Study: Environmental regulations may have unintended consequences in energy production
(Carnegie Mellon University) Many countries have passed environmental laws to preserve natural ecosystems. Although the regulations seem to have improved preservation efforts, they may have had unintended consequences in energy production, leading to more greenhouse gas emissions. That's the conclusion of a new study by a researcher at Carnegie Mellon University that appears in the journal PLOS ONE. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pika survival rates dry up with low moisture
(Ecological Society of America) A team of researchers lead by Aaron N. Johnston of the US Geological Survey sought to understand how climate change, specifically changes in snowpack and VPD, is affecting pikas. In a paper published today in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecology, they related population abundances to weather and snowpack dynamics in the North Cascades National Park Service Complex in Washington state. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Gideon Mantell: forgotten man who discovered the dinosaurs
A new play recalls the battle in the scientific establishment that denied a cobbler ’s son credit for a major discoveryHe was the scientist who made one of the planet ’s most significant discoveries: the existence of dinosaurs. Yet Gideon Mantell’s place in history has for two centuries been overshadowed by a rival who stole his thunder. Now, Mantell is finally set to get his moment in the spotlight, in a new play that charts the little-known story of a man t hat science left behind.Mantell ’s discovery, in 1822, of an enormous fossil during a dig in a Sussex quarry would later be classified as the ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 3, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rob Walker Tags: Palaeontology Dinosaurs Evolution Biology Fossils Zoology Science Stage Culture UK news Source Type: news

Poor diet may have caused nosedive in major Atlantic seabird nesting colony
(University of Birmingham) The observed population crash in a colony of sooty terns, tropical seabirds in one of the UK Overseas Territories, is partly due to poor diet, research led by the University of Birmingham has found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The week in wildlife – in pictures
Macaques adapt to city life, Andean condors are released back into the wild, and a lion catches a seal in this week ’s galleryContinue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Wildlife Birds Environment Animals World news Zoology Biology Science Source Type: news

Scientists strategize for better conservation plans
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) Endangered and invasive species may be better managed in the future with new techniques outlined by a Texas A&M University scientist and others. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Insilico Medicine to present at the 2nd Annual Drug Discovery Virtual Conference by LabRoots
(InSilico Medicine, Inc.) Alex Zhavoronkov, Founder and CEO of Insilico Medicine, to present the topic 'Biomarkers of Aging' at The 2nd Annual Drug Discovery Virtual Conference by LabRoots. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Magnetic teeth hold promise for materials and energy
(University of California - Riverside) For the first time, a team led by Okayama University and the University of California, Riverside has discovered a piece of the genetic puzzle that allows the chiton to produce magnetite nanomaterials. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Palm oil not the only driver of forest loss in Indonesia
(Duke University) Large-scale agriculture, primarily for growing oil palms, remains a major cause of deforestation in Indonesia but its impact has diminished in recent years as other natural and human causes emerge, a Duke University study finds. These causes, which vary by location and over time, include the conversion of forests to grasslands by El Ni ñ o-fueled wildfires; small-scale farming; and mining. Policymakers and conservationists need to address these varied causes when devising new programs and practices. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Optimized binding cavity
(Wiley) The impressively high conversion rates of natural enzymes partly result from increasing the catalytic activity of a selected few amino acid side chains through precise positioning within the protein binding cavity. Scientists have now demonstrated that such fine-tuning is also possible for 'designer' enzymes with unnatural catalytic amino acids. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, they report that laboratory 'evolution' of a designer enzyme with an aniline side chain led to variants with significantly higher activity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Butterflies thrive in grasslands surrounded by forest
(Link ö ping University) For pollinating butterflies, it is more important to be close to forests than to agricultural fields, according to a study of 32,000 butterflies by researchers at Link ö ping University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala. The results provide important knowledge about how to plan and manage the landscape to ensure the survival of butterflies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How plants cope with iron deficiency
(University of M ü nster) Research groups from Heinrich Heine University D ü sseldorf (HHU) and the University of M ü nster (WWU) have discovered a new switch that plants use to control their responses to iron deficiency. The findings from their research on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is published today in the journal Developmental Cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The delicate balance of treating growing but brittle bones
(Hokkaido University) Turning off a bone receptor protein could potentially treat osteoporosis in children without affecting bone growth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Crunching the data: New liver cancer subtypes revealed immunologically
(Tokyo Medical and Dental University) Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) researchers used substantial datasets on liver cancer patients to develop a new classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) into three distinct subgroups with different genetic, immunological, and clinical features. The findings of HCC subtypes related to metabolic disease, immunosuppression, or mitogenic/stem-cell-like tumors should aid the development of more targeted treatment and promote the fight against this devastating disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Blood test for specific metabolites could reveal blocked arteries
(Duke University Medical Center) A Duke Health pilot project suggests that in the near future, a blood test could show whether arteries carrying blood to the heart are narrow or blocked, a risk factor for heart disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Microbes help make the coffee
(American Society for Microbiology) When it comes to processing coffee beans, longer fermentation times can result in better taste, contrary to conventional wisdom. Lactic acid bacteria play an important, positive role in this process. Other species of microbes may play a role in this process as well, but more research is needed to better understand their role. The research is published Feb. 1 in Applied and Environmental Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Infographic: Plants Deploy Exosomes to Stop Alien Invaders
A growing branch of research on how plants use exosomes to interact with their environment is opening up a new field of plant biology. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - February 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Infographics Magazine Issue Source Type: news

