Dry conditions in East Africa half a million years ago possibly shaped human evolution, study finds
(Georgia State University) Samples of ancient sediments from a lake basin in East Africa have revealed that arid conditions developed in the area around half a million years ago, an environmental change that could have played a major role in human evolution and influenced advances in stone technology, according to an international research team that includes geologists from Georgia State University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study uncovers new link between neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and bumblebee decline
(Worcester Polytechnic Institute) Adding to evidence that pesticide use may be abetting the decline of bumblebee, a new study reveals that daily consumption of even small doses of neonicotinoids reduces the survival of queen and male bees, which are critical to the viability of wild populations. The study also found that exposure to neonicotinoids alters the expression of many bee genes, suggesting that the chemicals may be having a greater impact on wild bee populations than previously thought. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Substantial changes in air pollution across China during 2015 to 2017
(University of Leeds) The first detailed analysis of air pollution trends in China reveals a 20 per cent drop in concentrations of particulate pollution over the last three years (2015-2017). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evolution is everywhere
(Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) Human Evolution Beyond Biology and Culture: Evolutionary Social, Environmental and Policy Sciences (Cambridge University Press, October 2018) is a new book written by ICREA Research Professor Jeroen van den Bergh of at ICTA-UAB. It offers a complete account of evolutionary thinking in the social, environmental and policy sciences, while creating bridges with biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Bone cell response to mechanical force is balance of injury and repair
(eLife) Scientists have revealed the intricate process that bone cells use to repair themselves after mechanical injury. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Novel method for precise, controllable cell deposition onto tissue engineering constructs
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A new study presents a novel method of using a microfluidic flow cell array to achieve precise and reproducible control of cell deposition onto engineered tissue constructs to produce tunable cell patterns and generate essential integration zones. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Breakthrough Prize to CSHL professor for SMA research
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) Professor Adrian Krainer has received the 2019 Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences for his work on the first FDA-approved treatment of SMA. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

World Heritage Sites threatened by rising sea levels
(Kiel University) In the Mediterranean region, there are numerous UNESCO World Heritage Sites in low-lying coastal areas. In the course of the 21st century, these sites will increasingly be at risk by storm surges and increasing coastal erosion due to sea-level rise. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New imaging tool captures how sound moves through the chinchilla ear
(The Optical Society) Researchers have developed a new device that can be used to visualize how sound-induced vibrations travel through the ear. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study documents paternal transmission of epigenetic memory via sperm
(University of California - Santa Cruz) Studies of human populations and animal models suggest that a father's experiences such as diet or environmental stress can influence the health and development of his descendants. How these effects are transmitted across generations, however, remains mysterious. A new study in the roundworm C. elegans documents the transmission via sperm of epigenetic marks that are both necessary and sufficient to guide proper development of germ cells in the offspring. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Are microplastics in the environment truly harmful?
(Wiley) Investigators who analyzed the published literature have found significant gaps in our understanding of the effects of microplastics -- plastic particles less than 5mm in size -- in the environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UNH researchers say winter ticks killing moose at alarming rate
(University of New Hampshire) Researchers at the University of New Hampshire have found that the swell of infestations of winter ticks -- which attach themselves to moose during the fall and feed throughout the winter -- is the primary cause of an unprecedented 70 percent death rate of calves over a three-year period. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Penetrating the soil's surface with radar
(American Society of Agronomy) Ground penetrating radar measures the amount of moisture in soil quickly and easily. Researchers' calculations from the data informs agricultural water use and climate models. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ERS Genomics and Syngulon Sign License Agreement on CRISPR-Cas9 Genome...
ERS Genomics Ltd and Syngulon, a synthetic biology startup developing original genetic technologies using bacteriocins, announced today a non-exclusive license agreement which provides Syngulon with...(PRWeb October 17, 2018)Read the full story at https://www.prweb.com/releases/ers_genomics_and_syngulon_sign_license_agreement_on_crispr_cas9_genome_editing_patents_for_industrial_applications/prweb15840777.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals - October 17, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Enhance your Interdisciplinary and Team Science Skills
Reports abound from professional societies, the Academies, government agencies, and researchers calling attention to the fact that science is increasingly an inter-disciplinary, transdisciplinary, inter-institutional, and international endeavor. In short, science has become a “team sport.” There is a real and present need to better prepare scientists for success in this new collaborative environment. The American Institute of Biological Sciences is responding to this call with a new program for scientists, educators, and individuals who work with or participate in scientific teams. Team science is increasingl...
Source: Public Policy Reports - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: AIBS Source Type: news

