How learning about fish can help us save the Amazon rainforest
(Field Museum) They might not be as popular as jaguars and parrots, but fish hold the key to lots of the Amazon rainforest's secrets. Studying the different kinds of fish living in the region's lakes and rivers helps scientists understand how rainforest ecosystems are connected. An investigation of fish populations is helping scientists make a case that protecting one tiny corner of the Guiana Shield can help protect rivers and biodiversity across the Amazon. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Freshwater insects recover while spiders decline in UK
(University College London) Many insects, mosses and lichens in the UK are bucking the trend of biodiversity loss, according to a comprehensive analysis of over 5,000 species led by UCL and the UK Centre for Ecology& Hydrology (UKCEH), and published in Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New green technology from UMass Amherst generates electricity 'out of thin air'
(University of Massachusetts Amherst) As reported today in Nature, the laboratories of electrical engineer Jun Yao and microbiologist Derek Lovley at UMass Amherst have created a device they call an 'Air-gen.' or air-powered generator, with electrically conductive protein nanowires produced by the microbe Geobacter. The Air-gen connects electrodes to the protein nanowires in such a way that electrical current is generated from the water vapor naturally present in the atmosphere. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New technique allows scientists to 'listen in' on cancer cells
(Cancer Research UK) Scientists have a developed a new technique to decipher how millions of individual cells are communicating with each other in miniature tumours grown in the lab, known as organoids, according to new research published in Nature Methods today (Monday). This is the first time that scientists have been able to analyse many different signalling molecules at once in individual cells within replicas of patients' tumours. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Zooming in on breast cancer reveals how mutations shape the tumour landscape
(Cancer Research UK) Scientists have created one of the most detailed maps of breast cancer ever achieved, revealing how genetic changes shape the physical tumour landscape, according to research funded by Cancer Research UK and published in Nature Cancer today (Monday). An international team of scientists has developed intricate maps of breast tumour samples, with a resolution smaller than a single cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New UCL technology analyses single cancer cells in lab grown tumours
(University College London) New technology developed at UCL is, for the first time, enabling cancer scientists to analyse the individual behaviour of millions of different cells living inside lab-grown tumours -- a breakthrough which could lead to new personalised cancer treatments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Your DNA is a valuable asset, so why give it to ancestry websites for free? | Laura Spinney
DNA testing companies are starting to profit from selling our data on to big pharma. Perhaps they should be paying usThe announcement by 23andMe, a company that sells home DNA testing kits, that it hassold the rights to a promising new anti-inflammatory drug to a Spanish pharmaceutical company is cause for celebration. The collected health data of 23andMe ’s millions of customers have potentially produced a medical advance – the first of its kind. But a few weeks later the same company announced that it was laying off workers amid a shrinking market that its CEO put down to the public ’s concerns about pr...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Laura Spinney Tags: Genetics Biology Science Privacy Data protection Technology World news Source Type: news

California man freed after 15 years in prison thanks to genealogy website data
Authorities used DNA links developed through publicly available genealogical websites to free man wrongfully convicted of killing housemateCalifornia authorities used the same DNA techniques that led to the capture of the suspected Golden State Killer to free a man who spent about 15 years in prison after being wrongfully convicted in the slaying of his housemate.Ricky Davis was ordered released from custody during an emotional court hearing in Placerville, near Sacramento, on Thursday, after authorities used extended DNA links developed through publicly available genealogical websites to build a family tree that led to th...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 14, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guardian staff and agency Tags: California US crime US news Genetics Biology Source Type: news

Brief bursts, big insights
(University of Freiburg) Researchers at the University of Freiburg use new method to investigate neural oscillations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Iodide salts stabilise biocatalysts for fuel cells
(Ruhr-University Bochum) Contrary to theoretical predictions, oxygen inactivates biocatalysts for energy conversion within a short time, even under a protective film. A research team of the Resolv Cluster of Excellence at Ruhr Universit ä t Bochum (RUB) has found out why: Hydrogen peroxide forms on the protective film. The addition of iodide salts to the electrolyte can prevent this from happening and considerably extend the life of the catalysts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Vitamin C may shorten ventilation in critically ill patients
(University of Helsinki) Vitamin C administration shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation in critical care patients, but the effect depended on the severity of illness. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

