Mitochondrial dysfunction, disease explored through prestigious award
Interactions between mitochondria and other organelles, and how disruptions may harm health, are the focus of a new project led by NIEHS. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - November 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

New tricks for old antibiotics
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) The study published in the journal Immunity reveals that tetracyclines (broad spectre antibiotics), by partially inhibiting cell mitochondria activity, induce a compensatory response on the organism that decreases tissue damage caused during infection. This finding opens new doors in the field of disease tolerance and positions this group of antibiotics as potential adjuvant treatment for sepsis, due to their effects that go beyond the control of bacterial burden. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - October 22, 2020 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mammalian lipid droplets are innate immune hubs integrating cell metabolism and host defense
Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major lipid storage organelles of eukaryotic cells and a source of nutrients for intracellular pathogens. We demonstrate that mammalian LDs are endowed with a protein-mediated antimicrobial capacity, which is up-regulated by danger signals. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), multiple host defense proteins, including interferon-inducible guanosine triphosphatases and the antimicrobial cathelicidin, assemble into complex clusters on LDs. LPS additionally promotes the physical and functional uncoupling of LDs from mitochondria, reducing fatty acid metabolism while increasing LD-bacterial con...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bosch, M., Sanchez-Alvarez, M., Fajardo, A., Kapetanovic, R., Steiner, B., Dutra, F., Moreira, L., Lopez, J. A., Campo, R., Mari, M., Morales-Paytuvi, F., Tort, O., Gubern, A., Templin, R. M., Curson, J. E. B., Martel, N., Catala, C., Lozano, F., Tebar, F Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Enzyme SSH1 impairs disposal of accumulating cellular garbage, leading to brain cell death
(University of South Florida (USF Health)) The protein p62 plays a major role in clearing misfolded tau proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, the energy powerhouse in all cells including neurons. Neuroscientists at the University of South Florida Health (USF Health) Byrd Alzheimer's Center report for the first time that the protein phosphatase Slingshot-1, or SSH1 for short, disrupts p62's ability to function as an efficient 'garbage collector' and thereby impairs the disposal of both damaged tau and mitochondria leaking toxins. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Coronavirus (Covid-19) sepsis: revisiting mitochondrial dysfunction in pathogenesis, aging, inflammation, and mortality
Conclusion(s): Aging is associated with worse outcomes in sepsis. Modulating Sirtuin activity is emerging as therapeutic agent in sepsis. HIF-alpha, levels of mitochondrial DNA, and other mitochondrial DAMP molecules may also serve as useful biomarker and need to be investigated. These mechanisms should be explored specifically for Covid-19-related sepsis. Understanding newly discovered regulatory mechanisms may lead to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - October 9, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Gladstone investigator receives NIH Director's New Innovator Award
(Gladstone Institutes) The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has granted an NIH Director's New Innovator Award to Seth Shipman, PhD, assistant investigator at Gladstone Institutes. The award will support the development of innovative technologies to edit the DNA found in mitochondria--energy-producing structures within human cells. Shipman's efforts could lead to new treatments for a range of currently incurable diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Changes to epigenome driven by energy powerhouse of cells
NIEHS study shows that disruptions to mitochondria can alter how genes are expressed, with long-lasting ramifications. (read more) (Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter)
Source: Environmental Factor - NIEHS Newsletter - October 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: news

'Cheater mitochondria' may profit from cellular stress coping mechanisms
(eLife) Cheating mitochondria may take advantage of cellular mechanisms for coping with food scarcity in a simple worm to persist, even though this can reduce the worm's wellbeing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Feeding off fusion or the immortalization of tumor cells
(IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) Despite all recent progress, cancer remains one of the deadliest human diseases. In a new publication that appeared in the journal Cell, researchers from J ü rgen Knoblich's lab at IMBA - Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - found a very surprising and unexpected connection between the formation of tumors and mitochondria, the power house of the cells, that allows neural stem cells that normally build our brain to become deadly tumor cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - September 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dynamics in postmitotic cells regulate neurogenesis
We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 12, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Iwata, R., Casimir, P., Vanderhaeghen, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news