Last Chance to Enter the 2018 Faces of Biology Photo Contest
Enter the Faces of Biology Photo Contest for your chance to win $250 and to have your photo appear on the cover of the journal BioScience. The competition, sponsored by the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS), recognizes scientists who use imagery to communicate aspects of biological research to the public and policymakers. The theme of the contest is “Faces of Biology.” Photographs entered into the competition must depict a person, such as a scientist, researcher, technician, collections curator, or student, engaging in biological research. The research may occur outside, in a lab, with a natura...
Source: Public Policy Reports - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: AIBS Source Type: news

Teleflex, Arcis enter agreement for cancer diagnostics
Cancer-detection company Arcis Biotechnology said today it has signed an agreement allowing Teleflex (NYSE:TFX) to use Arcis’ advanced nucleic acid sample preparation chemistry in the development of a novel technology. Daresbury, England-based Arcis’ diagnostics use a two-step nucleic acid extraction and preservation technology. The company said it has an extensive patent portfolio covering DNA and RNA extraction and preservation for downstream processing by qPCR, RT-qPCR and sequencing in under three minutes. The platform may be used for point-of-care, microfluidics or field-based testing, and supports both co...
Source: Mass Device - October 16, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Nancy Crotti Tags: Business/Financial News Diagnostics Featured Oncology arcisbiotechnology Teleflex Source Type: news

Just how blind are bats? Color vision gene study examines key sensory tradeoffs
(Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press)) Could bats' cave-dwelling nocturnal habits over eons enhanced their echolocation acoustic abilities, but also spurred their loss of vision?A new study led by Bruno Sim õ es, Emma Teeling and colleagues has examined this question in the evolution of color vision genes across a large and diverse group of bat species. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UMBC researchers develop new method to address deep-seated biases in science
(University of Maryland Baltimore County) A new statistical method that tests for equivalence, rather than difference, has a role to play in dismantling gender and publication biases in science. The authors believe the technique has broad applicability across disciplines and can help remove publication bias against " negative results, " opening the door to a broader investigation of natural phenomena. The paper includes an example of the technique's use in a study comparing the structure of male and female Eastern Bluebird songs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Letting nature take its course: Wolves in Yellowstone National Park
(University of Alberta) Since the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park in 1995, the park's ecosystem has become a deeply complex and heterogeneous system, aided by a strategy of minimal human intervention. The new study is a synthesis of 40 years of research on large mammals in Yellowstone National Park, conducted by University of Alberta ecologist Mark Boyce. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A bad influence: the interplay between tumor cells and immune cells
(Huntsman Cancer Institute) Research at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) yielded new insights into the environment surrounding different types of lung tumors, and described how these complex cell ecosystems may in turn ultimately affect response to treatment. The results were published today in Immunity and featured on the print cover of the journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Keeping food out of landfills
(University of Delaware) Getting food waste out of Delaware's landfills is the focus of this study, aimed at seeing how to scale up the efforts already underway at a UD Dining Hall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Forest carbon stocks have been overestimated for 50 years
(Cirad) A formula used to calculate basic wood density has recently been corrected. Basic density is widely used to compute carbon storage by trees. Researchers estimate that the error in the initial formula resulted in an overestimation of forest carbon stocks, to the tune of almost 5 percent. These results were published in the scientific journal American Journal of Botany on 16 October. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Drink (alcohol-free) beer and live for a hundred years
(University of Erlangen-Nuremberg) Ingredients in beer are claimed to combat inflammation and obesity? Researchers working with Prof. Dr. Claus Hellerbrand at the Institute of Biochemistry at Friedrich-Alexander-Universit ä t Erlangen-N ü rnberg (FAU), have received a grant worth 60,000 euros from the European Foundation for Alcohol Research and the European Brewery Convention for their research project investigating the anti-inflammatory properties of beer ingredients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate changes require better adaptation to drought
(Aarhus University) Europe's future climate will be characterised by more frequent heat waves and more widespread drought. Heat and drought will both challenge crop production, but drought in particular will be a problem -- especially for spring sown crops such as maize. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