5200-year-old grains in the eastern Altai Mountains redate trans-Eurasian crop exchange
In this study, an international, interdisciplinary team of scientists illustrate that people moved these crops across Eurasia earlier than previously realized, adapting cultivation methods for harsh agricultural environments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists reveal catalytic mechanism of lovastatin hydrolase
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) The research team led by Prof. LU Xuefeng from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), revealed the catalytic mechanism and structure-function relationship of the specific and efficient lovastatin hydrolase PcEST. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The catalyst that removes CO2 and produces hydrocarbons
(FECYT - Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology) Water is split into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis, but if CO2 is also added to the mixture, compounds can be generated to make textiles, diapers and even spirits. American scientists, led by a Spaniard, have developed a catalyst that accelerates this reaction, while also removing a greenhouse gas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Molecule offers hope for halting Parkinson's
(Parkinson's UK) A promising molecule has offered hope for a new treatment that could stop or slow Parkinson's, something no treatment can currently do. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Five women scientists in developing countries win 2020 OWSD-Elsevier Foundation Awards
(Elsevier) Five researchers have been named winners of the 2020 OWSD-Elsevier Foundation Awards for Early-Career Women Scientists in the Developing World for their research in engineering, innovation and technology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Leaking away essential resources isn't wasteful, actually helps cells grow
(University of Tokyo) Experts have been unable to explain why cells from bacteria to humans leak essential chemicals necessary for growth into their environment. New mathematical models reveal that leaking metabolites -- substances involved in the chemical processes to sustain life with production of complex molecules and energy -- may provide cells both selfish and selfless benefits. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

DGIST increased the possibility of early diagnosis for neuro-developmental disorders
(DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology)) DGIST identified causes of hypersensitivity accompanied by neurodevelopmental disorder such as autism-spectrum disorder (ASD). This is expected to make huge contributions to the early diagnosis of sensory-defective symptom brought with neurodevelopmental disorder and cancer as well as the improvement of anti-cancer drug side effects. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tiny, erratic protein motor movements revealed
(National Institutes of Natural Sciences) The smallest proteins travel in our cells, completing deeply important tasks to keep our molecular mechanisms moving. They are responsible for transporting cargo, duplicating cells and more. Now, a research team based in Japan has uncovered more about how these proteins move. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University of Guam secures grant for innovative coral restoration work
(University of Guam) Coral restoration efforts on Guam received a funding boost of $856,000 for the next three years. The funds were awarded to the University of Guam on Nov. 18 by the National Fish& Wildlife Foundation through its National Coastal Resilience Fund and will be matched with $596,000 raised by the university, bringing the total to $1.4 million. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Air pollution's tiny particles may trigger nonfatal heart attacks, Yale study finds
(Yale School of Public Health) A Yale-affiliated scientist finds that even a few hours' exposure to ambient ultrafine particles common in air pollution may potentially trigger a nonfatal heart attack. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A good blood supply is good for memory
(DZNE - German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases) Memory performance and other cognitive abilities benefit from a good blood supply to the brain. This applies in particular to people affected by a condition known as 'sporadic cerebral small vessel disease'. Researchers of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) and the University Medicine Magdeburg report on this in the journal 'BRAIN'. Their study suggests that blood perfusion of the so-called hippocampus could play a key role in age- and disease-related memory problems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF CAREER award to measure air pollution with bicycle sensors
(Virginia Tech) Hankey, an assistant professor in the School of Public and International Affairs (SPIA) within the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, is the first faculty member from SPIA to receive a Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program award from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Thanks to the $500,000 award, Hankey's five-year project will measure pollution using various sensors and engage the public by tracking their pollution intake using a smartphone app. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Does graphene cause or prevent the corrosion of copper? New study finally settles the debate
(Chung Ang University) Graphene has attracted the interest of researchers in recent years because, despite its apparent anti-corrosive properties, its proximity was seen to increase the corrosion of copper. A research team from Chung-Ang University used Raman spectroscopy to analyze graphene's properties over a long period and found that the corroded surface of copper forms a hybrid layer with graphene, which prevents further corrosion. These findings could have potential applications in extending the life of copper--a common component of various electronic devices. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Jones & Van Aken monitoring water quality for city of Fairfax
(George Mason University) R. Christian Jones, Professor/Director, Potomac Environmental Research and Education Center, Environmental Science and Policy, and Benoit Van Aken, Associate Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry, are conducting stream monitoring for the City of Fairfax. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

