Visualizing the interconnections among climate risks
(National Institute for Environmental Studies) Climate change affects multiple sectors in virtually every part of the world. Impacts on one sector may influence other sectors, which we call 'interconnections of climate risks'. Our easy-to-understand risk maps and flowcharts show how changes in climate impact natural and socio-economic systems, ultimately affecting human security, health, and well-being. Our methodology can be used as a communication tool to inform decision makers, stakeholders, and the public about the cascading risks triggered by climate change. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

India's child nutrition program sees higher utilization, but fewer gains in high-burden states
(International Food Policy Research Institute) Expansion and utilization of one of India's largest government-run community-based nutrition programs increased significantly between 2006 and 2016, especially among historically disadvantaged castes and tribes. But, women with low education and the poorest households are relatively more excluded from accessing program benefits. Among states too, while overall utilization has improved, high malnutrition states are relatively lagging. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A lipase-independent pathway of lipid release and immune modulation by adipocytes
To meet systemic metabolic needs, adipocytes release fatty acids and glycerol through the action of neutral lipases. Here, we describe a secondary pathway of lipid release from adipocytes that is independent of canonical lipolysis. We found that adipocytes release exosome-sized, lipid-filled vesicles (AdExos) that become a source of lipid for local macrophages. Adipose tissue from lean mice released ~1% of its lipid content per day via exosomes ex vivo, a rate that more than doubles in obese animals. AdExos and associated factors were sufficient to induce in vitro differentiation of bone marrow precursors into adipose tiss...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Flaherty, S. E., Grijalva, A., Xu, X., Ables, E., Nomani, A., Ferrante, A. W. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology reports Source Type: news

Glutamate signaling at cytoneme synapses
We investigated the roles of components of neuronal synapses for development of the Drosophila air sac primordium (ASP). The ASP, an epithelial tube, extends specialized signaling filopodia called cytonemes that take up signals such as Dpp (Decapentaplegic, a homolog of the vertebrate bone morphogenetic protein) from the wing imaginal disc. Dpp signaling in the ASP was compromised if disc cells lacked Synaptobrevin and Synaptotagmin-1 (which function in vesicle transport at neuronal synapses), the glutamate transporter, and a voltage-gated calcium channel, or if ASP cells lacked Synaptotagmin-4 or the glutamate receptor Gl...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Huang, H., Liu, S., Kornberg, T. B. Tags: Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Cytoneme signaling in fly development
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Exosomes that fatten immune cells
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kiberstis, P. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology twis Source Type: news

Scientists stunned by discovery of 'semi-identical' twins
Boy and girl, now four, are only the second case of ‘sesquizygotic’ twins recordedA pair of twins have stunned researchers after it emerged that they are neither identical nor fraternal – but something in between.The team say the boy and girl, now four years old, are the second case of semi-identical twins ever recorded, and the first to be spotted while the mother was pregnant.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 27, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nicola Davis Tags: Reproduction Biology Health Science Children Source Type: news

This Is the Best Time of Day to Work Out, According to Science
Finding time to exercise can be challenging, and the most important thing is to squeeze in any amount of it whenever you can. But if you want to optimize your workouts to get the widest range of benefits, you might want to try exercising in the morning. Here’s what the science says about the best time of day to exercise — and what to expect if you opt for later workouts. Morning workouts have an edge Working out in the morning — especially on an empty stomach — is the best way to burn stored fat, making it ideal for weight loss. That’s largely because the body’s hormonal composition in t...
Source: TIME: Health - February 27, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jamie Ducharme Tags: Uncategorized Exercise/Fitness healthytime Source Type: news

Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men?
The numbers don’t lie: women tend to live longer than men. The average American man will live to age 76, according to the latest CDC figures, while the average woman in America will live to age 81. And a woman’s extra years tend to be healthy ones. The World Health Organization’s HALE index, which calculates the number of years a man or woman can expect to live without a major disease or injury, finds that American men can look forward to 67 healthy years, while American women will enjoy 70 years of “full heath.” This male-female lifespan gap is not a new phenomenon; experts have known about i...
Source: TIME: Health - February 27, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Markham Heid Tags: Uncategorized Longevity Research Source Type: news

