How fungi influence global plant colonisation
(University of G ö ttingen) The symbiosis of plants and fungi has a great influence on the worldwide spread of plant species. In some cases, it even acts like a filter. This has been discovered by an international team of researchers with participation from the University of G ö ttingen. The results appeared in the journal Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A water-splitting catalyst unlike any other
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) EPFL chemists have developed a new iron-nickel oxide catalyst for water splitting, the reaction that produces hydrogen fuel. The patent-pending catalyst shows significantly higher activity in the oxygen-evolution part of reaction than conventional nickel iron oxide catalysts. The work is now published in ACS Central Science. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New research gives insight into warding off insect pests by way of nematode odors
(Texas A&M AgriLife Communications) A recent study revealed insect-killing nematodes also produce distinctive chemical cues that enhance plant defenses and deter Colorado potato beetles.Entomologists from Texas A&M University, including Dr. Anjel Helms, who led the study, and Penn State University took a look at whether Colorado potato beetles and potato plants responded to the presence of entomopathogenic nematodes, EPNs, or insect-killing nematodes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New buzz around insect DNA analysis and biodiversity estimates
(Ecological Society of America) Researchers on the remote forested island of Hauturu, New Zealand have compiled a staggering inventory of invertebrate biodiversity using DNA sequencing, adding a significant number of invertebrates to GenBank - an open access database of all publicly available DNA sequences. The results are published this week in the Ecological Society of America's journal Ecological Applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Technology assessment: Artificial intelligence in the medical sector
(Karlsruher Institut f ü r Technologie (KIT)) Decoding of the human genome still poses puzzles that might be solved with the help of artificial intelligence. New therapeutic approaches to treating severe diseases appear possible as do non-medical 'improvements' of the genetic material. With funds of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, technology assessment experts of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology study which applications are realistic and which ethical issues they may entail. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Directed evolution builds nanoparticles
(Ecole Polytechnique F é d é rale de Lausanne) Directed evolution is a powerful technique for engineering proteins. EPFL scientists now show that it can also be used to engineer synthetic nanoparticles as optical biosensors, which are used widely in biology, drug development, and even medical diagnostics such as real-time monitoring of glucose. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Crop residue burning is a major contributor to air pollution in South Asia
(Stockholm University) Urban emissions of black carbon from fossil fuel combustion are not always the main contributor to severe air pollution in south Asian megacities like New Delhi, shows a new study by researchers from Stockholm University and the Indian Institute for Tropical Meteorology, published in the journal Nature Sustainability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Improving ecosystems with aquatic plants
This study attempts to determine what methods would effectively benefit the large-scale production of aquatic plants as a possible resource of bolstering the improvement of the ecosystems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The trials of turfgrass breeders
(American Society for Horticultural Science) In the United States, turfgrasses occupy 1.9 percent of the continental surface and cover an area three times larger than any irrigated crop. Turfgrasses provide functional benefits such as water quality protection, soil erosion control, and water microclimate moderation. To fulfill the needs of consumers and to contribute to environmental sustainability, turfgrass breeding programs evaluate, develop, and introduce turfgrasses with superior traits. Various turfgrass species have been assessed for pest and disease resistance, climatic region adaptation, drought tolerance, and red...
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Chelated calcium benefits poinsettias
This study identifies treatments that will best benefit these ornamentals during transit to improve point-of-sale presentation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Light wakes up freshwater bacteria
(University of Delaware) Some of the bacteria that live in ponds grow faster during the day, even if they don't take in sunlight as an energy source, suggesting the existence of special genes that absorb light. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Montana State team discovers 'incredibly' diverse microbial community high in Yellowstone
(Montana State University) Montana State University researchers Dan Colman and Eric Boyd published their findings from a Smoke Jumper Geyser Basin hot spring in the journal Nature Communications earlier this month. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Return of the wolves: How deer escape tactics help save their lives
(University of Washington) As gray wolves return to Washington state, a new study finds that one species of deer is changing its behavior to spend more time away from roads, at higher elevations and in rockier landscapes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Jumping spider mimics two kinds of ants as it grows
(University of Cincinnati) Spiders that pretend to be ants to fool predators have an unusual problem when it comes to sex. How do they get the attention of potential mates without breaking character to birds that want to eat them? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How fungi influence global plant colonization
(University of G ö ttingen) The symbiosis of plants and fungi has a great influence on the worldwide spread of plant species. In some cases, it even acts like a filter. This has been discovered by an international team of researchers with participation from the University of G ö ttingen. The results appeared in the journal Nature Ecology& Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New study indicates early-term infants can succeed at breastfeeding
(University of British Columbia Okanagan campus) Researchers have determined that healthy premature babies can have as much success breastfeeding as full-term babies.The study, conducted by researchers at UBC Okanagan's School of Nursing and the University of Hong Kong, involved 2,700 pairs of mothers and infants and included two different survey groups -- one in 2006/07 and another in 2011/12. The mother-infant pairs were monitored from birth to 12 months or until breastfeeding ceased. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UCI researcher awarded nearly $4 million to study neurological disorders including epilepsy
(University of California - Irvine) University of California, Irvine School of Medicine researcher Geoff Abbott, PhD, has been awarded a $2 million Outstanding Investigator Award/Maximizing Investigators' Research Award (MIRA) R35 grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and a $1.7 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Maasai farmers only kill lions when they attack livestock
(University of Exeter) Maasai farmers do not kill lions for retribution whenever they lose sheep or cattle, new research shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases risk of ADHD among offspring up to 3-fold
(University of Turku) The higher the cotinine levels were in the mother's blood during pregnancy, the greater was the child's risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in life, showed an epidemiological study conducted by the Research Centre for Child Psychiatry at the University of Turku, Finland. Globally, it is the first study in which the connection between fetal nicotine exposure and diagnosis of ADHD was shown by measuring cotinine levels from pregnant maternal serum specimens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New clue for cancer treatment could be hiding in microscopic molecular machine
(Florida State University) Researchers have discovered a critical missing step in the production of proteasomes -- tiny structures in a cell that dispose of protein waste -- and found that carefully targeted manipulation of this step could prove an effective recourse for the treatment of cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Climbing like ivy
(University of Freiburg) The project 'GrowBot' is developing plant-inspired robots. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Right- or left-handed? Gene expression tells the story of snail evolution
(Shinshu University) Snails, like humans, can be right-handed or left-handed and the swirl etched into the shell of a snail can reveal a lot about them, down to their genetic makeup. Researchers from Shinshu University and the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan have found that the gene influencing the direction of the shell coil may also offer insight into the evolution of snails overall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New consolidated bio-saccharification technique for lignocellulose conversion developed
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) A research group from the Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed a novel strategy for cost-efficient lignocellulose conversion. Known as consolidated bio-saccharification, it combines cellulase production and hydrolysis, while separating fermentation from the integrated process by taking fermentable sugar as the target product to couple various downstream fermentation processes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists simulate forest and fire dynamics to understand area burn of future wildfires
(University of New Mexico) Scientists, including Matthew Hurteau in the Department of Biology at the University of New Mexico, are examining more data via simulations of wildfires in the Sierra Nevada to improve their understanding between prior and future wildfires. They hypothesized that prior wildfires and their influence on vegetation, coupled with a changing climate and its influence on vegetation recovery after a wildfire, would likely restrict the size of wildfires in the future. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Understanding the rich social lives of animals benefits international conservation efforts
(University of Exeter) An international group of researchers working on a wide range of species, from elephants and crows, to whales and chimpanzees, argues that animals' cultural knowledge needs to be taken into consideration when planning international conservation efforts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Nematode odors offer possible advantage in the battle against insect pests
(British Ecological Society) Gardeners commonly use nematodes to naturally get rid of harmful soil-dwelling insects. A new study published today in the journal Functional Ecology revealed that these insect-killing nematodes also produce distinctive chemical cues, which deter Colorado potato beetles and make potato leaves less palatable to them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