For evolutionary study finds rare bats in decline, CCNY research
(City College of New York) A study led by Susan Tsang, a former Fulbright Research Fellow from The City College of New York, reveals dwindling populations and widespread hunting throughout Indonesia and the Philippines of the world's largest bats, known as flying foxes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Science snapshots: Dinosaur blood vessels, giant viruses, and antibiotic-building enzymes
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Science Snapshots: Dinosaur blood vessels, giant viruses, and antibiotic-building enzymes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

‘Romeo seeking Juliet in the animal kingdom’
Wondering how to woo your crush this Valentine ’s Day? When it comes to love, don’t wing it — take a lesson from the birds (and bees) instead.“Humans often believe romance is unique to our species, but it’s not,” said Dr. Barbara Natterson-Horowitz, co-director of  UCLA ’s Evolutionary Medicine Program. “Sexual conversations unfold across the animal kingdom between individuals who are sizing each other up.”Mirroring the drama of the human world, romance in the wild is never certain. Plenty of animal suitors get rejected.“Unlike a dance or ritual with pre...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - February 13, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Researchers discover a method that can potentially block tumor growth in animal subjects with cancer
(Natural News) In an exciting new development, scientists from the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine have found what they term the Achilles’ Heel of cancerous tumors. According to a study published in Nature Cell Biology, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) could be the key to conquering cancer. While millions of our body’s cells... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - February 13, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Taming hormones with food: physician resolves infertility, diabetes, & other conditions
(Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine) Nutrition researcher and New York Times bestselling author Neal Barnard, MD, demonstrates how foods affect our hormones--and our health--in his new book, Your Body in Balance. Dr. Barnard shares the science behind how common conditions--like infertility, weight gain, menopausal symptoms, breast and prostate cancers, thyroid problems, and acne--are fueled by hormones that are hidden in or influenced by the foods we eat. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The Open Wearables Initiative expands founding team; begins soliciting algorithms and datasets for wearable and connected health technologies
(Rana Healthcare Solutions LLC) OWEAR is a collaboration designed to promote the effective use of high-quality, sensor-generated measures of health in clinical research through the open sharing and benchmarking of algorithms and datasets at www.owear.org. OWEAR Founders Shimmer, GGIR software and algorithms author Dr. Vincent van Hees, and Nextbridge Health are now joined by non-profits Sage Bionetworks and DiMe. The OWEAR Working Group also includes executives from four global pharmaceutical companies and a major clinical research organization. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New book on The PTEN Family from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) 'The PTEN Family', from CSHLPress, covers all aspects of PTEN biology and its roles in human diseases. The contributors discuss the structural characteristics of PTEN; its functions at the plasma membrane as well as in the cytoplasm and nucleus; the mutations, interacting partners, and posttranslational modifications that affect its expression levels, subcellular localization, and enzymatic activity; and how this activity ultimately leads to changes in cell growth, migration, and morphology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 13, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

UIC researchers find unique organ-specific signature profiles for blood vessel cells
(University of Illinois at Chicago) Researchers have discovered that endothelial cells have unique genetic signatures based on their location in the body. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New potential cause of Minamata mercury poisoning identified
(University of Saskatchewan) One of the world's most horrific environmental disasters--the 1950 and 60s mercury poisoning in Minamata, Japan--may have been caused by a previously unstudied form of mercury discharged directly from a chemical factory, research by the University of Saskatchewan (USask) has found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF selects 7 winners from its first-ever NSF 2026 Idea Machine prize competition
(National Science Foundation) The National Science Foundation (NSF) is partnering with the National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) and United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI) to unlock the mysteries of the chemical and biological processes occurring within our soil. The agencies will collaborate on 10 research projects that will enable American and British researchers to gain a better understanding of soil ecosystems that will continue to play a critical role in feeding the world and supporting life functions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Boom and bust for ancient sea dragons
(University of Bristol) A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol's School of Earth Sciences, shows a well-known group of extinct marine reptiles had an early burst in their diversity and evolution - but that a failure to adapt in the long-run may have led to their extinction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