Getting to the core of underwater soil
(American Society of Agronomy) Soils all over the Earth's surface are rigorously tested and managed. But what about soils that are down in the murky depths? Some scientists are working to get them the recognition and research they deserve. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover cell mechanism that delays and repairs DNA damage that can lead to cancer
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) Researchers from the University of Copenhagen have identified a specific mechanism that protects our cells from natural DNA errors -- an 'enemy within' -- which could permanently damage our genetic code and lead to diseases such as cancer. The study has just been published in one of the most influential scientific journals, Nature Cell Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 27, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Using histones as bait: How do cells decide how to repair their DNA?
(Helmholtz Zentrum M ü nchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health) When DNA in the cell nucleus gets damaged, our cells can resort to a variety of repair mechanisms. A recent study published in 'Nature Cell Biology', to which scientists from Helmholtz Zentrum M ü nchen made major contributions, elucidates the molecular basis by which a cell makes the choice between these repair mechanisms. The trick the scientists used: they developed a molecular bait to literally fish out the relevant proteins from the cell nucleus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 27, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Thirty years of fast food: Greater variety, but more salt, larger portions, and added calories
(Elsevier) Despite the addition of some healthful menu items, fast food is even more unhealthy for you than it was 30 years ago. An analysis of the offerings at 10 of the most popular US fast-food restaurants in 1986, 1991, and 2016, published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, demonstrates that fast-food entrees, sides, and desserts increased significantly in calories and sodium and entrees and desserts in portion size over time. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A new method for precision drug delivery: Painting
(Washington University in St. Louis) Researchers from the McKelvey School of Engineering and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis are one step closer to delivering precise amounts of medication to exact location, repurposing an existing imaging " painting " method. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Toxic byproducts of Agent Orange continue to pollute Vietnam environment, study says
(University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences) During the Vietnam War, United States aircraft sprayed more than 20 million gallons of herbicides, including dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, on the country's rain forests, wetlands, and croplands. A new article from the University of Illinois and Iowa State University documents the environmental legacy of Agent Orange in Vietnam, including hotspots where dioxin continues to enter the food supply. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Capturing carbon from the air
(American Chemical Society) Climate scientists predict disastrous consequences if greenhouse gases continue to accumulate at ever-increasing rates. Experts agree that any solution will require drastic reductions in emissions from sources such as automobiles and coal-fueled power plants. But according to an article in Chemical& Engineering News (C&EN), the weekly newsmagazine of the American Chemical Society, negative-emission technologies (NETs) that remove carbon dioxide from the air could also help mitigate the problem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NASA tracks a weaker Typhoon Wutip through northwestern Pacific
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Visible imagery from NASA's Terra satellite showed that Typhoon Wutip has become more elongated as a result of wind shear. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers determine how nerve fibers enter spinal cord during early development
(University of Notre Dame) New research from Notre Dame could lead to regenerative therapies for people with injuries to their brachial plexus, a group of nerves that starts at the spinal cord and goes into the arm. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

2019 American Ornithological Society award winners announced
(American Ornithological Society Publications Office) Every year, the American Ornithological Society presents a range of awards honoring members for their stellar contributions to science and their impactful service to the organization. The 2019 recipients will accept their awards at the annual AOS meeting in Anchorage, Alaska, this June. Their work spans the full breadth of avian science, including contributions to evolution, conservation, systematics, and genetics, as well to the profession of ornithology itself. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