When temperatures drop, Siberian Miscanthus plants surpass main bioenergy variety
(Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) Miscanthus is a popular, sustainable, perennial feedstock for bioenergy production that thrives on marginal land in temperate regions. A new study in GCB Bioenergy assessed Miscanthus collected on a Siberian expedition to identify three Miscanthus plants with exceptional photosynthetic performance in chilling temperatures that outstrip the industry favorite by as much as 100 percent. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

FASEB Journal: Study suggests novel biomarker for predicting AFib progression
(Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology) A human study published in The FASEB Journal suggests a novel type of biomarker to predict the progression of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common form of irregular heart rhythm. Despite inconsistent evidence to date, one idea that has surfaced is that AF may be regulated by alterations in circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate cell-to-cell communication. If this hypothesis were correct, by better understanding such alterations, scientists could potentially monitor the progression of heart disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Radiation-resistant E. coli evolved in the lab give view into DNA repair
(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Scientists in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Biochemistry are blasting E. coli bacteria with ionizing radiation once a week to watch evolution happen in real time as the bacteria become radiation resistant. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers identify how the bacterial replicative helicase opens to start DNA replication process
(Advanced Science Research Center, GC/CUNY) Researchers have identified the mechanism used by the helicase ring to thread around and separate entwined DNA strands in the replication process. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

'Dead zone' volume more important than area to fish, fisheries
This study was published this month in Environmental Research Letters. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NASA-NOAA satellite finds Typhoon Wutip's eye clouded
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and captured an image of Typhoon Wutip that revealed its eye was clouding over. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Technology for deep water purification from uranium impurities developed in Russia
(Far Eastern Federal University) Scientists of the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) have developed a new method to obtain a porous composite based on an organoelemental polymer. On the basis of this material, scientists of Institute of Chemistry of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IC FED RAS) designed and patented a promising sorbent for deep water purification from uranium impurities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earning a bee's wings
(Washington University in St. Louis) When a honey bee turns 21 days old, she leaves the nest to look for pollen and nectar. For her, this is a moment of great risk, and great reward. It's also the moment at which she becomes recognizable to other bees. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Can we address climate change without sacrificing water quality?
(Carnegie Institution for Science) Strategies for limiting climate change must take into account their potential impact on water quality through nutrient overload, according to a new study from Carnegie's Eva Sinha and Anna Michalak published by Nature Communications. Some efforts at reducing carbon emissions could actually increase the risk of water quality impairments, they found. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How power-to-gas technology can be green and profitable
(Technical University of Munich (TUM)) Hydrogen production based on wind power can already be commercially viable today. Until now, it was generally assumed that this environmentally friendly power-to-gas technology could not be implemented profitably. Economists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the University of Mannheim and Stanford University have now described, based on the market situations in Germany and Texas, how flexible production facilities could make this technology a key component in the transition of the energy system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