3D imaging opens door to better understanding of fascinating leaf complexity
(University of Sydney) Leading biologists launch global rallying cry to overhaul theoretical models of carbon-water exchange and photosynthesis using 3D imaging. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Amount of weight regain after bariatric surgery helps predict health risks
(University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences) Measuring the percentage of weight regained following the maximum amount of weight lost after bariatric surgery can help predict a patient's risk of several serious health problems. The study also revealed that the rate of weight regained was highest in the first year following maximum weight loss. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Higher temperatures could help protect coral reefs
(Oxford University Press USA) A new study in the journal Behavioral Ecology suggests that higher water temperature, which increases the aggressiveness of some fish, could lead to better protection of some coral. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate models fail to simulate recent air-pressure changes over Greenland
(University of Lincoln) Climatologists may be unable to accurately predict regional climate change over the North Atlantic because computer simulations have failed to include real data from the Greenland region over the last three decades -- and it could lead to regional climate predictions for the UK and parts of Europe being inaccurate. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Convergence of VEGF and YAP/TAZ signaling: Implications for angiogenesis and cancer biology
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates endothelial cells to promote both developmental and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF also directly affects tumor cells and is associated with the initiation, progression, and recurrence of tumors, as well as the emergence and maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Studies have uncovered the importance of the transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ in mediating VEGF signaling. For example, VEGF stimulates the GTPase activity of Rho family members and thereby alters cytoskeletal dynamics, which contributes to the activation of YAP and TAZ. In turn, YAP- and TAZ-mediated ch...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Elaimy, A. L., Mercurio, A. M. Tags: STKE Reviews Source Type: news

New connections: VEGF beyond the vasculature
The growth factor VEGF promotes cancer-associated stem cell biology and pain, as well as angiogenesis. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ferrarelli, L. K. Tags: STKE Editors ' Choice Source Type: news

Do You Even Lift, Grandma? Why Older Adults Should Be Making Gains. It's More Than Just Bro Science
A former powerlifter and biologist says exercise, and in particular strength training, is “absolutely critical” for people as they age. And he says the science backs it up. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - October 15, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Robin Seaton Jefferson, Contributor Source Type: news

Memristive device as an active synapse
(Lobachevsky University) Biological neurons are coupled unidirectionally through a special junction called a synapse. An electrical signal is transmitted along a neuron after some biochemical reactions initiate a chemical release to activate an adjacent neuron. These junctions are crucial for cognitive functions, such as perception, learning and memory. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Parasites from medieval latrines unlock secrets of human history
(University of Oxford) A radical new approach combining archaeology, genetics and microscopy can reveal long-forgotten secrets of human diet, sanitation and movement from studying parasites in ancient poo, according to new Oxford University research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Unravelling the genetics of fungal fratricide
(Uppsala University) Selfish genes are genes that are passed on to the next generation but confer no advantage on the individual as a whole, and may sometimes be harmful. Researchers at Uppsala University have, for the first time, sequenced (or charted) two selfish genes in the fungus Neurospora intermedia that cause fungal spores to kill their siblings. Unexpectedly, the genes were not related to each other, perhaps indicating that selfish genes are more common than previously thought. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

PPR virus poses threat to conservation
(Wildlife Conservation Society) A team of conservationists from the Royal Veterinary College, WCS, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna published a letter in this week's edition of the journal Science on the threat of the virus peste des petits ruminants (PPR) to conservation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

