao, L., Chang, S.-J., Wang, W., Lam, T. T., Lara-Tejero, M., Rego, E. H., Galan, J. E. Tags: Immunology, Microbiology reports Source Type: news
High-fat diet with antibiotic use linked to gut inflammation
(University of California - Davis Health) UC Davis researchers have found that combining a Western-style high-fat diet with antibiotic use significantly increases the risk of developing pre- inflammatory bowel disease. This combination shuts down the mitochondria in cells of the colon lining, leading to gut inflammation. Mesalazine can help restart the mitochondria and treat pre-IBD condition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Cancer cells with defective oxidative phosphorylation require endoplasmic reticulum-to-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer for survival
Spontaneous Ca2+ signaling from the InsP3R intracellular Ca2+ release channel to mitochondria is essential for optimal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and ATP production. In cells with defective OXPHOS, reductive carboxylation replaces oxidative metabolism to maintain amounts of reducing equivalents and metabolic precursors. To investigate the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in regulating bioenergetics in these cells, we used OXPHOS-competent and OXPHOS-defective cells. Inhibition of InsP3R activity or mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake increased α-ketoglutarate (αKG) abundance and the NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cardenas, C., Lovy, A., Silva-Pavez, E., Urra, F., Mizzoni, C., Ahumada-Castro, U., Bustos, G., Jana, F., Cruz, P., Farias, P., Mendoza, E., Huerta, H., Murgas, P., Hunter, M., Rios, M., Cerda, O., Georgakoudi, I., Zakarian, A., Molgo, J., Foskett, J. K. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Scientists pinpoint surprising new function for histones
FINDINGSUCLA scientists have identified a new function for histones, the spool-shaped proteins that regulate gene expression and help pack long strands of DNA into cells. The resulting matrix, called chromatin, provides the structural foundation for chromosomes.In a surprising finding thatreceived more than 1,400 “likes” and more than 600 shares on Twitter within the first several days after the study was published, the researchers discovered that histones also function asenzymes that convertcopper into a form that can be used by the body ’s cells.Scientists had assumed that copper spontaneously converted...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
New link between calcium and cardiolipin in heart defects
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) To function properly, the heart needs energy from cells' powerhouses, the mitochondria. In turn, mitochondria boost their energy output when calcium levels rise around them, a signal that more energy is needed. A new study shows that a shortage of cardiolipin, a type of fat, in the mitochondrial membrane, prevents calcium from entering mitochondria. The result helps explain heart and muscle weakness in the rare genetic disorder Barth syndrome. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Mitochondrial Dysregulation in Sepsis: A Literature Review
CONCLUSION(S): The evidence makes a compelling case for mitochondrial dysregulation to inform the current definition of sepsis as a dysregulated host response. As the evidence points to a linear, progressive time/exposure-dependent disruption in oxygen downregulation in sepsis at the cellular level, it lends credence to the recommendations for early intervention and its relationship with survivability. Time is not on the side of the individual with sepsis. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - July 1, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
The ER chaperone calnexin controls mitochondrial positioning and respiration
Chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) control the flux of Ca2+ ions into mitochondria, thereby increasing or decreasing the energetic output of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. An example is the abundant ER lectin calnexin, which interacts with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). We found that calnexin stimulated the ATPase activity of SERCA by maintaining its redox state. This function enabled calnexin to control how much ER Ca2+ was available for mitochondria, a key determinant for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Calnexin-deficient cells compensated for the loss of this function by partially shifti...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - June 29, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gutierrez, T., Qi, H., Yap, M. C., Tahbaz, N., Milburn, L. A., Lucchinetti, E., Lou, P.-H., Zaugg, M., LaPointe, P. G., Mercier, P., Overduin, M., Bischof, H., Burgstaller, S., Malli, R., Ballanyi, K., Shuai, J., Simmen, T. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
First successful delivery of mitochondria to liver cells in animals
(University of Connecticut) This experiment marks the first time researchers have ever successfully introduced mitochondria into specific cells in living animals. The study lays the groundwork to address a serious gap in treatment for liver diseases and may even eventually be used to treat other maladies throughout the body affected by mitochondrial malfunction or damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
USC-led study: Protein in mitochondria appears to regulate health and longevity
(University of Southern California) A new study led by researchers at the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology is the first to demonstrate that a tiny protein, humanin, has a big impact on health and longevity in both animals and humans (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
New technique allows scientists to measure mitochondrial respiration in frozen tissue
FINDINGSScientists led by Dr. Orian Shirihai, director of themetabolism theme at theDavidGeffen School of Medicine at UCLA,have developed a method for restoring oxygen-consumption activity to previously frozen mitochondria samples, even years after they have been collected. The process of freezing and thawing mitochondria depresses their oxygen consumption and, until now, has hindered researchers ’ ability to accurately carry out large-scale studies examining the crucial role of mitochondria in both health and disease.BACKGROUNDThe mitochondria in our cells consume 90% of the oxygen we breathe and use that oxygen to ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 22, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence
The effect of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. In this work, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria owing to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself act...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Desdin-Mico, G., Soto-Heredero, G., Aranda, J. F., Oller, J., Carrasco, E., Gabande-Rodriguez, E., Blanco, E. M., Alfranca, A., Cusso, L., Desco, M., Ibanez, B., Gortazar, A. R., Fernandez-Marcos, P., Navarro, M. N., Hernaez, B., Alcami, A., Baixauli, F., Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Ultraviolet Light Treats Influenza?
