Ultraviolet Light Treats Influenza?
The healing power of ultraviolet light (UV) has flown under the radar for decades. Yet, it’s one of the most powerful detoxifying agents known to man. It kills bacteria and viruses and can be used in a clinical setting. The therapeutic benefits of light have been known for millennia. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, believed light was essential to balance the body and emotions. And there is good reason why, during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, medics discovered that severely ill patients had hugely better recovery rates when they were nursed outside and had regular exposure to sunlight.1 You see, UV r...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news

Subcellular chatter regulates longevity
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) As people get older, they often feel less energetic, mobile or active. This may be due in part to a decline in mitochondria, the tiny powerhouses inside of our cells, which provide energy and regulate metabolism. In fact, mitochondria decline with age not only in humans, but in many species. Why they do so is not well understood. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne set out to understand how mitochondrial function is diminished with age and to find factors that prevent this process. They found that communication between mitochondria and other parts of the cell pl...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondria to the rescue
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 14, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Ronald Reagan ’s Secret Cancer Cure
There’s no faster way to purify your body of viruses, bacteria and fungi — and at the same time ramp up your immune system — than a 125-year-old “cure” banned by the FDA. I’m talking about ozone therapy — and it’s not just good for cleansing your body. You see, ozone — a special “energized” kind of oxygen — can help heal almost any condition. Despite being banned by the FDA back in the 1940s, after more than 60 years of successful use, ozone therapy has saved millions of lives in countries where it has become a commonplace medical treatment. In count...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 12, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news

High calcium levels in mitochondria linked to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease
(Massachusetts General Hospital) For the first time, using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital have documented a link between raised levels of calcium in mitochondria and neuronal death in the living brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

CLUHing in mitochondria to starvation
The RNA-binding protein CLUH helps reprogram hepatocyte mitochondria in response to starvation. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 12, 2020 Category: Science Authors: VanHook, A. M. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in mice
Loss-of-function mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter ATP7A cause Menkes disease. Menkes is an infantile, fatal, hereditary copper-deficiency disorder that is characterized by progressive neurological injury culminating in death, typically by 3 years of age. Severe copper deficiency leads to multiple pathologies, including impaired energy generation caused by cytochrome c oxidase dysfunction in the mitochondria. Here we report that the small molecule elesclomol escorted copper to the mitochondria and increased cytochrome c oxidase levels in the brain. Through this mechanism, elesclomol prevented detrimental neurodegene...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 7, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guthrie, L. M., Soma, S., Yuan, S., Silva, A., Zulkifli, M., Snavely, T. C., Greene, H. F., Nunez, E., Lynch, B., De Ville, C., Shanbhag, V., Lopez, F. R., Acharya, A., Petris, M. J., Kim, B.-E., Gohil, V. M., Sacchettini, J. C. Tags: Medicine, Diseases r-articles Source Type: news

Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts
Nature integrates complex biosynthetic and energy-converting tasks within compartments such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Chloroplasts convert light into chemical energy, driving carbon dioxide fixation. We used microfluidics to develop a chloroplast mimic by encapsulating and operating photosynthetic membranes in cell-sized droplets. These droplets can be energized by light to power enzymes or enzyme cascades and analyzed for their catalytic properties in multiplex and real time. We demonstrate how these microdroplets can be programmed and controlled by adjusting internal compositions and by using light as an external...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 7, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Miller, T. E., Beneyton, T., Schwander, T., Diehl, C., Girault, M., McLean, R., Chotel, T., Claus, P., Cortina, N. S., Baret, J.-C., Erb, T. J. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

Interleukin-13 drives metabolic conditioning of muscle to endurance exercise
Repeated bouts of exercise condition muscle mitochondria to meet increased energy demand—an adaptive response associated with improved metabolic fitness. We found that the type 2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) is induced in exercising muscle, where it orchestrates metabolic reprogramming that preserves glycogen in favor of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Exercise training–mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, running endurance, and beneficial glycemic effects were lost in Il13–/– mice. By contrast, enhanced muscle IL-13 signaling was sufficient to increase running distance, glucose...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Knudsen, N. H., Stanya, K. J., Hyde, A. L., Chalom, M. M., Alexander, R. K., Liou, Y.-H., Starost, K. A., Gangl, M. R., Jacobi, D., Liu, S., Sopariwala, D. H., Fonseca-Pereira, D., Li, J., Hu, F. B., Garrett, W. S., Narkar, V. A., Ortlund, E. A., Kim, J. Tags: Online Only, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic "megamitochondria" with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 2, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhou, Z., Torres, M., Sha, H., Halbrook, C. J., Van den Bergh, F., Reinert, R. B., Yamada, T., Wang, S., Luo, Y., Hunter, A. H., Wang, C., Sanderson, T. H., Liu, M., Taylor, A., Sesaki, H., Lyssiotis, C. A., Wu, J., Kersten, S., Beard, D. A., Qi, L. Tags: Cell Biology, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

