Research identifies pathway connecting some ARV drugs with liver disease
(University of Kentucky) Research out of the University of Kentucky has identified a potential pathway by which certain ARV drugs -- commonly given to patients with HIV -- give rise to liver disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earth's largest extinction event likely took plants first
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) New evidence from the cliffsides of Australia suggests that Earth's largest extinction event -- a volcanic cataclysm occurring roughly 252 million years ago -- extinguished plant life long before many animal counterparts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Insilico Medicine to present on CXOTALK
(InSilico Medicine, Inc.) Alex Zhavoronkov, founder and CEO of Insilico Medicine, will go live on the CXOTalk show with a presentation about artificial intelligence for drug discovery. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change and infertility -- a ticking time bomb?
(University of Liverpool) Rising temperatures could make some species sterile and see them succumb to the effects of climate change earlier than currently thought, scientists at the University of Liverpool warn. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Membraneless protocells could provide clues to formation of early life
(Penn State) Membraneless protocells allow RNAs to participate in fundamental chemical reactions, providing clues to early steps in origin of life on earth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evolution, illustrated
(Harvard University) Led by Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Molecular and Cellular Biology Hopi Hoekstra, a team of international researchers conducted a years-long study that not only confirmed the intuition that light-colored mice survive better in light-colored habitats, and vice versa for dark-colored mice, but also allowed researchers to pinpoint a mutation related to survival, specifically that affects pigmentation, and understand exactly how the mutation produced a novel coat color. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Quantum sensors providing magnetic resonance with unprecedented sensitivity
(University of the Basque Country) A piece of work involving international collaboration and the participation of the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. The results of the research have been published in the prestigious interdisciplinary physics journal Physical Review Letters. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Salmon populations may adapt their eggs to survive in degraded rivers
(University of Southampton) A University of Southampton study suggests that the membrane of salmon eggs may evolve to cope with reduced oxygen levels in rivers, thereby helping their embryos to incubate successfully. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Leipzig researchers on Spanish Antarctic expedition
(Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS)) During the next weeks, a Spanish research expedition will investigate climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula. Two researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) are also be participating to investigate the influence of sugar compounds on cloud formation above the ocean. In January, the research vessel R/V Hesp é rides from Ushuaia in Argentina have set off for the PI-ICE expedition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Citizen scientists discover pinhead-sized beetle in Borneo
(Pensoft Publishers) No more than 10 curious non-professionals with a passion for nature is all it takes to find a new species of minute beetle in the tropical leaf litter, shows a recent expedition to the Ulu Temburong forest in Borneo. Published in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal, this is the latest discovery from Taxon Expeditions, an initiative that organizes regular scientific field trips to remote and biodiverse locations for teams of scientists and laypeople. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