'Ibiza is different', genetically
(Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona) 'Ibiza is different.' That is what the hundreds of standard-bearers of the 'hippie' movement who visited the Pitiusan Island during the 60s thought, fascinated by its climate and its unexplored nature. What they did not imagine was that the utmost unique feature of the island was in its inhabitants. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biologists: Pesticide regulations designed to protect bees are failing
(Natural News) Bees, like many of the world’s insects, are in crisis, and their numbers are dwindling at an alarming rate. At the same time, the world’s population – and its reliance on insect-pollinated crops – continues to grow at an equally alarming pace. The bees might be in crisis right now, but pretty soon... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - February 25, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Split-Sex Animals Are Unusual, Yes, but Not as Rare as You ’ d Think
From butterflies to chickens to lobsters, mixed male-female bodies offer clues as to why certain diseases strike one gender more often than the other. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 25, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: KAREN WEINTRAUB Tags: Genetics and Heredity Chromosomes Hormones Birds Butterflies and Moths Mammals your-feed-science Research Biology and Biochemistry Source Type: news

Lab-grown mini tumors could help identify personalized treatments for people with rare cancers
UCLA scientists have developed a new method to quickly screen hundreds of drugs in order to identify treatments that can target specific tumors.The approach could help scientists understand how a person ’s tumor would respond to a certain drug or drug combination, and it could help guide treatment decisions for people with rare and hard-to-treat cancers. Apaper detailing the new technique was published in Communications Biology.“We always focus on how we need new and better drugs to treat cancer,” said Alice Soragni, the senior author of the study and a scientist at the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Can...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - February 25, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Low zinc levels linked to prediabetes in postmenopausal women
Research, published in theJournal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, suggests that low zinc levels in the body may be associated with prediabetes in postmenopausal women.Phys (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Source: Society for Endocrinology - February 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Early life stress alters helping behavior of meerkat offspring
(University of Michigan) Parents make sacrifices to allow their children to have better lives than they did, but this isn't the case for Kalahari meerkat mothers, according to a new University of Michigan study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

High-powered fuel cell boosts electric-powered submersibles, drones
(Washington University in St. Louis) A team of engineers in the McKelvey School of Engineering has developed a high-powered fuel cell that operates at double the voltage of today's commercial fuel cells. It could power underwater vehicles, drones and eventually electric aircraft at a significantly lower cost. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Report cards show continued sea-level rise on East & Gulf coasts
(Virginia Institute of Marine Science) Interactive plots provide annual sea-level projections to 2050 for 32 localities along the US coastline from Maine to Alaska. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Breeding a better strawberry
(University of California - Davis) An international team of scientists led by the University of California, Davis, and Michigan State University have sequenced and analyzed the genome of the cultivated strawberry, which will provide a genetic roadmap to help more precisely select desired traits. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Predicting how forests in the western US will respond to changing climate
(Carnegie Institution for Science) On the mountain slopes of the western United States, climate can play a major role in determining which tree communities will thrive in the harshest conditions, according to new work from Carnegie's Leander Anderegg and University of Washington's Janneke Hille Ris Lambers. Their findings are an important step in understanding how forest growth will respond to a climate altered by human activity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Breakthrough shines light on disease-fighting protein
(DOE/Argonne National Laboratory) A combination of X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy assisted in a collaborative effort to obtain the highest-resolution structure of the fungal protein Hsp104, which may serve to hinder the formation of certain degenerative diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Elevation matters when it comes to climate change, deforestation and species survival
(University of Toronto) A study examining the impact of deforestation on lizard communities in the Dominican Republic demonstrates differing outcomes at different elevations. In the lowlands, deforestation reduces the number of individuals, but not which species occur in an area. In the highlands, it's the opposite. When the forest is cut down at higher elevations, the newly created pastures become filled with species found in the warmer lowlands. But locally adapted mountain lizards cannot survive as temperature rises. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Uncovering the origins of cultivated strawberries
(Michigan State University) In a new study published in Nature Genetics, researchers now unveil how the strawberry became an octoploid, as well as the genetics that determine important fruit quality traits. What researchers uncovered is a complex evolutionary history that started long ago on opposite sides of the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Giant animals lived in Amazonian mega-wetland
(Funda ç ã o de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de S ã o Paulo) Lake systems existing in regions over 10 million years ago survived the Amazon River reversal due to Andean uplift. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 25, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news