New mechanism underlying organelle communication revealed in brown fat cells
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A new study reveals an underappreciated interplay between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria with implications for weight loss and disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Spinal nerve healing enhanced by boost in cellular energy
Mice engineered to lack a protein that anchors mitochondria in injured nerve cells showed regrowth of those cells after a spinal cord injury. (Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH))
Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) - March 24, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

New research may help older adults stay physically capable for longer
(University of Birmingham) Drug therapies that help older adults maintain their skeletal muscle mass and physical function for longer could be a step closer after researchers at the University of Birmingham identify a key mechanism that drives the clearance of damaged mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Golgi-derived PI(4)P-containing vesicles drive late steps of mitochondrial division
Mitochondrial plasticity is a key regulator of cell fate decisions. Mitochondrial division involves Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) oligomerization, which constricts membranes at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The mechanisms driving the final steps of mitochondrial division are still unclear. Here, we found that microdomains of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] on trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles were recruited to mitochondria–ER contact sites and could drive mitochondrial division downstream of Drp1. The loss of the small guanosine triphosphatase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) or its effector...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 19, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nagashima, S., Tabara, L.-C., Tilokani, L., Paupe, V., Anand, H., Pogson, J. H., Zunino, R., McBride, H. M., Prudent, J. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Macrophages in Mice Shuttle Mitochondria to Neurons in Need
The findings could represent a novel mechanism for relieving inflammatory pain. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 5, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Mayo Clinic researchers clarify how cells defend themselves from viruses
(Mayo Clinic) A protein known to help cells defend against infection also regulates the form and function of mitochondria, according to a new paper in Nature Communications.The protein, one of a group called myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins, help cells fight infections without the use of systemic antibodies or white blood cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Gene Editing Reaches Plant Mitochondria
Modified gene editing machinery enables targeted disruptions of mitochondrial genes in rice and rapeseed plants. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 1, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Modus Operandi Source Type: news

A deep dive into cellular aging
(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys and Harvard University have discovered that mitochondria trigger senescence, the sleep-like state of aged cells, through communication with the cell's nucleus--and identified an FDA-approved drug that helped suppress the damaging effects of the condition in cells and mice. The discovery, published in Genes& Development, could lead to treatments that promote healthy aging or prevent age-associated diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and more. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

SMAC mimetics and RIPK inhibitors as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases
New therapeutic approaches for chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis are needed because current treatments are often suboptimal in terms of both efficacy and the risks of serious adverse events. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are E3 ubiquitin ligases that inhibit cell death pathways and are themselves inhibited by second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC). SMAC mimetics (SMs), small-molecule antagonists of IAPs, are being evaluated as cancer therapies in clinical trials. IAPs are also crucial regulators of inflammatory pathways because t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jensen, S., Seidelin, J. B., LaCasse, E. C., Nielsen, O. H. Tags: STKE Reviews Source Type: news

Researchers Find Cell-Free Mitochondria Floating in Human Blood
The functional, respiring organelles appear to be present in the blood of healthy people, but their function is yet unclear. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - February 7, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Study provides new understanding of mitochondria genome with potential for new avenues of treatment for multiple cancers
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center furthered understanding about mitochondria, the cell components known as the 'powerhouse of the cell.' Knowing more about the genome is crucial given that mitochondria play important roles in tumorigenesis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Microglia monitor and protect neuronal function through specialized somatic purinergic junctions
Microglia are the main immune cells in the brain and have roles in brain homeostasis and neurological diseases. Mechanisms underlying microglia–neuron communication remain elusive. Here, we identified an interaction site between neuronal cell bodies and microglial processes in mouse and human brain. Somatic microglia–neuron junctions have a specialized nanoarchitecture optimized for purinergic signaling. Activity of neuronal mitochondria was linked with microglial junction formation, which was induced rapidly in response to neuronal activation and blocked by inhibition of P2Y12 receptors. Brain injury–ind...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cserep, C., Posfai, B., Lenart, N., Fekete, R., Laszlo, Z. I., Lele, Z., Orsolits, B., Molnar, G., Heindl, S., Schwarcz, A. D., Ujvari, K., Környei, Z., Toth, K., Szabadits, E., Sperlagh, B., Baranyi, M., Csiba, L., Hortobagyi, T., Magloczky, Z., Tags: Immunology, Neuroscience r-articles Source Type: news

