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Meadows beat out shrubs when it comes to storing carbon
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) While the world focuses on controlling global warming caused by CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, less attention has been paid to the capacity of vegetation and soils to take up and store carbon. A remote field site in the Norwegian mountains is improving our understanding of carbon cycling in high-latitude alpine areas. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 23, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New CO2 device for unmanned ocean vessels
(University of Exeter) Carbon dioxide in remote parts of the world's oceans will be measured by a new instrument being developed by scientists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 23, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Matter: Young Again: How One Cell Turns Back Time
With every birth, cells begin anew. Scientists have found a biological mechanism underpinning the process in worms, which one day may be harnessed to restore our own damaged cells. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - November 22, 2017 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: CARL ZIMMER Tags: Worms Eggs Sperm Genetics and Heredity Biology and Biochemistry Calico (California Life Company) Source Type: news

Poor sperm quality linked to air pollution
Study finds ‘strong association’ between high levels of fine particulate matter and abnormal sperm shape - but impact on wider fertility remains unclearHigh levels of air pollution are associated with poor sperm quality and could be partly responsible for the sharp drop in male fertility, according to a new study.A team of scientists, led by researchers from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, studied the sperm of nearly 6,500 men and found a “strong association” between high levels of fine particulate air pollution and “abnormal sperm shape.”Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - November 22, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Matthew Taylor Tags: Air pollution Health Reproduction Biology Environment Science Society Source Type: news

Retreating permafrost coasts threaten the fragile Arctic environment
(Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research) Permafrost makes up a quarter of the landmass in the Northern Hemisphere. A large EU project, coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, is now exploring the consequences for the global climate and for the people living in the Arctic. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

WCS announces $2.5 million in grants for climate adaptation
(Wildlife Conservation Society) Through its award-winning Climate Adaptation Fund, the Wildlife Conservation Society has announced 12 new grants to nonprofit organizations exploring and implementing new methods for helping America's wildlife and people adapt to rapidly shifting environmental conditions brought about by climate change. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Energy from electric cars could power our lives -- but only if we improve the system
(Elsevier) Power stored in electric cars could be sent back to the grid -- thereby supporting the grid and acting as a potential storage for clean energy -- but it will only be economically viable if we upgrade the system first. In a new paper in Energy Policy, two scientists show how their seemingly contradictory findings actually point to the same outcome and recommendations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Reducing phosphorus runoff
(University of Delaware) Researchers test a variety of incentives to learn how best to motivate farmers to curb phosphorus runoff. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ribbed mussels could help improve urban water quality
(NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center) Ribbed mussels can remove nitrogen and other excess nutrients from an urban estuary and could help improve water quality in other urban and coastal locations, according to a study in New York City's Bronx River. The findings, published in Environmental Science and Technology, are part of long-term efforts to improve water quality in the Bronx River Estuary. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A material with promising properties
(University of Konstanz) The Collaborative Research Centre CRC 1214 at the University of Konstanz has developed a method for synthesizing Europium (II) oxide nanoparticles -- a ferromagnetic semiconductor that is relevant for data storage and data transport. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Felling pines: Doing it sooner rather than later is better for fynbos
(Stellenbosch University) Here's some advice for landowners wanting to remove pine trees in the hope of seeing fynbos plants on their properties again: do so before the trees have grown there for more than 30 years. The longer they wait, the less likely the chances that any fynbos seeds will be left in the soil to sprout successfully, according to researchers from Stellenbosch University and the City of Cape Town, in the South African Journal of Botany. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Strong hosts help parasites spread farther
(Hokkaido University) Large, physically strong Masu salmon disperse farther when infected with parasites, potentially escaping from further infections at the contaminated site but ironically resulting in the greater expansion of the parasite, according to Hokkaido University researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