High-dose radiation therapy improves long-term survival in patients with stage-IV cancers, trial finds
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) The first report from a phase II, multi-center clinical trial indicates that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy -- stereotactic radiation -- can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage-IV cancers while maintaining their quality of life. The study is published in the January issue of International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics (Red Journal), the flagship scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Bacteria promote lung tumor development, study suggests
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT cancer biologists have discovered a mechanism that lung tumors exploit to promote their own survival: The tumors alter bacterial populations within the lung, provoking the immune system to create an inflammatory environment that in turn helps the tumor cells to proliferate. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Factors in 'alarming rate' of cold-stranded sea turtles in Cape Cod Bay
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) The number of cold-stunning and stranding events among juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles, one of the world's most endangered species, is increasing at an 'alarming' rate and has moved north from Long Island Sound to Cape Cod Bay, say researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass Audubon and the University of Rhode Island. Their recent study looked into what variables are most important in predicting such events, to more effectively help the distressed reptiles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change could make corals go it alone
(University of Texas at Austin) Climate change is bad news for coral reefs around the world, with high ocean temperatures causing widespread bleaching events that weaken and kill corals. However, new research from the University of Texas at Austin has found that corals with a solitary streak -- preferring to live alone instead of in reef communities -- could fare better than their group-dwelling relatives. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Iguana-sized dinosaur cousin discovered in Antarctica
(University of Washington) Scientists have just discovered a dinosaur relative that lived in Antarctica 250 million years ago. The iguana-sized reptile's genus name, Antarctanax, means 'Antarctic king.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study reveals wildlife is abundant in Chernobyl
(University of Georgia) A scavenger study that used fish carcasses as bait provides additional evidence that wildlife is abundant in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study of brine discharge from desalination plant finds good news and bad news
(University of California - Santa Cruz) Before the Carlsbad Desalination Plant in Southern California began operations in 2015, scientists at UC Santa Cruz recognized an important opportunity to study the effects of the high-salinity brine that would be discharged from the plant into coastal waters. Their study shows that brine discharged from the plant raises offshore salinity levels more than permitted, but researchers found no direct local impacts on sea life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Chayotes can prevent and treat skin cancer
(Natural News) Chayote (Sechium edule) is an uncommon vegetable that belongs to the gourd family. Since it has a very mild flavor, it can be used in various dishes and cooked in different ways. According to a study, the versatile chayote can also be used to treat skin cancer. The study was conducted by biology students from Universitas... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - January 31, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Rhomboid distorts lipids to break the viscosity-imposed speed limit of membrane diffusion
Enzymes that cut proteins inside membranes regulate diverse cellular events, including cell signaling, homeostasis, and host-pathogen interactions. Adaptations that enable catalysis in this exceptional environment are poorly understood. We visualized single molecules of multiple rhomboid intramembrane proteases and unrelated proteins in living cells (human and Drosophila) and planar lipid bilayers. Notably, only rhomboid proteins were able to diffuse above the Saffman-Delbrück viscosity limit of the membrane. Hydrophobic mismatch with the irregularly shaped rhomboid fold distorted surrounding lipids and propelled rhomboi...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kreutzberger, A. J. B., Ji, M., Aaron, J., Mihaljevic, L., Urban, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Algae suggest eukaryotes get many gifts of bacteria DNA
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Cell Biology, Evolution In Depth Source Type: news

How natural selection affects mouse coat color
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Zahn, L. M. Tags: Evolution, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

How rhomboid proteases act so quickly
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice
Adaptive evolution in new or changing environments can be difficult to predict because the functional connections between genotype, phenotype, and fitness are complex. Here, we make these explicit connections by combining field and laboratory experiments in wild mice. We first directly estimate natural selection on pigmentation traits and an underlying pigment locus, Agouti, by using experimental enclosures of mice on different soil colors. Next, we show how a mutation in Agouti associated with survival causes lighter coat color through changes in its protein binding properties. Together, our findings demonstrate how a seq...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Barrett, R. D. H., Laurent, S., Mallarino, R., Pfeifer, S. P., Xu, C. C. Y., Foll, M., Wakamatsu, K., Duke-Cohan, J. S., Jensen, J. D., Hoekstra, H. E. Tags: Evolution, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

A sleep-inducing gene, nemuri, links sleep and immune function in Drosophila
Sleep remains a major mystery of biology. In particular, little is known about the mechanisms that account for the drive to sleep. In an unbiased screen of more than 12,000 Drosophila lines, we identified a single gene, nemuri, that induces sleep. The NEMURI protein is an antimicrobial peptide that can be secreted ectopically to drive prolonged sleep (with resistance to arousal) and to promote survival after infection. Loss of nemuri increased arousability during daily sleep and attenuated the acute increase in sleep induced by sleep deprivation or bacterial infection. Conditions that increase sleep drive induced expressio...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Toda, H., Williams, J. A., Gulledge, M., Sehgal, A. Tags: Neuroscience, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

A New Collaboration Could Be Key in the Early Detection of Lung Cancer
A newly-formed partnership between Biodesix and MRM Proteomics could be the key that unlocks the door for better outcomes in lung cancer patients. Earlier this week, the two diagnostic companies announced a deal that would have Montreal-based MRM Proteomics granting Biodesix the rights to use the iMALDI technologies. Boulder, CO-based Biodesix would use iMALDI to further advance its blood-based lung cancer diagnostics. “MRM has long been a leader in developing new tools in proteomics,” David Brunel CEO of Biodesix, told MD+DI. “A partnership with [MRM] allows us to expa...
Source: MDDI - January 30, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Omar Ford Tags: IVD Source Type: news