The mitophagy effector FUNDC1 controls mitochondrial reprogramming and cellular plasticity in cancer cells
Mitochondria are signaling hubs in eukaryotic cells. Here, we showed that the mitochondrial FUN14 domain–containing protein-1 (FUNDC1), an effector of Parkin-independent mitophagy, also participates in cellular plasticity by sustaining oxidative bioenergetics, buffering ROS production, and supporting cell proliferation. Targeting this pathway in cancer cells suppressed tumor growth but rendered transformed cells more motile and invasive in a manner dependent on ROS-mediated mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial repositioning to the cortical cytoskeleton. Global metabolomics and proteomics profiling identified a FU...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Li, J., Agarwal, E., Bertolini, I., Seo, J. H., Caino, M. C., Ghosh, J. C., Kossenkov, A. V., Liu, Q., Tang, H.-Y., Goldman, A. R., Languino, L. R., Speicher, D. W., Altieri, D. C. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

What Are Common Fatty Acid Oxidation Metabolic Disorders?
Discussion All cells and particularly their mitochondria need an energy source. Glucose is one of the most common ones, but also fatty acids, lactate, pyruvate, ketones, and amino acids. Fatty acids are formed with a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic carbon chain usually with even numbers of carbon atoms (usually 4-28 most commonly). Most are unbranched and in foods are usually found in the form of esters. Fatty acids are important energy sources for the heart (50-70%) but also skeletal muscle where resting muscle uses both glucose and fatty acids. During fasting or increased stress fatty acids become a major source o...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 27, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Single cells have their own defenses against pathogens
New Yale research describes the role played by the mitochondria in creating an anti-microbial compound capable of combatting the cause of typhoid fever. (Source: Yale Science and Health News)
Source: Yale Science and Health News - July 24, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Itaconate is an effector of a Rab GTPase cell-autonomous host defense pathway against Salmonella
The guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rab32 coordinates a cell-intrinsic host defense mechanism that restricts the replication of intravacuolar pathogens such as Salmonella. Here, we show that this mechanism requires aconitate decarboxylase 1 (IRG1), which synthesizes itaconate, a metabolite with antimicrobial activity. We find that Rab32 interacts with IRG1 on Salmonella infection and facilitates the delivery of itaconate to the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Mice defective in IRG1 rescued the virulence defect of a S. enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant specifically defective in its ability to counter the Rab32 defense me...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 22, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chen, M., Sun, H., Boot, M., Shao, L., Chang, S.-J., Wang, W., Lam, T. T., Lara-Tejero, M., Rego, E. H., Galan, J. E. Tags: Immunology, Microbiology reports Source Type: news

High-fat diet with antibiotic use linked to gut inflammation
(University of California - Davis Health) UC Davis researchers have found that combining a Western-style high-fat diet with antibiotic use significantly increases the risk of developing pre- inflammatory bowel disease. This combination shuts down the mitochondria in cells of the colon lining, leading to gut inflammation. Mesalazine can help restart the mitochondria and treat pre-IBD condition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 14, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Cancer cells with defective oxidative phosphorylation require endoplasmic reticulum-to-mitochondria Ca2+ transfer for survival
Spontaneous Ca2+ signaling from the InsP3R intracellular Ca2+ release channel to mitochondria is essential for optimal oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and ATP production. In cells with defective OXPHOS, reductive carboxylation replaces oxidative metabolism to maintain amounts of reducing equivalents and metabolic precursors. To investigate the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in regulating bioenergetics in these cells, we used OXPHOS-competent and OXPHOS-defective cells. Inhibition of InsP3R activity or mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake increased α-ketoglutarate (αKG) abundance and the NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cardenas, C., Lovy, A., Silva-Pavez, E., Urra, F., Mizzoni, C., Ahumada-Castro, U., Bustos, G., Jana, F., Cruz, P., Farias, P., Mendoza, E., Huerta, H., Murgas, P., Hunter, M., Rios, M., Cerda, O., Georgakoudi, I., Zakarian, A., Molgo, J., Foskett, J. K. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