What controls the tips of our chromosomes?
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) The tips of our chromosomes have structures called telomeres that prevent our genetic material from unfolding. When they do not work properly, it can lead to the total erosion of our genetic material and can trigger cancer and age-related diseases. In a study now published in EMBO Journal, a research team from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ci ê ncia (IGC; Portugal), led by Jose Escandell and Miguel Godinho Ferreira, discovered a key aspect of the regulation of telomeres. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How fungi influence global plant colonisation
(University of G ö ttingen) The symbiosis of plants and fungi has a great influence on the worldwide spread of plant species. In some cases, it even acts like a filter. This has been discovered by an international team of researchers with participation from the University of G ö ttingen. The results appeared in the journal Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A water-splitting catalyst unlike any other
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) EPFL chemists have developed a new iron-nickel oxide catalyst for water splitting, the reaction that produces hydrogen fuel. The patent-pending catalyst shows significantly higher activity in the oxygen-evolution part of reaction than conventional nickel iron oxide catalysts. The work is now published in ACS Central Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New research gives insight into warding off insect pests by way of nematode odors
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) A recent study revealed insect-killing nematodes also produce distinctive chemical cues that enhance plant defenses and deter Colorado potato beetles.Entomologists from Texas A&M University, including Dr. Anjel Helms, who led the study, and Penn State University took a look at whether Colorado potato beetles and potato plants responded to the presence of entomopathogenic nematodes, EPNs, or insect-killing nematodes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New buzz around insect DNA analysis and biodiversity estimates
(Ecological Society of America) Researchers on the remote forested island of Hauturu, New Zealand have compiled a staggering inventory of invertebrate biodiversity using DNA sequencing, adding a significant number of invertebrates to GenBank - an open access database of all publicly available DNA sequences. The results are published this week in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Technology assessment: Artificial intelligence in the medical sector
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) Decoding of the human genome still poses puzzles that might be solved with the help of artificial intelligence. New therapeutic approaches to treating severe diseases appear possible as do non-medical 'improvements' of the genetic material. With funds of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, technology assessment experts of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology study which applications are realistic and which ethical issues they may entail. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Directed evolution builds nanoparticles
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) Directed evolution is a powerful technique for engineering proteins. EPFL scientists now show that it can also be used to engineer synthetic nanoparticles as optical biosensors, which are used widely in biology, drug development, and even medical diagnostics such as real-time monitoring of glucose. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Crop residue burning is a major contributor to air pollution in South Asia
(Stockholm University) Urban emissions of black carbon from fossil fuel combustion are not always the main contributor to severe air pollution in south Asian megacities like New Delhi, shows a new study by researchers from Stockholm University and the Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology, published in the journal Nature Sustainability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Improving ecosystems with aquatic plants
This study attempts to determine what methods would effectively benefit the large-scale production of aquatic plants as a possible resource of bolstering the improvement of the ecosystems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The trials of turfgrass breeders
(American Society for Horticultural Science) In the United States, turfgrasses occupy 1.9 percent of the continental surface and cover an area three times larger than any irrigated crop. Turfgrasses provide functional benefits such as water quality protection, soil erosion control, and water microclimate moderation. To fulfill the needs of consumers and to contribute to environmental sustainability, turfgrass breeding programs evaluate, develop, and introduce turfgrasses with superior traits. Various turfgrass species have been assessed for pest and disease resistance, climatic region adaptation, drought tolerance, and red...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Chelated calcium benefits poinsettias
This study identifies treatments that will best benefit these ornamentals during transit to improve point-of-sale presentation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Light wakes up freshwater bacteria
(University of Delaware) Some of the bacteria that live in ponds grow faster during the day, even if they don't take in sunlight as an energy source, suggesting the existence of special genes that absorb light. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Montana State team discovers 'incredibly' diverse microbial community high in Yellowstone
(Montana State University) Montana State University researchers Dan Colman and Eric Boyd published their findings from a Smoke Jumper Geyser Basin hot spring in the journal Nature Communications earlier this month. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Return of the wolves: How deer escape tactics help save their lives
(University of Washington) As gray wolves return to Washington state, a new study finds that one species of deer is changing its behavior to spend more time away from roads, at higher elevations and in rockier landscapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Jumping spider mimics two kinds of ants as it grows
(University of Cincinnati) Spiders that pretend to be ants to fool predators have an unusual problem when it comes to sex. How do they get the attention of potential mates without breaking character to birds that want to eat them? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How fungi influence global plant colonization
(University of G ö ttingen) The symbiosis of plants and fungi has a great influence on the worldwide spread of plant species. In some cases, it even acts like a filter. This has been discovered by an international team of researchers with participation from the University of G ö ttingen. The results appeared in the journal Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study indicates early-term infants can succeed at breastfeeding