VCU researchers to develop next-generation, long-lasting batteries
(Virginia Commonwealth University) Virginia Commonwealth University researchers in the College of Engineering Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering will receive a $2.5 million grant from the US Department of Energy to develop next-generation rechargeable batteries. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel biotechnological route developed to obtain fine chemicals from agricultural waste
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) Preliminary calculations show that the new biotechnological route can increase the value of sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw up to 5,000-fold and multiply the price of ferulic acid by a factor of up to 75 when these residues are converted into coniferol. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Blood and sweat: Wearable medical sensors will get major sensitivity boost
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Scientists explain how to increase the sensitivity of biosensors to the point where they can be integrated into smartphones, smart watches, and other wearable devices. The proposed solution can be not only easily fabricated but also integrated with materials like graphene oxide for providing adsorption of the biomolecules on the sensitive part of the optical elements. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How a tiny and strange marine animal produces unlimited eggs and sperm over its lifetime
(NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute) During human embryonic development, a small pool of germ cells that will eventually become gametes is set aside, and all sperm or eggs that humans produce during their lives are the descendants of those original few germ cells. But a strange and tiny animal called Hydractinia forms germ cells continuously in adult life -- hence producing unlimited eggs and sperm. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The curious case of the disappearing snakes
(Michigan State University) A Michigan State University- and University of Maryland-led study featured on the cover of this week's Science magazine should sound alarm bells regarding the " biodiversity crisis " or the loss of wildlife around the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Forests bouncing back from beetles, but elk and deer slowing recovery
(University of Colorado at Boulder) New research from University of Colorado Boulder reveals that even simultaneous bark beetle outbreaks are not a death sentence to the state's beloved forests. The study, published this month in the journal Ecology, found that high-elevation forests in the southern Rocky Mountains actually have a good chance of recovery, even after overlapping outbreaks with different kinds of beetles. One thing that is slowing their recovery down: Foraging elk and deer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

From petroleum to wood in the chemical industry: cost-efficient and more sustainable
(KU Leuven) An interdisciplinary team of bio-engineers and economists from KU Leuven has mapped out how wood could replace petroleum in the chemical industry. They not only looked at the technological requirements, but also whether that scenario would be financially viable. A shift from petroleum to wood would lead to a reduction in CO2 emissions, the researchers state in Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Polymers to the rescue! Saving cells from damaging ice
(University of Utah) Research published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society by University of Utah chemists Pavithra Naullage and Valeria Molinero provides the foundation to design efficient polymers that can prevent the growth of ice that damages cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Caribbean sharks in need of large marine protected areas
(Stony Brook University) Governments must provide larger spatial protections in the Greater Caribbean for threatened, highly migratory species such as sharks, is the call from a diverse group of marine scientists including Stony Brook University School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (SoMAS) PhD Candidate, Oliver Shipley. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hydropower dams cool rivers in the Mekong River basin, satellites show
(University of Washington) Using 30 years of satellite data, UW researchers discovered that within one year of the opening of a major dam in the Mekong River basin, downstream river temperatures during the dry season dropped by up to 3.6 degrees F (2 degrees C). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Mechanism of controlling autophagy by liquid-liquid phase separation revealed
(Japan Science and Technology Agency) Japanese scientists elucidated characteristics of PAS through observing the Atg protein using a fluorescence microscope and successfully reconstituted PAS in vitro. The team revealed, for the first time, that PAS is in the state of liquid droplets formed by liquid-liquid phase separation of Atg13 together with other Atg proteins and that this liquid droplet is responsible for autophagy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 13, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Modeling neuromuscular biology and disease
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Lineage tracing on transcriptional landscapes links state to fate during differentiation
A challenge in biology is to associate molecular differences among progenitor cells with their capacity to generate mature cell types. Here, we used expressed DNA barcodes to clonally trace transcriptomes over time and applied this to study fate determination in hematopoiesis. We identified states of primed fate potential and located them on a continuous transcriptional landscape. We identified two routes of monocyte differentiation that leave an imprint on mature cells. Analysis of sister cells also revealed cells to have intrinsic fate biases not detectable by single-cell RNA sequencing. Finally, we benchmarked computati...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Weinreb, C., Rodriguez-Fraticelli, A., Camargo, F. D., Klein, A. M. Tags: Engineering, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Philip Leder, Who Deciphered Amino Acid Sequences, Dies
The Harvard Medical School researcher’s work on the genetic basis of protein coding and production led him to make groundbreaking discoveries in immunology, molecular biology, and cancer... (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - February 12, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news