Scientists pinpoint surprising new function for histones
FINDINGSUCLA scientists have identified a new function for histones, the spool-shaped proteins that regulate gene expression and help pack long strands of DNA into cells. The resulting matrix, called chromatin, provides the structural foundation for chromosomes.In a surprising finding thatreceived more than 1,400 “likes” and more than 600 shares on Twitter within the first several days after the study was published, the researchers discovered that histones also function asenzymes that convertcopper into a form that can be used by the body ’s cells.Scientists had assumed that copper spontaneously converted...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 8, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

New link between calcium and cardiolipin in heart defects
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) To function properly, the heart needs energy from cells' powerhouses, the mitochondria. In turn, mitochondria boost their energy output when calcium levels rise around them, a signal that more energy is needed. A new study shows that a shortage of cardiolipin, a type of fat, in the mitochondrial membrane, prevents calcium from entering mitochondria. The result helps explain heart and muscle weakness in the rare genetic disorder Barth syndrome. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Mitochondrial Dysregulation in Sepsis: A Literature Review
CONCLUSION(S): The evidence makes a compelling case for mitochondrial dysregulation to inform the current definition of sepsis as a dysregulated host response. As the evidence points to a linear, progressive time/exposure-dependent disruption in oxygen downregulation in sepsis at the cellular level, it lends credence to the recommendations for early intervention and its relationship with survivability. Time is not on the side of the individual with sepsis. (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - July 1, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

The ER chaperone calnexin controls mitochondrial positioning and respiration
Chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) control the flux of Ca2+ ions into mitochondria, thereby increasing or decreasing the energetic output of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. An example is the abundant ER lectin calnexin, which interacts with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA). We found that calnexin stimulated the ATPase activity of SERCA by maintaining its redox state. This function enabled calnexin to control how much ER Ca2+ was available for mitochondria, a key determinant for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Calnexin-deficient cells compensated for the loss of this function by partially shifti...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - June 29, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gutierrez, T., Qi, H., Yap, M. C., Tahbaz, N., Milburn, L. A., Lucchinetti, E., Lou, P.-H., Zaugg, M., LaPointe, P. G., Mercier, P., Overduin, M., Bischof, H., Burgstaller, S., Malli, R., Ballanyi, K., Shuai, J., Simmen, T. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news

First successful delivery of mitochondria to liver cells in animals
(University of Connecticut) This experiment marks the first time researchers have ever successfully introduced mitochondria into specific cells in living animals. The study lays the groundwork to address a serious gap in treatment for liver diseases and may even eventually be used to treat other maladies throughout the body affected by mitochondrial malfunction or damage. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 25, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

USC-led study: Protein in mitochondria appears to regulate health and longevity
(University of Southern California) A new study led by researchers at the USC Leonard Davis School of Gerontology is the first to demonstrate that a tiny protein, humanin, has a big impact on health and longevity in both animals and humans (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New technique allows scientists to measure mitochondrial respiration in frozen tissue
FINDINGSScientists led by Dr. Orian Shirihai, director of themetabolism theme at theDavidGeffen School of Medicine at UCLA,have developed a method for restoring oxygen-consumption activity to previously frozen mitochondria samples, even years after they have been collected. The process of freezing and thawing mitochondria depresses their oxygen consumption and, until now, has hindered researchers ’ ability to accurately carry out large-scale studies examining the crucial role of mitochondria in both health and disease.BACKGROUNDThe mitochondria in our cells consume 90% of the oxygen we breathe and use that oxygen to ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 22, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence
The effect of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. In this work, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria owing to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result in premature death. T cell metabolic failure induces the accumulation of circulating cytokines, which resembles the chronic inflammation that is characteristic of aging ("inflammaging"). This cytokine storm itself act...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Desdin-Mico, G., Soto-Heredero, G., Aranda, J. F., Oller, J., Carrasco, E., Gabande-Rodriguez, E., Blanco, E. M., Alfranca, A., Cusso, L., Desco, M., Ibanez, B., Gortazar, A. R., Fernandez-Marcos, P., Navarro, M. N., Hernaez, B., Alcami, A., Baixauli, F., Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