A new blood component revealed
(INSERM (Institut national de la sant é et de la recherche m é dicale)) Does the blood we thought to know so well contain elements that had been undetectable until now? The answer is yes, according to a team of researchers from Inserm, Universit é de Montpellier and the Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM) working at the Montpellier Cancer Research Institute (IRCM), which has revealed the presence of whole functional mitochondria in the blood circulation. The discovery may deepen our knowledge of physiology and open up new avenues for treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Fetal Bovine Serum-More Data
Primary and Stem Cell CultureThis just came across our radar." SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL An eye opener in stroke: Mitochondrial dysfunction and stem cell repair in MCAO induced retinal ischemia "We are always delighted when researchers supplement their cell culture media with ourFetal Bovine Serum (FBS).RPE Cells and MSC Culture Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE, CRL-4000; ATCC) cells were cultured in Dulbecco ’s Modified Eagle Media/F-12 (DMEM/F-12, 11320033; Gibco) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; FBS001; Neuromics) and 0.01 mg/ml hygromycin B (10687010; Gibco) in incubator (37 °C humidified, with...
Source: Neuromics - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: adult stem cells FBS Fetal Bovine Serum Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSCs Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells RPES Source Type: news

This Strange Microbe May Mark One of Life ’s Great Leaps
A organism living in ocean muck offers clues to the origins of the complex cells of all animals and plants. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - January 15, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Carl Zimmer Tags: Microbiology Oceans and Seas Biology and Biochemistry Mitochondria Bacteria Evolution (Biology) Nature (Journal) Masaru K. Nobu Japan Pacific Ocean Arctic Ocean your-feed-science Source Type: news

A step closer to understanding evolution -- mitochondrial division conserved across species
(Tokyo University of Science) A group of scientists at Tokyo University of Science showed for the first time that in red algae, an enzyme that is usually involved in cell division also plays a role in replication of mitochondria -- a crucial cell organelle. Moreover, they discovered a similar mechanism in human cells, leading them to believe that the process by which mitochondria replicate is similar across all eukaryotic species -- from simple to complex organisms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

VDAC oligomers form mitochondrial pores to release mtDNA fragments and promote lupus-like disease
Mitochondrial stress releases mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the cytosol, thereby triggering the type I interferon (IFN) response. Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, which is required for mtDNA release, has been extensively studied in apoptotic cells, but little is known about its role in live cells. We found that oxidatively stressed mitochondria release short mtDNA fragments via pores formed by the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) oligomers in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Furthermore, the positively charged residues in the N-terminal domain of VDAC1 interact with mtDNA, promoting VDAC1 oligomerizat...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 19, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kim, J., Gupta, R., Blanco, L. P., Yang, S., Shteinfer-Kuzmine, A., Wang, K., Zhu, J., Yoon, H. E., Wang, X., Kerkhofs, M., Kang, H., Brown, A. L., Park, S.-J., Xu, X., Zandee van Rilland, E., Kim, M. K., Cohen, J. I., Kaplan, M. J., Shoshan-Barmatz, V., Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology reports Source Type: news

Mitochondria are the 'canary in the coal mine' for cellular stress
(Salk Institute) Mitochondria, tiny structures present in most cells, are known for their energy-generating machinery. Now, Salk researchers have discovered a new function of mitochondria: they set off molecular alarms when cells are exposed to stress or chemicals that can damage DNA, such as chemotherapy. The results, published online in Nature Metabolism on Dec. 9, 2019, could lead to new cancer treatments that prevent tumors from becoming resistant to chemotherapy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 13, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Muscle weakness after sepsis linked to mitochondrial dysfunction
(eLife) Damage to energy-producing mitochondria may underlie prolonged muscle weakness following a sepsis-like condition in mice, according to a new study published today in eLife. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondria from Different Brain Cells Have Different Proteins
Organelles isolated from two types of neurons and a nonneuronal astrocyte in the mouse cerebellum showed varying levels of proteins, hinting at functional differences. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - December 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: The Literature Source Type: news