UCLA-led team uncovers critical new clues about what goes awry in brains of people with autism
This study gives a new critical clue in understanding what has gone awry in the brains of autism patients.”More than 24 million people worldwide are estimated to have autism. In developed countries, about 1.5 percent of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder as of 2017. The disorder affects communication and behavior, and is marked by problems in social communication and social interaction, and repetitive behaviors.“We need to understand how a panoply of genetic and environmental factors converges to cause autism,” Geschwind said. “RNA editing is an important piece of the autism ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - January 30, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Researchers call for big data infrastructure to support future of personalized medicine
Researchers from the George Washington University (GW), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and industry leaders published in PLOS Biology, describing a standardized communication method for researchers performing high-throughput sequencing (HTS) called BioCompute. (Source: World Pharma News)
Source: World Pharma News - January 30, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news

Your body image is impacted by those around you
(University of Waterloo) Spending time with people who are not preoccupied with their bodies can improve your own eating habits and body image, according to researchers from the University of Waterloo. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Prairie strips transform farmland conservation
(American Society of Agronomy) Modern agriculture's outputs can be measured both in dollars paid in the market and also in non-market costs, known as externalities. Soil, nutrients, groundwater, pollinators, wildlife diversity, and habitat (among other things) can be lost when crop yields are maximized.Now it appears that prairie strips have an extraordinary power to change this pattern. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Rutgers researchers contribute to visual guide to identify invasive self-cloning tick
(Rutgers University) Rutgers researchers and other scientists have created a visual guide to help identify and control the Asian longhorned tick, which transmits a fatal human disease in its native countries and threatens livestock in the United States. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New heart valve modeling technique enables customized medical care for patients
(University of Texas at Austin) Engineers at The University of Texas at Austin develop noninvasive way to simulate repairs to the heart's mitral valve allowing surgeons to provide patient-specific treatments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The first spontaneous animal model of human hypophosphatasia uncovered
(University of Helsinki) A gene defect identified in Karelian Bear Dogs causes a severe bone disease. A gene test has been developed for diagnostic and breeding purposes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Urban biodiversity: Remarkable diversity of small animals in Basel gardens
(University of Basel) Gardens in urban areas can harbor a remarkable diversity of species. This has been found by researchers from the University of Basel in a field study carried out with the support of private garden owners from the Basel region. Furthermore, the research team shows that nature-friendly garden management and design can largely compensate for the negative effects of urbanization on biodiversity. The study will be presented at the public conference 'Nature conservation in and around Basel' on Feb. 1, 2019. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