Ultraviolet Light Treats Influenza?
The healing power of ultraviolet light (UV) has flown under the radar for decades. Yet, it’s one of the most powerful detoxifying agents known to man. It kills bacteria and viruses and can be used in a clinical setting. The therapeutic benefits of light have been known for millennia. Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, believed light was essential to balance the body and emotions. And there is good reason why, during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, medics discovered that severely ill patients had hugely better recovery rates when they were nursed outside and had regular exposure to sunlight.1 You see, UV r...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 21, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news

Subcellular chatter regulates longevity
(Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) As people get older, they often feel less energetic, mobile or active. This may be due in part to a decline in mitochondria, the tiny powerhouses inside of our cells, which provide energy and regulate metabolism. In fact, mitochondria decline with age not only in humans, but in many species. Why they do so is not well understood. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Cologne set out to understand how mitochondrial function is diminished with age and to find factors that prevent this process. They found that communication between mitochondria and other parts of the cell pl...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 19, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mitochondria to the rescue
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Ronald Reagan ’s Secret Cancer Cure
There’s no faster way to purify your body of viruses, bacteria and fungi — and at the same time ramp up your immune system — than a 125-year-old “cure” banned by the FDA. I’m talking about ozone therapy — and it’s not just good for cleansing your body. You see, ozone — a special “energized” kind of oxygen — can help heal almost any condition. Despite being banned by the FDA back in the 1940s, after more than 60 years of successful use, ozone therapy has saved millions of lives in countries where it has become a commonplace medical treatment. In count...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 12, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news

High calcium levels in mitochondria linked to neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease
(Massachusetts General Hospital) For the first time, using a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital have documented a link between raised levels of calcium in mitochondria and neuronal death in the living brain. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 12, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

CLUHing in mitochondria to starvation
The RNA-binding protein CLUH helps reprogram hepatocyte mitochondria in response to starvation. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: VanHook, A. M. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in mice
Loss-of-function mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter ATP7A cause Menkes disease. Menkes is an infantile, fatal, hereditary copper-deficiency disorder that is characterized by progressive neurological injury culminating in death, typically by 3 years of age. Severe copper deficiency leads to multiple pathologies, including impaired energy generation caused by cytochrome c oxidase dysfunction in the mitochondria. Here we report that the small molecule elesclomol escorted copper to the mitochondria and increased cytochrome c oxidase levels in the brain. Through this mechanism, elesclomol prevented detrimental neurodegene...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guthrie, L. M., Soma, S., Yuan, S., Silva, A., Zulkifli, M., Snavely, T. C., Greene, H. F., Nunez, E., Lynch, B., De Ville, C., Shanbhag, V., Lopez, F. R., Acharya, A., Petris, M. J., Kim, B.-E., Gohil, V. M., Sacchettini, J. C. Tags: Medicine, Diseases r-articles Source Type: news

Light-powered CO2 fixation in a chloroplast mimic with natural and synthetic parts
Nature integrates complex biosynthetic and energy-converting tasks within compartments such as chloroplasts and mitochondria. Chloroplasts convert light into chemical energy, driving carbon dioxide fixation. We used microfluidics to develop a chloroplast mimic by encapsulating and operating photosynthetic membranes in cell-sized droplets. These droplets can be energized by light to power enzymes or enzyme cascades and analyzed for their catalytic properties in multiplex and real time. We demonstrate how these microdroplets can be programmed and controlled by adjusting internal compositions and by using light as an external...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Miller, T. E., Beneyton, T., Schwander, T., Diehl, C., Girault, M., McLean, R., Chotel, T., Claus, P., Cortina, N. S., Baret, J.-C., Erb, T. J. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