AAAS announces animal and avian sciences professor Iqbal Hamza as a 2017 Fellow
(University of Maryland) Dr. Iqbal Hamza of the University of Maryland has been named a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Election as an AAAS Fellow is an honor bestowed upon AAAS members by their peers. Dr. Hamza was elected for groundbreaking discoveries and distinguished contributions on the biochemical and cell biology mechanisms underlying heme and iron trafficking and their regulation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Bacteria as pacemaker for the intestine
(Kiel University) For the first time, a research team from the Cell and Developmental Biology (Bosch AG) working group at the Zoological Institute at Kiel University (CAU) has been able to prove that the bacterial colonisation of the intestine plays an important role in controlling peristaltic functions. The scientists published their results yesterday -- derived from the example of freshwater polyps Hydra -- in the latest issue of Scientific Reports. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Plague likely a Stone Age arrival to central Europe
(Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History) A team of researchers led by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History has sequenced the first six European genomes of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis dating from the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (4,800 to 3,700 years ago). Analysis of these samples, published in Current Biology, suggests that the Stone Age Plague entered Europe during the Neolithic with a large-scale migration of people from the Eurasian steppe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Do birdsong and human speech share biological roots?
(McGill University) Do songbirds and humans have common biological hardwiring that shapes how they produce and perceive sounds? Scientists who study birdsong have been intrigued for some time by the possibility that human speech and music may be rooted in biological processes shared across a variety of animals. Now, research by McGill University biologists provides new evidence to support this idea. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 22, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Worldwide increase in methane bubbles due to climate change
(Radboud University Nijmegen) Due to climate change, including rising temperatures, more and more methane is bubbling up from lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands throughout the world. The release of methane -- a potent greenhouse gas -- leads to a further increase in temperature, thus creating a positive feedback loop (also known as a 'vicious circle'). This is the conclusion of a team of biologists led by Radboud University in an article published in Nature Communications on Nov. 22. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Managing antibiotics not enough to reverse resistance
(Duke University) Researchers at Duke University have discovered that reducing the use of antibiotics will not be enough to reverse the growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance because bacteria are able to share the ability to fight antibiotics by swapping genes between species. They also show, however, that there are ways to disrupt the gene-sharing process and perhaps reverse antibiotic resistance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Alzheimer's Tau protein forms toxic complexes with cell membranes
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) Alzheimer's disease is caused by tangles in the brain made up of malfunctioning aggregated Tau proteins. Scientists at EPFL have discovered a new toxic form of Tau that forms as a result of its interaction with cell membranes. The research is published in Nature Communications and provides novel insights into possible mechanisms by which this protein moves in the brain and kills neurons. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Species may appear deceptively resilient to climate change
(University of California - Davis) Natural habitats play a vital role in helping other plants and animals resist heat stresses ramping up with climate change -- at least until the species they depend on to form those habitats become imperiled. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Penn team constructs whole-brain map of electrical connections key to forming memories
(University of Pennsylvania) A team of neuroscientists at the University of Pennsylvania has constructed the first whole-brain map of electrical connectivity in the brain based on data from nearly 300 neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted directly on the brain. The researchers found that low-frequency rhythms of brain activity, when brain waves move up and down slowly, primarily drive communication between the frontal, temporal and medial temporal lobes, key brain regions that engage during memory processing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Better drug design: bioengineering and chemical synthesis duo
The EU-funded SWEETOOLS project aims to improve our understanding of the role of sugars in human biology. Exploring optimised versions of biosynthesised proteins combined with chemically synthesised drugs could help the development of novel biomedicines and vaccines targeting, for example, influenza. (Source: EUROPA - Research Information Centre)
Source: EUROPA - Research Information Centre - November 22, 2017 Category: Research Source Type: news

Schooling fish mainly react to one or two neighbours at a time
New research has shown schooling fish constantly change who they decide to pay attention to and respond to one or two neighbours at a time. The study, published in PLOS Computational Biology, developed a new method combining behavioural analyses with a computer model to map the chain of direct interactions in a school of fish. The international research team, that includes the University of Bristol, found individual fish pay attention to its neighbours when the school moves together. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - November 21, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Research; Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, School of Computer Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, and Engineering Maths, Faculty of Engineering, School of Computer Science, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, and Engineering Source Type: news