RCSI researchers develop new treatment for bone infection using copper-rich glass implant
(RCSI) A team of researchers led by RCSI (Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland), have developed a new treatment for the particularly difficult-to-treat bone infection, osteomyelitis. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Artificial intelligence ARTIST instantly captures materials' properties
(Aalto University) New approach holds potential to slash research and development costs for designer materials and technologies of the future (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Professor from IKBFU develops new type of genomic screening in order to produce new medicine
(Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University) Prof. Dr Mikhail Yakimov, a researcher from the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, together with his colleagues from the Heinrich Heine University D ü sseldorf, Norwegian Research Centre NORCE AS, School of Natural Sciences of CEU San Pablo University and Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry in Madrid (Spain), has conducted a study of universal transaminase enzymes. These ferments are involved in cellular metabolism and they also play a key role in construction of building blocks of cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How transcription factors explore the genome
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) EPFL scientists have discovered how proteins that regulate gene transcription can scan and bind the genome efficiently. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Aging and chronic diseases share genetic factors, study reveals
(Gero) The study published today in Communications Biology used clinical and genomic data of 300,477 British individuals from UK Biobank to show that the most prevalent chronic conditions such as cancer, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, dementia, and some others share the common underlying mechanism, that is aging itself, and discover genetic factors associated with healthspan, also known as healthy life expectancy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers call for big data infrastructure to support future of personalized medicine
(George Washington University) Researchers from the George Washington University, the US Food and Drug Administration, and industry leaders published in PLOS Biology, describing a standardized communication method for researchers performing high-throughput sequencing called BioCompute. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 30, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Researchers link overexpression of MDMX protein to metastasis of 3X negative breast cancer
(Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY) In a newly published paper in the journal Breast Cancer Research, scientists at The Graduate Center of The City University of New York and Hunter College are the first to report that MDMX promotes metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer -- one of the most aggressive forms of the disease, and one that is more prevalent in young women and women of color. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The 210-million-year-old Smok was crushing bones like a hyena
(Uppsala University) Coprolites, or fossil droppings, of the dinosaur-like archosaur Smok wawelski contain lots of chewed-up bone fragments. This led researchers at Uppsala University to conclude that this top predator was exploiting bones for salt and marrow, a behavior often linked to mammals but seldom to archosaurs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tulane study says seas may be rising faster than thought
(Tulane University) A new Tulane University study questions the reliability of how sea-level rise in low-lying coastal areas such as southern Louisiana is measured and suggests that the current method underestimates the severity of the problem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sea fireflies
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Evolution is a rich and dynamic process. Species respond to pressures in a variety of ways, most of which reduce to finding food, avoiding becoming someone else's food and attracting a mate. To solve that last one the animal kingdom is replete with fantastic, bizarre and mesmerizing adaptions. The bioluminescent courtship displays of ostracods may encapsulate all three. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ARS microscopy research helps unravel the workings of a major honey bee pest
(US Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service) ARS research reverses decades of scientific dogma regarding how a major honey bee pest -- Varroa destructor mites -- feeds on honey bees. The mites feed on honey bees' fat body tissue (an organ similar to the human liver) rather than on bees' 'blood,' (or hemolymph). Varroa mites are considered the greatest single driver of the global honey bee colony losses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

ESA tipsheet for Jan. 31, 2019
(Ecological Society of America) Get a sneak peek into these new scientific papers, publishing on Jan. 31, 2019, in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment: parks for sharks are most successful when humans aren't around; fisheries management efforts are responsible for recovering fish populations in the Northeast Atlantic; building best management practices for drinking water and air quality; coral reefs can benefit from probiotics, too; why it's harder to manage parakeets than zebra mussels. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Measuring stress around cells
(McGill University) Tissues and organs in the human body are shaped through forces generated by cells, that push and pull, to " sculpt " biological structures. Thanks to a new tool developed at McGill University, scientists will now be able to watch, and map these forces. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

We need to fine-tune our 'maps' of the visual cortex, study shows
(KU Leuven) Monkey brain scans have revealed new information about the part of the brain that processes visual information. The findings were recently presented in PNAS by neurophysiologists Qi Zhu (KU Leuven) and Wim Vanduffel (KU Leuven/ Harvard Medical School). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 30, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Could targeting this enzyme slow aging and related diseases?
In showing how an enzyme halts cell division by producing reactive oxygen species, scientists shed new light on the biology of aging and related diseases. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - January 29, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Seniors / Aging Source Type: news

Post-Doctoral Scholar - Microbiology, genetics, transcriptional regulation, systems biology, infectious disease, microbial pathogenesis
(Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates)
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - January 29, 2019 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: helenfindon Source Type: news

Integrated Device Design Critical to Rapid Medical IoT Development
Medical IoT holds the promise of vastly improved patient outcomes, along with the potential for an evolutionary step-change in the way healthcare is managed and delivered. Medical IoT devices will enable more rapid detection of disease, continuous remote monitoring of a patient’s condition, and far more targeted, effective treatment of conditions ranging from diabetes to cancer. All aspects of fundamental healthcare will be impacted: Prevention and wellness, chronic care, acute care, and post-acute care monitoring. As a consequence, the market for connected medical devices is estimated to grow from $20.6B...
Source: MDDI - January 29, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: James Clements Tags: Electronics Source Type: news