Interleukin-13 drives metabolic conditioning of muscle to endurance exercise
Repeated bouts of exercise condition muscle mitochondria to meet increased energy demand—an adaptive response associated with improved metabolic fitness. We found that the type 2 cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13) is induced in exercising muscle, where it orchestrates metabolic reprogramming that preserves glycogen in favor of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration. Exercise training–mediated mitochondrial biogenesis, running endurance, and beneficial glycemic effects were lost in Il13–/– mice. By contrast, enhanced muscle IL-13 signaling was sufficient to increase running distance, glucose...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 29, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Knudsen, N. H., Stanya, K. J., Hyde, A. L., Chalom, M. M., Alexander, R. K., Liou, Y.-H., Starost, K. A., Gangl, M. R., Jacobi, D., Liu, S., Sopariwala, D. H., Fonseca-Pereira, D., Li, J., Hu, F. B., Garrett, W. S., Narkar, V. A., Ortlund, E. A., Kim, J. Tags: Online Only, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation regulates mitochondrial dynamics in brown adipocytes
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) engages mitochondria at specialized ER domains known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). Here, we used three-dimensional high-resolution imaging to investigate the formation of pleomorphic "megamitochondria" with altered MAMs in brown adipocytes lacking the Sel1L-Hrd1 protein complex of ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). Mice with ERAD deficiency in brown adipocytes were cold sensitive and exhibited mitochondrial dysfunction. ERAD deficiency affected ER-mitochondria contacts and mitochondrial dynamics, at least in part, by regulating the turnover of the MAM protein, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 1, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhou, Z., Torres, M., Sha, H., Halbrook, C. J., Van den Bergh, F., Reinert, R. B., Yamada, T., Wang, S., Luo, Y., Hunter, A. H., Wang, C., Sanderson, T. H., Liu, M., Taylor, A., Sesaki, H., Lyssiotis, C. A., Wu, J., Kersten, S., Beard, D. A., Qi, L. Tags: Cell Biology, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

New mechanism underlying organelle communication revealed in brown fat cells
(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) A new study reveals an underappreciated interplay between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondria with implications for weight loss and disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 30, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Spinal nerve healing enhanced by boost in cellular energy
Mice engineered to lack a protein that anchors mitochondria in injured nerve cells showed regrowth of those cells after a spinal cord injury. (Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH))
Source: NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) - March 23, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

New research may help older adults stay physically capable for longer
(University of Birmingham) Drug therapies that help older adults maintain their skeletal muscle mass and physical function for longer could be a step closer after researchers at the University of Birmingham identify a key mechanism that drives the clearance of damaged mitochondria. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 22, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Golgi-derived PI(4)P-containing vesicles drive late steps of mitochondrial division
Mitochondrial plasticity is a key regulator of cell fate decisions. Mitochondrial division involves Dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) oligomerization, which constricts membranes at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The mechanisms driving the final steps of mitochondrial division are still unclear. Here, we found that microdomains of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] on trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles were recruited to mitochondria–ER contact sites and could drive mitochondrial division downstream of Drp1. The loss of the small guanosine triphosphatase ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) or its effector...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nagashima, S., Tabara, L.-C., Tilokani, L., Paupe, V., Anand, H., Pogson, J. H., Zunino, R., McBride, H. M., Prudent, J. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Macrophages in Mice Shuttle Mitochondria to Neurons in Need
The findings could represent a novel mechanism for relieving inflammatory pain. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 5, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Mayo Clinic researchers clarify how cells defend themselves from viruses
(Mayo Clinic) A protein known to help cells defend against infection also regulates the form and function of mitochondria, according to a new paper in Nature Communications.The protein, one of a group called myxovirus-resistance (Mx) proteins, help cells fight infections without the use of systemic antibodies or white blood cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 3, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Gene Editing Reaches Plant Mitochondria
Modified gene editing machinery enables targeted disruptions of mitochondrial genes in rice and rapeseed plants. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 1, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Modus Operandi Source Type: news

A deep dive into cellular aging
(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys and Harvard University have discovered that mitochondria trigger senescence, the sleep-like state of aged cells, through communication with the cell's nucleus--and identified an FDA-approved drug that helped suppress the damaging effects of the condition in cells and mice. The discovery, published in Genes& Development, could lead to treatments that promote healthy aging or prevent age-associated diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease and more. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