(University of British Columbia Okanagan campus) Researchers have determined that healthy premature babies can have as much success breastfeeding as full-term babies.The study, conducted by researchers at UBC Okanagan's School of Nursing and the University of Hong Kong, involved 2,700 pairs of mothers and infants and included two different survey groups -- one in 2006/07 and another in 2011/12. The mother-infant pairs were monitored from birth to 12 months or until breastfeeding ceased. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UCI researcher awarded nearly $4 million to study neurological disorders including epilepsy
(University of California - Irvine) University of California, Irvine School of Medicine researcher Geoff Abbott, PhD, has been awarded a $2 million Outstanding Investigator Award/Maximizing Investigators' Research Award (MIRA) R35 grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and a $1.7 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Maasai farmers only kill lions when they attack livestock
(University of Exeter) Maasai farmers do not kill lions for retribution whenever they lose sheep or cattle, new research shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases risk of ADHD among offspring up to 3-fold
(University of Turku) The higher the cotinine levels were in the mother's blood during pregnancy, the greater was the child's risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in life, showed an epidemiological study conducted by the Research Centre for Child Psychiatry at the University of Turku, Finland. Globally, it is the first study in which the connection between fetal nicotine exposure and diagnosis of ADHD was shown by measuring cotinine levels from pregnant maternal serum specimens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New clue for cancer treatment could be hiding in microscopic molecular machine
(Florida State University) Researchers have discovered a critical missing step in the production of proteasomes -- tiny structures in a cell that dispose of protein waste -- and found that carefully targeted manipulation of this step could prove an effective recourse for the treatment of cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climbing like ivy
(University of Freiburg) The project 'GrowBot' is developing plant-inspired robots. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Right- or left-handed? Gene expression tells the story of snail evolution
(Shinshu University) Snails, like humans, can be right-handed or left-handed and the swirl etched into the shell of a snail can reveal a lot about them, down to their genetic makeup. Researchers from Shinshu University and the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan have found that the gene influencing the direction of the shell coil may also offer insight into the evolution of snails overall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New consolidated bio-saccharification technique for lignocellulose conversion developed
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) A research group from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed a novel strategy for cost-efficient lignocellulose conversion. Known as consolidated bio-saccharification, it combines cellulase production and hydrolysis, while separating fermentation from the integrated process by taking fermentable sugar as the target product to couple various downstream fermentation processes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists simulate forest and fire dynamics to understand area burn of future wildfires
(University of New Mexico) Scientists, including Matthew Hurteau in the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, are examining more data via simulations of wildfires in the Sierra Nevada to improve their understanding between prior and future wildfires. They hypothesized that prior wildfires and their influence on vegetation, coupled with a changing climate and its influence on vegetation recovery after a wildfire, would likely restrict the size of wildfires in the future. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Understanding the rich social lives of animals benefits international conservation efforts
(University of Exeter) An international group of researchers working on a wide range of species, from elephants and crows, to whales and chimpanzees, argues that animals' cultural knowledge needs to be taken into consideration when planning international conservation efforts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Nematode odors offer possible advantage in the battle against insect pests
(British Ecological Society) Gardeners commonly use nematodes to naturally get rid of harmful soil-dwelling insects. A new study published today in the journal Functional Ecology revealed that these insect-killing nematodes also produce distinctive chemical cues, which deter Colorado potato beetles and make potato leaves less palatable to them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When temperatures drop, Siberian Miscanthus plants surpass main bioenergy variety
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Miscanthus is a popular, sustainable, perennial feedstock for bioenergy production that thrives on marginal land in temperate regions. A new study in GCB Bioenergy assessed Miscanthus collected on a Siberian expedition to identify three Miscanthus plants with exceptional photosynthetic performance in chilling temperatures that outstrip the industry favorite by as much as 100 percent. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

FASEB Journal: Study suggests novel biomarker for predicting AFib progression
(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) A human study published in The FASEB Journal suggests a novel type of biomarker to predict the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common form of irregular heart rhythm. Despite inconsistent evidence to date, one idea that has surfaced is that AF may be regulated by alterations in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate cell-to-cell communication. If this hypothesis were correct, by better understanding such alterations, scientists could potentially monitor the progression of heart disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Radiation-resistant E. coli evolved in the lab give view into DNA repair
(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Scientists in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Biochemistry are blasting E. coli bacteria with ionizing radiation once a week to watch evolution happen in real time as the bacteria become radiation resistant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers identify how the bacterial replicative helicase opens to start DNA replication process
(Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY) Researchers have identified the mechanism used by the helicase ring to thread around and separate entwined DNA strands in the replication process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news