Mapping the pathway to gut health in HIV and SIV infections
(University of California - Davis Health) A UC Davis study found that Lactobacillus plantarum bacteria rapidly repaired damaged gut lining (known as leaky gut) in monkeys infected with chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), an HIV-like virus. It linked chronically inflamed leaky gut to the loss of PPARα signaling and damage to mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - November 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Master regulator in mitochondria is critical for muscle function and repair
(Thomas Jefferson University) New study identifies how loss of mitochondrial protein MICU1 disrupts calcium balance and causes muscle atrophy and weakness. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitocellular communication: Shaping health and disease
Throughout the animal kingdom, mitochondria are the only organelles that retain their own genome and the transcription and translation machineries that are all essential for energy harvesting. Mitochondria have developed a complex communication network, allowing them to stay in tune with cellular needs and nuclear transcriptional programs and to alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we review recent findings on the wide array of mechanisms that contribute to these mitocellular communication networks, spanning from well-studied messenger molecules to mitonuclear genetic interactions. Based on these observations and dev...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mottis, A., Herzig, S., Auwerx, J. Tags: Cell Biology special/review Source Type: news

Oxygen deficiency rewires mitochondria
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) Researchers slow the growth of pancreatic tumor cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Treat your pain and fatigue from fibromyalgia naturally with L-carnitine
(Natural News) Patients with fibromyalgia suffer from depression, fatigue, and muscle pain. Taking L-carnitine supplements offers a natural method of alleviating the symptoms of muscle disorder. L-carnitine is a natural substrate that serves as an electron transporter. It brings electrons to the mitochondria, the energy-producing structures of the cells. The mitochondria convert the particles into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - November 4, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Mitochondria ’s activity in lung tumors could predict response to treatment
FINDINGSResearchers at theUCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center andDavid Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA have identified a new biomarker that could indicate how likely someone is to respond to treatment for lung cancer. In a test using mice, the scientists found that the level of activity of the mitochondria in lung tumor cells could potentially predict who would respond favorably to a type of drug called a complex I inhibitor, which targets mitochondrial function — and that the mitochondria activity could be tracked noninvasively using a PET scan.The study was the first to use a noninvasive imaging technique to...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - October 30, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Scientists liken mitochondria to Tesla battery packs
Using high resolution microscopy, scientists show that mitochondria comprise many bioelectric units rather than a single one, as they previously thought. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - October 17, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Biology / Biochemistry Source Type: news

Cells ’ mitochondria work much like Tesla battery packs, study finds
For years, scientists assumed that mitochondria — the energy-generating centers of living cells — worked much like household batteries, generating energy from a chemical reaction inside a single chamber or cell. Now, UCLA researchers have shown that mitochondria are instead made up of many individual bioelectric units that generate energy in an array, similar to a Tesla electric car battery that packs thousands of battery cells to manage energy safely and provide fast access to very high current.“Nobody had looked at this before because we were so locked into this way of thinking; the assumption was that ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - October 15, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Is this how fructose worsens the effect of high fat diets?
A new mouse study reveals that adding fructose to high fat diets disrupts fat burning in the liver through effects on fat oxidation genes and mitochondria. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - October 5, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Nutrition / Diet Source Type: news

New technique reveals how mitochondria respond to exposures
NIEHS grantees developed a tool that showed how certain exposures in mitochondria led to damage to the ends of chromosomes, or telomeres. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - October 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Anxiety: Are mitochondria involved?
Scientists link stress to disruptions in energy metabolism in mice and humans who have panic disorder, a form of anxiety disorder. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - September 27, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Anxiety / Stress Source Type: news

New results for organelle genome searches
As part of our ongoing effort to improve your search experience, we’ve made it easier for you to find the sequence of your favorite organelle genome plus all the information and data associated with it. To find organelle genomes, search … Continue reading → (Source: NCBI Insights)
Source: NCBI Insights - September 23, 2019 Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: NCBI Staff Tags: What's New chloroplasts mitochondria nucleotide Protein sequences Source Type: news