SMAC mimetics and RIPK inhibitors as therapeutics for chronic inflammatory diseases
New therapeutic approaches for chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis are needed because current treatments are often suboptimal in terms of both efficacy and the risks of serious adverse events. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are E3 ubiquitin ligases that inhibit cell death pathways and are themselves inhibited by second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC). SMAC mimetics (SMs), small-molecule antagonists of IAPs, are being evaluated as cancer therapies in clinical trials. IAPs are also crucial regulators of inflammatory pathways because t...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - February 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jensen, S., Seidelin, J. B., LaCasse, E. C., Nielsen, O. H. Tags: STKE Reviews Source Type: news

Researchers Find Cell-Free Mitochondria Floating in Human Blood
The functional, respiring organelles appear to be present in the blood of healthy people, but their function is yet unclear. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - February 7, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Study provides new understanding of mitochondria genome with potential for new avenues of treatment for multiple cancers
(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) A study led by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center furthered understanding about mitochondria, the cell components known as the 'powerhouse of the cell.' Knowing more about the genome is crucial given that mitochondria play important roles in tumorigenesis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 5, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Microglia monitor and protect neuronal function through specialized somatic purinergic junctions
Microglia are the main immune cells in the brain and have roles in brain homeostasis and neurological diseases. Mechanisms underlying microglia–neuron communication remain elusive. Here, we identified an interaction site between neuronal cell bodies and microglial processes in mouse and human brain. Somatic microglia–neuron junctions have a specialized nanoarchitecture optimized for purinergic signaling. Activity of neuronal mitochondria was linked with microglial junction formation, which was induced rapidly in response to neuronal activation and blocked by inhibition of P2Y12 receptors. Brain injury–ind...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 29, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cserep, C., Posfai, B., Lenart, N., Fekete, R., Laszlo, Z. I., Lele, Z., Orsolits, B., Molnar, G., Heindl, S., Schwarcz, A. D., Ujvari, K., Környei, Z., Toth, K., Szabadits, E., Sperlagh, B., Baranyi, M., Csiba, L., Hortobagyi, T., Magloczky, Z., Tags: Immunology, Neuroscience r-articles Source Type: news

A new blood component revealed
(INSERM (Institut national de la sant é et de la recherche m é dicale)) Does the blood we thought to know so well contain elements that had been undetectable until now? The answer is yes, according to a team of researchers from Inserm, Universit é de Montpellier and the Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM) working at the Montpellier Cancer Research Institute (IRCM), which has revealed the presence of whole functional mitochondria in the blood circulation. The discovery may deepen our knowledge of physiology and open up new avenues for treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 23, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Fetal Bovine Serum-More Data
Primary and Stem Cell CultureThis just came across our radar." SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL An eye opener in stroke: Mitochondrial dysfunction and stem cell repair in MCAO induced retinal ischemia "We are always delighted when researchers supplement their cell culture media with ourFetal Bovine Serum (FBS).RPE Cells and MSC Culture Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE, CRL-4000; ATCC) cells were cultured in Dulbecco ’s Modified Eagle Media/F-12 (DMEM/F-12, 11320033; Gibco) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; FBS001; Neuromics) and 0.01 mg/ml hygromycin B (10687010; Gibco) in incubator (37 °C humidified, with...
Source: Neuromics - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Tags: adult stem cells FBS Fetal Bovine Serum Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells MSCs Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells RPES Source Type: news

This Strange Microbe May Mark One of Life ’s Great Leaps
A organism living in ocean muck offers clues to the origins of the complex cells of all animals and plants. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - January 15, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Carl Zimmer Tags: Microbiology Oceans and Seas Biology and Biochemistry Mitochondria Bacteria Evolution (Biology) Nature (Journal) Masaru K. Nobu Japan Pacific Ocean Arctic Ocean your-feed-science Source Type: news

A step closer to understanding evolution -- mitochondrial division conserved across species
(Tokyo University of Science) A group of scientists at Tokyo University of Science showed for the first time that in red algae, an enzyme that is usually involved in cell division also plays a role in replication of mitochondria -- a crucial cell organelle. Moreover, they discovered a similar mechanism in human cells, leading them to believe that the process by which mitochondria replicate is similar across all eukaryotic species -- from simple to complex organisms. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 20, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news