The healing power of ultraviolet light (UV) has flown under the radar for decades. Yet, it’s one of the most powerful detoxifying agents known to man. It kills bacteria and viruses and can be used in a clinical setting. The therapeutic benefits of light have been known for millennia. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, believed light was essential to balance the body and emotions. And there is good reason why, during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, medics discovered that severely ill patients had hugely better recovery rates when they were nursed outside and had regular exposure to sunlight.1 You see, UV r...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news
Subcellular chatter regulates longevity
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) As people get older, they often feel less energetic, mobile or active. This may be due in part to a decline in mitochondria, the tiny powerhouses inside of our cells, which provide energy and regulate metabolism. In fact, mitochondria decline with age not only in humans, but in many species. Why they do so is not well understood. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne set out to understand how mitochondrial function is diminished with age and to find factors that prevent this process. They found that communication between mitochondria and other parts of the cell pl...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Ronald Reagan ’s Secret Cancer Cure
There’s no faster way to purify your body of viruses, bacteria and fungi — and at the same time ramp up your immune system — than a 125-year-old “cure” banned by the FDA. I’m talking about ozone therapy — and it’s not just good for cleansing your body. You see, ozone — a special “energized” kind of oxygen — can help heal almost any condition. Despite being banned by the FDA back in the 1940s, after more than 60 years of successful use, ozone therapy has saved millions of lives in countries where it has become a commonplace medical treatment. In count...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 12, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news
High calcium levels in mitochondria linked to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease
(Massachusetts General Hospital) For the first time, using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital have documented a link between raised levels of calcium in mitochondria and neuronal death in the living brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
CLUHing in mitochondria to starvation
The RNA-binding protein CLUH helps reprogram hepatocyte mitochondria in response to starvation. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: VanHook, A. M. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news
Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in mice
Loss-of-function mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter ATP7A cause Menkes disease. Menkes is an infantile, fatal, hereditary copper-deficiency disorder that is characterized by progressive neurological injury culminating in death, typically by 3 years of age. Severe copper deficiency leads to multiple pathologies, including impaired energy generation caused by cytochrome c oxidase dysfunction in the mitochondria. Here we report that the small molecule elesclomol escorted copper to the mitochondria and increased cytochrome c oxidase levels in the brain. Through this mechanism, elesclomol prevented detrimental neurodegene...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guthrie, L. M., Soma, S., Yuan, S., Silva, A., Zulkifli, M., Snavely, T. C., Greene, H. F., Nunez, E., Lynch, B., De Ville, C., Shanbhag, V., Lopez, F. R., Acharya, A., Petris, M. J., Kim, B.-E., Gohil, V. M., Sacchettini, J. C. Tags: Medicine, Diseases r-articles Source Type: news
Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts
Nature integrates complex biosynthetic and energy-converting tasks within compartments such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Chloroplasts convert light into chemical energy, driving carbon dioxide fixation. We used microfluidics to develop a chloroplast mimic by encapsulating and operating photosynthetic membranes in cell-sized droplets. These droplets can be energized by light to power enzymes or enzyme cascades and analyzed for their catalytic properties in multiplex and real time. We demonstrate how these microdroplets can be programmed and controlled by adjusting internal compositions and by using light as an external...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Miller, T. E., Beneyton, T., Schwander, T., Diehl, C., Girault, M., McLean, R., Chotel, T., Claus, P., Cortina, N. S., Baret, J.-C., Erb, T. J. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Interleukin-13 drives metabolic conditioning of muscle to endurance exercise
Repeated bouts of exercise condition muscle mitochondria to meet increased energy demand—an adaptive response associated with improved metabolic fitness. We found that the type 2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) is induced in exercising muscle, where it orchestrates metabolic reprogramming that preserves glycogen in favor of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Exercise training–mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, running endurance, and beneficial glycemic effects were lost in Il13–/– mice. By contrast, enhanced muscle IL-13 signaling was sufficient to increase running distance, glucose...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 29, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Knudsen, N. H., Stanya, K. J., Hyde, A. L., Chalom, M. M., Alexander, R. K., Liou, Y.-H., Starost, K. A., Gangl, M. R., Jacobi, D., Liu, S., Sopariwala, D. H., Fonseca-Pereira, D., Li, J., Hu, F. B., Garrett, W. S., Narkar, V. A., Ortlund, E. A., Kim, J. Tags: Online Only, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic "megamitochondria" with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 1, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhou, Z., Torres, M., Sha, H., Halbrook, C. J., Van den Bergh, F., Reinert, R. B., Yamada, T., Wang, S., Luo, Y., Hunter, A. H., Wang, C., Sanderson, T. H., Liu, M., Taylor, A., Sesaki, H., Lyssiotis, C. A., Wu, J., Kersten, S., Beard, D. A., Qi, L. Tags: Cell Biology, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news
New mechanism underlying organelle communication revealed in brown fat cells
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A new study reveals an underappreciated interplay between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria with implications for weight loss and disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Spinal nerve healing enhanced by boost in cellular energy
Mice engineered to lack a protein that anchors mitochondria in injured nerve cells showed regrowth of those cells after a spinal cord injury. (Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH))
Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) - March 23, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
New research may help older adults stay physically capable for longer
(University of Birmingham) Drug therapies that help older adults maintain their skeletal muscle mass and physical function for longer could be a step closer after researchers at the University of Birmingham identify a key mechanism that drives the clearance of damaged mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Golgi-derived PI(4)P-containing vesicles drive late steps of mitochondrial division
Mitochondrial plasticity is a key regulator of cell fate decisions. Mitochondrial division involves Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) oligomerization, which constricts membranes at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The mechanisms driving the final steps of mitochondrial division are still unclear. Here, we found that microdomains of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] on trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles were recruited to mitochondria–ER contact sites and could drive mitochondrial division downstream of Drp1. The loss of the small guanosine triphosphatase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) or its effector...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nagashima, S., Tabara, L.-C., Tilokani, L., Paupe, V., Anand, H., Pogson, J. H., Zunino, R., McBride, H. M., Prudent, J. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news