Study points to new drug target in fight against cancer
Researchers have identified a potential new drug target in the fight against cancer. In a study this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, an international team of researchers describe how a cancer-linked version of the protein mitoNEET can close the primary gateways in the outer surface of mitochondria, the "power plants" that supply cells with chemical energy. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - September 18, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

Tumor-derived TGF-{beta} inhibits mitochondrial respiration to suppress IFN-{gamma} production by human CD4+ T cells
Transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) is produced by tumors, and increased amounts of this cytokine in the tumor microenvironment and serum are associated with poor patient survival. TGF-β–mediated suppression of antitumor T cell responses contributes to tumor growth and survival. However, TGF-β also has tumor-suppressive activity; thus, dissecting cell type–specific molecular effects may inform therapeutic strategies targeting this cytokine. Here, using human peripheral and tumor-associated lymphocytes, we investigated how tumor-derived TGF-β suppresses a key antitumor function of...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - September 17, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Dimeloe, S., Gubser, P., Loeliger, J., Frick, C., Develioglu, L., Fischer, M., Marquardsen, F., Bantug, G. R., Thommen, D., Lecoultre, Y., Zippelius, A., Langenkamp, A., Hess, C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Mitochondria teach ribosome assembly
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 12, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Karbstein, K. Tags: perspective Source Type: news

Mitoribosomal small subunit biogenesis in trypanosomes involves an extensive assembly machinery
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are large ribonucleoprotein complexes that synthesize proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome. An extensive cellular machinery responsible for ribosome assembly has been described only for eukaryotic cytosolic ribosomes. Here we report that the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit in Trypanosoma brucei involves a large number of factors and proceeds through the formation of assembly intermediates, which we analyzed by using cryo–electron microscopy. One of them is a 4-megadalton complex, referred to as the small subunit assemblosome, in which we identified 34 factor...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 12, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Saurer, M., Ramrath, D. J. F., Niemann, M., Calderaro, S., Prange, C., Mattei, S., Scaiola, A., Leitner, A., Bieri, P., Horn, E. K., Leibundgut, M., Boehringer, D., Schneider, A., Ban, N. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

SMAC mimetics promote NIK-dependent inhibition of CD4+ TH17 cell differentiation
Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (SMAC) mimetics (SMs) are selective antagonists of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), which activate noncanonical NF-B signaling and promote tumor cell death. Through gene expression analysis, we found that treatment of CD4+ T cells with SMs during T helper 17 (TH17) cell differentiation disrupted the balance between two antagonistic transcription factor modules. Moreover, proteomics analysis revealed that SMs altered the abundance of proteins associated with cell cycle, mitochondrial activity, and the balance between canonical and noncanonical NF-B signaling. Where...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - August 27, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rizk, J., Kaplinsky, J., Agerholm, R., Kadekar, D., Ivars, F., Agace, W. W., Wong, W. W.-L., Szucs, M. J., Myers, S. A., Carr, S. A., Waisman, A., Bekiaris, V. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Mitochondria drive inflammation in diabetes
Chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes is driven by mitochondrial cells in response to fat exposure, according to research published inCell Metabolism.Science Daily (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Source: Society for Endocrinology - August 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Mitochondria--Striking a balance between host and endosymbiont
Mitochondria are organelles with their own genome that arose from α-proteobacteria living within single-celled Archaea more than a billion years ago. This step of endosymbiosis offered tremendous opportunities for energy production and metabolism and allowed the evolution of fungi, plants, and animals. However, less appreciated are the downsides of this endosymbiosis. Coordinating gene expression between the mitochondrial genomes and the nuclear genome is imprecise and can lead to proteotoxic stress. The clonal reproduction of mitochondrial DNA requires workarounds to avoid mutational meltdown. In metazoans that deve...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 15, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Youle, R. J. Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only review Source Type: news

How a gut infection might spark Parkinson's
Scientists are still unpicking the processes involved in Parkinson's. A new study ties together bacterial infection, mitochondria, and the immune system. (Source: Parkinson's Disease News From Medical News Today)
Source: Parkinson's Disease News From Medical News Today - July 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Tags: Parkinson's Disease Source Type: news