Refining pesticides to kill pests, not bees
(Michigan State University) Researchers at Michigan State University's entomology department have unlocked a key to maintain the insecticide's effectiveness in eliminating pests without killing beneficial bugs, such as bees. The study, featured in the current issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that molecular tweaks can make the difference. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTA detects pathogenic bacteria in Texas groundwater near natural gas extraction sites
(University of Texas at Arlington) Three new research studies from the University of Texas at Arlington have found harmful pathogenic bacteria in Texas groundwater near unconventional natural gas extraction sites. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Corn genetics research exposes mechanism behind traits becoming silent
(Penn State) For more than a century, plant geneticists have been studying maize as a model system to understand the rules governing the inheritance of traits, and a team of researchers recently unveiled a previously unknown mechanism that triggers gene silencing in corn. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Six USC professors named fellows of esteemed scientific society
(University of Southern California) Five USC scientists and one Keck School of Medicine of USC physician have been elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, an honor awarded to AAAS members by their peers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hooked on aquaponics
(University of Pittsburgh) The Aquaponics Project, a University of Pittsburgh student group bent on sustainable urban farming, won the grand prize of $10,000 and a Ford Connect Transit Van at the 10th Annual Ford College Community Challenge to support their efforts to provide Pittsburghers with fresh, locally grown food. The Pitt team received an additional $25,000 for finishing in the top 10. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A neuroimaging project by INRS professor Jinyang Liang
(Institut national de la recherche scientifique - INRS) Real-time mapping of neuronal activity through neural imaging is an emerging, non-invasive approach and a wonderful scientific and technological challenge. INRS professor Jinyang Liang has designed an ultrafast, highly sensitive imaging microscope to study living animals. For this exceptional project, he was chosen from among 750 applicants as the winner of the Edmund Optics Americas Gold Award. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NSF-funded scientists to present on long-term ecological research
(National Science Foundation) The thin veneer of Earth's surface that stretches from the top of the forest canopy to the base of bedrock is known as the 'critical zone.' It's where fresh water flows, rock turns to soil and life flourishes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Turtles & technology advance understanding of lung abnormality
(Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center) A study of an unusual snapping turtle with one lung found shared characteristics with humans born with one lung who survive beyond infancy. Digital 3-D anatomical models created by Emma Schachner, PhD, Assistant Professor of Cell Biology& Anatomy at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, made the detailed research possible. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - November 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Report highlights opportunities and risks associated with synthetic biology and bioengineering
(University of Cambridge) Human genome editing, 3-D-printed replacement organs and artificial photosynthesis - the field of bioengineering offers great promise for tackling the major challenges that face our society. But as a new article out today highlights, these developments provide both opportunities and risks in the short and long term. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers identify how bacterium survives in oxygen-poor environments
(Columbia University) Columbia University biologists have revealed a mechanism by which bacterial cells in crowded, oxygen-deprived environments access oxygen for energy production, ensuring survival of the cell. The finding could explain how some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), are able to thrive in oxygen-poor environments like biofilms and resist antibiotics. P. aeruginosa biofilm infections are a leading cause of death for people suffering from cystic fibrosis, a genetic condition that affects the lungs and the digestive system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 21, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Disordered eating among young adults found to have long-term negative health effects
(University of Helsinki) According to a recent University of Helsinki study, disordered eating among young adults has long-term effects on their health. Disordered eating among 24-year-old women and men was an indicator of higher body weight, larger waist circumference and lower psychological wellbeing as well as a lower self-evaluation of general health both at age 24 and ten years later. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A model by which plants adapt their photosynthetic metabolism to light intensity
(University of Seville) A new model explains the molecular mechanism used by plants to adapt their photosynthetic mechanism to light intensity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