MSU recipient of $3.2 million USDA grant for a better lentil crop
(Montana State University) The four-year grant will allow MSU Extension Plant Pathologist Mary Burrows to conduct a project with stakeholders across the Northern Great Plains investigating root rot and effective ways to prevent or overcome it. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Professor Karen Kasza wins Packard Fellowship
(Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science) Karen Kasza, Clare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, has won a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering for her research that 'explores how cells work together to build tissues and organs with diverse shapes and structures during embryonic development. The Kasza Lab uses novel approaches to uncover the fundamental physical and biological mechanisms of morphogenesis, aiming to learn from cells about new ways to engineer tissue and treat disease.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study reveals best use of wildflowers to benefit crops on farms
(Cornell University) For the first time, a Cornell University study of strawberry crops on New York farms tested this theory and found that wildflower strips on farms added pollinators when the farm lay within a " Goldilocks zone, " where 25 to 55 percent of the surrounding area contained natural lands. Outside this zone, flower plantings also drew more strawberry pests, while having no effect on wasps that kill those pests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study answers old questions about why tropical forests are so ecologically diverse
(Brown University) The population of a tropical tree increases mostly in places where it is rare, a Brown study found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sea snail shells dissolve in increasingly acidified oceans, study shows
(University of Plymouth) Shelled marine creatures living in increasingly acidified oceans face a fight for survival as the impacts of climate change spread, a new study suggests. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Some like it cryogenic
(DOE/Sandia National Laboratories) Sandia National Laboratories helped design the first generation of fueling stations for hydrogen-powered cars so that they're as safe as conventional gas stations. Now, Sandia is working to do the same for the next generation of hydrogen stations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The easy way may not be the best
(New York University) The steps cells take in response to challenges are more complex than previously thought, finds new research. The study investigates a system relevant to cancer, viral infection, and diabetes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Essays reveal Stephen Hawking predicted race of 'superhumans'
Physicist said genetic editing may create species that could destroy rest of humanityThe late physicist and author Prof Stephen Hawking has caused controversy by suggesting a new race of superhumans could develop from wealthy people choosing to edit their and their children ’s DNA.Hawking, the author of A Brief History of Time,who diedin March, made the predictions in a collection of articles and essays.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sarah Marsh Tags: Stephen Hawking UK news Science Genetics Biology Essays Books Source Type: news

Reproduction revolution: how our skin cells might be turned into sperm and eggs
Scientists may soon be able to create human sperm and eggs using ordinary cells – a boon for those with fertility problems that raises troubling ethical questionsForty years ago, couples suffering from infertility were given hope by the birth of Louise Brown, the first “test-tube baby”. But although millions of babies have now been born by IVF, the technique can offer no help to couples eager to have a child that is genetically theirs but who lack the eggs or sperm to make it: men whose testes produce no sperm, say, or women who have undergone surgery for ovar ian cancer. Some opt for donor eggs or sperm,...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Philip Ball Tags: Genetics Reproduction Fertility problems IVF Biology Science Health Society Source Type: news

UK Study Matches Mesothelioma Treatments to Genetic Profile
University of Leicester researchers soon will open the first molecularly stratified clinical trial for malignant mesothelioma with the hope of moving the future of treatment toward more personalization. The phase II trial in the United Kingdom is designed to match therapy with a patient’s specific genetic profile. “We’re trying to bring the right drug to the right patient at the right time,” Professor Dean Fennell, chair of thoracic medical oncology at Leicester and chief trial investigator, told Asbestos.com. “We need to find different treatments that work for different people. This is a step...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - October 12, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news

Digital contraceptives and period trackers: the rise of femtech
With market predicted to be worth $50bn by 2025, is women ’s health no longer being overlooked by tech? Digital contraceptive techniques have been on the receiving end of bad press recently after Swedish company Natural Cycles was described as “misleading” by the UK’s advertising body, and a number of women complained about becoming pregnant while relying on the app.But that hasn ’t stopped the industry from thriving, with the launch ofMoody Month, which tracks hormones and menstrual cycles , andFlo Health, an ovulation calculator, being valued at $200m in the same week, suggesting there is st...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Isabel Woodford Tags: Apps Technology Life and style Reproduction Science Biology Pregnancy Health & wellbeing Family Parents and parenting NHS Society Technology startups Source Type: news

A step in the right direction: could implants help people walk again? – Science Weekly podcast
Four people with paraplegia were recently implanted with electrodes in their lower backs. They all regained movement below their injuries, and two walked again. This weekNicola Davis investigates this technique – epidural stimulation – and other approaches for treating spinal cord injuriesJeff Marquis was spending his day off work on his bike on a mountain trail in Montana. After he landed a jump badly, he realised he could no longer move his legs. He was eventually diagnosed with a spinal cord injury, and doctors told him that he would never walk again.Fast-forward to 2018, and Marquis is now taking steps for ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Presented by Nicola Davis and produced by Geoff Marsh Tags: Science Medicine Stem cells Medical research Biology Source Type: news

An RNA key that unlocks innate immunity
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New research from Emory University, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, shows that a versatile RNA molecule may be a key player in human cells' frontline defenses against viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A new mechanism for how animal cells stay intact
(Stanford University) Watching the movement of every cell in an adult animal all at once, the Prakash lab discovered ultra-fast cellular contractions. This research suggests a new role for cellular contractions in tissue cohesion, which could be the basis of a new material. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - October 12, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news