Exosomes Make Their Debut in Plant Research
A growing branch of research on how plants use exosomes to interact with their environment is opening up a new field of plant biology. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - February 1, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Features Magazine Issue Source Type: news

Twelve Of The Best Books About Biology Of 2018
Whether you are giving gifts to others or to yourself, this list of the best popular science books of 2018 about evolution, genetics and natural history is a great place to start reading and gifting (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - January 31, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: GrrlScientist, Contributor Source Type: news

Solving the mystery of Serengeti's vanishing wild dogs
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) More than 25 years ago, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) disappeared from Serengeti National Park. A firestorm of debate followed when one researcher claimed that handling by scientists was the cause. New research refutes that claim and offers another explanation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cooking chemistry minus heat equals new non-toxic adhesive
(Purdue University) A new soy-based, non-toxic adhesive could be used in organic food packaging and some speciality food items. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hybrid electricity system would reduce rates, improve service
(University of Waterloo) A new distribution system designed by researchers at the University of Waterloo would reduce electricity prices by more than five per cent while also improving service reliability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Persistent low body weight in young kids increases risk for anorexia nervosa later
(University of North Carolina Health Care) A new study has found that a persistent low body mass index (BMI) in children, starting as young as age 2 for boys and 4 for girls, may be a risk factor for the development of anorexia nervosa in adolescence. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The development of brain stem cells into new nerve cells and why this can lead to cancer
(German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ)) Stem cells are true Jacks-of-all-trades of our bodies, as they can turn into the many different cell types of all organs. This allows the tissues to renew and to heal after injury. This amazing multipotency makes stem cells in the adult body key tools for regenerative medicine. Scientists at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) now publish in the journal Nature how brain stem cells make the decision to transform into new nerve cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Research identifies pathway connecting some ARV drugs with liver disease
(University of Kentucky) Research out of the University of Kentucky has identified a potential pathway by which certain ARV drugs -- commonly given to patients with HIV -- give rise to liver disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earth's largest extinction event likely took plants first
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) New evidence from the cliffsides of Australia suggests that Earth's largest extinction event -- a volcanic cataclysm occurring roughly 252 million years ago -- extinguished plant life long before many animal counterparts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Insilico Medicine to present on CXOTALK
(InSilico Medicine, Inc.) Alex Zhavoronkov, founder and CEO of Insilico Medicine, will go live on the CXOTalk show with a presentation about artificial intelligence for drug discovery. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change and infertility -- a ticking time bomb?
(University of Liverpool) Rising temperatures could make some species sterile and see them succumb to the effects of climate change earlier than currently thought, scientists at the University of Liverpool warn. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Membraneless protocells could provide clues to formation of early life
(Penn State) Membraneless protocells allow RNAs to participate in fundamental chemical reactions, providing clues to early steps in origin of life on earth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Evolution, illustrated
(Harvard University) Led by Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Molecular and Cellular Biology Hopi Hoekstra, a team of international researchers conducted a years-long study that not only confirmed the intuition that light-colored mice survive better in light-colored habitats, and vice versa for dark-colored mice, but also allowed researchers to pinpoint a mutation related to survival, specifically that affects pigmentation, and understand exactly how the mutation produced a novel coat color. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Quantum sensors providing magnetic resonance with unprecedented sensitivity
(University of the Basque Country) A piece of work involving international collaboration and the participation of the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. The results of the research have been published in the prestigious interdisciplinary physics journal Physical Review Letters. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Salmon populations may adapt their eggs to survive in degraded rivers
(University of Southampton) A University of Southampton study suggests that the membrane of salmon eggs may evolve to cope with reduced oxygen levels in rivers, thereby helping their embryos to incubate successfully. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Leipzig researchers on Spanish Antarctic expedition
(Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS)) During the next weeks, a Spanish research expedition will investigate climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula. Two researchers from the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) are also be participating to investigate the influence of sugar compounds on cloud formation above the ocean. In January, the research vessel R/V Hesp é rides from Ushuaia in Argentina have set off for the PI-ICE expedition. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Citizen scientists discover pinhead-sized beetle in Borneo
(Pensoft Publishers) No more than 10 curious non-professionals with a passion for nature is all it takes to find a new species of minute beetle in the tropical leaf litter, shows a recent expedition to the Ulu Temburong forest in Borneo. Published in the open-access Biodiversity Data Journal, this is the latest discovery from Taxon Expeditions, an initiative that organizes regular scientific field trips to remote and biodiverse locations for teams of scientists and laypeople. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