RNG105/caprin1 is essential for long-term memory formation
(National Institutes of Natural Sciences) The research group of Associate Professor Nobuyuki Shiina of the National Institute for Basic Biology have revealed that the function of RNG105 (aka Caprin1) is essential for the formation of long-term memory. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ice shapes the landslide landscape on Mars
(Springer) How good is your Martian geography? In a new research paper published in EPJ Plus, Fabio De Blasio and colleagues from Milano-Bicocca University, Italy, explain the extent to which ice may have been an important medium of lubrication for landslides on Mars. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Alcohol: It is time for a debate without prejudice in Europe
(Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed I.R.C.C.S.) To outline solid scientific bases on the relationship between health and alcohol consumption in moderation, to increase awareness and to fight against excesses. These are the goals of " Moderate Consumption of Alcohol in a Balanced Lifestyle " meeting, to be held in Brussels on Wednesday November 29, starting at 8 am. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study calculates contribution of risk factors to cancer in the United States
(American Cancer Society) A new American Cancer Society study calculates the contribution of several modifiable risk factors to cancer occurrence, expanding and clarifying the role of known risk factors, from smoking to low consumption of fruits and vegetables. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A chicken-flavored electrolyte drink could help sniffer dogs stay hydrated
(Frontiers) The first comparison of plain water, electrolyte injections and a chicken-flavored electrolyte drink as techniques for keeping sniffer dogs hydrated when working in hot weather finds that while all are safe and effective, dogs drink more and are more hydrated when given a chicken-flavored electrolyte drink. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

On a roll: blue whales switch 'handedness' when rolling to scoop food
Blue whales show ‘lateralisation’ – like handedness in humans – when rolling, choosing left or right depending on depth and type of rollThey are the largest animals on Earth, can live to around 90 years old and have a tongue that weighs as much as an elephant. Now scientists have revealed another insight into blue whales: how they roll.A study has found that blue whales have a tendency to roll to one side or the other when lunging for prey, with the preference apparently down to the depth of the water and the type of roll they execute.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - November 20, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Nicola Davis Tags: Animal behaviour Whales Cetaceans Marine life Environment Biology Science Source Type: news

Another danger sign for coral reefs: Substitute symbiont falls short
(Oregon State University) For reef-building corals, not just any symbiotic algae will do, new research shows. The findings are important because they amount to another danger sign for the world's coral reefs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Robotic device tracks plant growth at the cellular level
(American Society of Plant Biologists) Determining how various treatments and conditions affect the mechanical properties of plant cells could allow scientists to understand plant growth at the cellular level and devise ways to enhance it. In a breakthrough report published in The Plant Cell, a team of researchers introduces an innovative robotic tool that measures the mechanical properties of plant cells with cellular resolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Latest crop improvement technology coming to Texas A & M AgriLife
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) Texas A&M AgriLife Research is investing in the future of rapid crop design with improved traits through the deployment of two new labs and a half-million dollar seed grant program to jump-start the process. 'We are pleased to announce a new funding opportunity that focuses on building a pipeline for genome editing in agriculturally important crops in Texas and beyond,' said Dr. Bill McCutchen, executive associate director of AgriLife Research, College Station (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Ten UCI researchers named AAAS fellows
(University of California - Irvine) Ten University of California, Irvine researchers in areas ranging from engineering and computer science to evolutionary biology and physical sciences have been named fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - November 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Preclinical study demonstrates promising treatment for rare bone disease
(Sanford-Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Researchers at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) have led a preclinical study demonstrating that the drug palovarotene suppresses the formation of bony tumors (osteochondromas) in models of multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE). The research, published in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, is an important step toward an effective pharmacological treatment for MHE, a rare genetic condition that affects about 1 in 50,000 people worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Genome sequencing reveals extensive inbreeding in Scandinavian wolves
(Uppsala University) Researchers from Uppsala University and others have for the first time determined the full genetic consequences of intense inbreeding in a threatened species. The large-scale genomic study of the Scandinavian wolf population is reported in Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PSU researchers design survey to tap students' motivation in STEM
(Portland State University) Researchers at Portland State University are learning more about undergraduates' experience in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) classes and sharing a set of survey questions that will help researchers and educators at other universities do the same. This survey was developed by a team of researchers in PSU's STEM Equity and Education Institute with the help of instructors in chemistry, biology and physics. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Rice University scientists named AAAS Fellows
(Rice University) Rice University professors Janet Braam and Jos é Onuchic have been named fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the world's largest general scientific society. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University of Tennessee associate dean named ASA Fellow
(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) The associate dean for academic affairs at the University of Tennessee College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, John C. Stier, has been named a Fellow in the American Society of Agronomy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 20, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: news