High-dose radiation therapy improves long-term survival in patients with stage-IV cancers, trial finds
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) The first report from a phase II, multi-center clinical trial indicates that a newer, more aggressive form of radiation therapy -- stereotactic radiation -- can extend long-term survival for some patients with stage-IV cancers while maintaining their quality of life. The study is published in the January issue of International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics (Red Journal), the flagship scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Bacteria promote lung tumor development, study suggests
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT cancer biologists have discovered a mechanism that lung tumors exploit to promote their own survival: The tumors alter bacterial populations within the lung, provoking the immune system to create an inflammatory environment that in turn helps the tumor cells to proliferate. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - January 31, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Factors in 'alarming rate' of cold-stranded sea turtles in Cape Cod Bay
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) The number of cold-stunning and stranding events among juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles, one of the world's most endangered species, is increasing at an 'alarming' rate and has moved north from Long Island Sound to Cape Cod Bay, say researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Mass Audubon and the University of Rhode Island. Their recent study looked into what variables are most important in predicting such events, to more effectively help the distressed reptiles. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climate change could make corals go it alone
(University of Texas at Austin) Climate change is bad news for coral reefs around the world, with high ocean temperatures causing widespread bleaching events that weaken and kill corals. However, new research from the University of Texas at Austin has found that corals with a solitary streak -- preferring to live alone instead of in reef communities -- could fare better than their group-dwelling relatives. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Iguana-sized dinosaur cousin discovered in Antarctica
(University of Washington) Scientists have just discovered a dinosaur relative that lived in Antarctica 250 million years ago. The iguana-sized reptile's genus name, Antarctanax, means 'Antarctic king.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study reveals wildlife is abundant in Chernobyl
(University of Georgia) A scavenger study that used fish carcasses as bait provides additional evidence that wildlife is abundant in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study of brine discharge from desalination plant finds good news and bad news
(University of California - Santa Cruz) Before the Carlsbad Desalination Plant in Southern California began operations in 2015, scientists at UC Santa Cruz recognized an important opportunity to study the effects of the high-salinity brine that would be discharged from the plant into coastal waters. Their study shows that brine discharged from the plant raises offshore salinity levels more than permitted, but researchers found no direct local impacts on sea life. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 31, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Chayotes can prevent and treat skin cancer
(Natural News) Chayote (Sechium edule) is an uncommon vegetable that belongs to the gourd family. Since it has a very mild flavor, it can be used in various dishes and cooked in different ways. According to a study, the versatile chayote can also be used to treat skin cancer. The study was conducted by biology students from Universitas... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - January 31, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Rhomboid distorts lipids to break the viscosity-imposed speed limit of membrane diffusion
Enzymes that cut proteins inside membranes regulate diverse cellular events, including cell signaling, homeostasis, and host-pathogen interactions. Adaptations that enable catalysis in this exceptional environment are poorly understood. We visualized single molecules of multiple rhomboid intramembrane proteases and unrelated proteins in living cells (human and Drosophila) and planar lipid bilayers. Notably, only rhomboid proteins were able to diffuse above the Saffman-Delbrück viscosity limit of the membrane. Hydrophobic mismatch with the irregularly shaped rhomboid fold distorted surrounding lipids and propelled rhomboi...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kreutzberger, A. J. B., Ji, M., Aaron, J., Mihaljevic, L., Urban, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Algae suggest eukaryotes get many gifts of bacteria DNA
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Cell Biology, Evolution In Depth Source Type: news

How natural selection affects mouse coat color
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Zahn, L. M. Tags: Evolution, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

How rhomboid proteases act so quickly
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Linking a mutation to survival in wild mice
Adaptive evolution in new or changing environments can be difficult to predict because the functional connections between genotype, phenotype, and fitness are complex. Here, we make these explicit connections by combining field and laboratory experiments in wild mice. We first directly estimate natural selection on pigmentation traits and an underlying pigment locus, Agouti, by using experimental enclosures of mice on different soil colors. Next, we show how a mutation in Agouti associated with survival causes lighter coat color through changes in its protein binding properties. Together, our findings demonstrate how a seq...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Barrett, R. D. H., Laurent, S., Mallarino, R., Pfeifer, S. P., Xu, C. C. Y., Foll, M., Wakamatsu, K., Duke-Cohan, J. S., Jensen, J. D., Hoekstra, H. E. Tags: Evolution, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

A sleep-inducing gene, nemuri, links sleep and immune function in Drosophila
Sleep remains a major mystery of biology. In particular, little is known about the mechanisms that account for the drive to sleep. In an unbiased screen of more than 12,000 Drosophila lines, we identified a single gene, nemuri, that induces sleep. The NEMURI protein is an antimicrobial peptide that can be secreted ectopically to drive prolonged sleep (with resistance to arousal) and to promote survival after infection. Loss of nemuri increased arousability during daily sleep and attenuated the acute increase in sleep induced by sleep deprivation or bacterial infection. Conditions that increase sleep drive induced expressio...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 31, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Toda, H., Williams, J. A., Gulledge, M., Sehgal, A. Tags: Neuroscience, Physiology r-articles Source Type: news

A New Collaboration Could Be Key in the Early Detection of Lung Cancer
A newly-formed partnership between Biodesix and MRM Proteomics could be the key that unlocks the door for better outcomes in lung cancer patients. Earlier this week, the two diagnostic companies announced a deal that would have Montreal-based MRM Proteomics granting Biodesix the rights to use the iMALDI technologies. Boulder, CO-based Biodesix would use iMALDI to further advance its blood-based lung cancer diagnostics. “MRM has long been a leader in developing new tools in proteomics,” David Brunel CEO of Biodesix, told MD+DI. “A partnership with [MRM] allows us to expa...
Source: MDDI - January 30, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Omar Ford Tags: IVD Source Type: news

UCLA-led team uncovers critical new clues about what goes awry in brains of people with autism
This study gives a new critical clue in understanding what has gone awry in the brains of autism patients.”More than 24 million people worldwide are estimated to have autism. In developed countries, about 1.5 percent of children have been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder as of 2017. The disorder affects communication and behavior, and is marked by problems in social communication and social interaction, and repetitive behaviors.“We need to understand how a panoply of genetic and environmental factors converges to cause autism,” Geschwind said. “RNA editing is an important piece of the autism ...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - January 30, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news