Children carry evidence of toxins from home flooring and furniture
(Duke University) Children living in homes with all vinyl flooring or flame-retardant chemicals in the sofa have significantly higher concentrations of potentially harmful semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in their blood or urine than children from homes where these materials are not present, according to new Duke University-led research. The researchers presented their findings Feb. 17 at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A hidden source of air pollution? Your daily household tasks
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Cooking, cleaning and other routine household activities generate significant levels of volatile and particulate chemicals inside the average home, leading to indoor air quality levels on par with a polluted major city. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Virus-infected bacteria could provide help in the fight against climate change
(University of Tennessee at Knoxville) Understanding the relationship between microbes and viruses is beneficial not only for medical research and practical applications but also in marine biology, says Alison Buchan, Carolyn W. Fite Professor of Microbiology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Indigenous hunters have positive impacts on food webs in desert Australia
(Penn State) Australia has the highest rate of mammal extinction in the world. Resettlement of indigenous communities resulted in the spread of invasive species, the absence of human-set fires, and a general cascade in the interconnected food web that led to the largest mammalian extinction event ever recorded. In this case, the absence of direct human activity on the landscape may be the cause of the extinctions, according to a Penn State anthropologist. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Trilobites: Searching Tardigrades for Lifesaving Secrets
Researchers are drawing inspiration from the proteins that they think let hearty water bears cheat time by decelerating their biology. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 15, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: STEPH YIN Tags: Tardigrades Proteins Biology and Biochemistry Medicine and Health United States Defense and Military Forces Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency your-feed-science Source Type: news

'Cellular barcoding' reveals how breast cancer spreads
(Walter and Eliza Hall Institute) A cutting-edge technique called cellular barcoding has been used to tag, track and pinpoint cells responsible for the spread of breast cancer from the main tumour into the blood and other organs. Dr Delphine Merino, Dr Tom Weber, Professor Jane Visvader, Professor Geoffrey Lindeman and Dr Shalin Naik led the highly collaborative research that involved breast cancer biologists, clinician scientists, biotechnologists and computational experts at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

'Seeing' tails help sea snakes avoid predators
(University of Adelaide) New research has revealed the fascinating adaptation of some Australian sea snakes that helps protect their vulnerable paddle-shaped tails from predators. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Surprise findings turn up the temperature on the study of vernalization
(John Innes Centre) Researchers have uncovered new evidence about the agriculturally important process of vernalization in a development that could help farmers deal with financially damaging weather fluctuations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists discovered where black carbon comes from in the Arctic in winter and summer
(Tomsk Polytechnic University) Scientists from seven countries published an article on the study of the sources of black carbon (BC) emissions in the Arctic. BC aerosols are formed under incomplete fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Soot which is the main component of BC amplifies the melting of snow and ice cover, accelerating global warming. Based on the complex elemental and isotopic analysis the scientists revealed the seasonal contribution of various Arctic areas to BC emissions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Linking sensing to signaling during plant immunity
(Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research) A new study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (MPIPZ) in Cologne has revealed that a previously unappreciated structural feature underlies the ability of the plant immune molecule EDS1 to provide a timely defense boost against pathogens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Synchrotron light to analyse mining waste in marine sediment in the Portman bay
(University of Barcelona) The light of ALBA Synchrotron will enable revealing the environmental impact of the tons of mining waste thrown for over forty years in the Portman bay (Murcia, Spain), as part of the research project by the Consolidated Research Group in Marine Geosciences of the Faculty of Earth Sciences of the University of Barcelona, which will apply new technologies to study one of the most severe pollution episodes from mining in Europe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

eLife invests in Texture to provide open-source content production tools for publishers
(eLife) eLife has announced today its investment in the development of Texture - an open-source toolset for the editing and production of manuscripts, designed to be integrated into publishers' editorial and content-delivery systems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The science behind big '80s hairstyles (video)
(American Chemical Society) The '80s was a decade full of neon leg warmers, power ballads and big hair. But how did we get that big hair that was so bad it's good? A little bit of teasing and a lot of chemistry. This week on Reactions, Ms. Beautyphile helps us tackle the science behind perms and crimping and overall big '80s hair: https://youtu.be/pKBJ7szKJko. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Winners of Inaugural Johnson & Johnson Innovation Champions of Science Africa Storytelling Challenge
(Marion E. Glick Communications LLC) Johnson& Johnson Innovation announced five winners of the first Champions of Science - Africa Storytelling Challenge, which aimed to highlight the journeys of scientists and innovators working in Africa, and celebrate the impact of their work on families, communities and the world. The Challenge received more than 100 entries from scientists and innovators in 22 African nations, (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Spare 10 minutes to make science leap forward
(Diamond Light Source) Today sees the launch of an innovative Citizen Science Project by Diamond Light Source, which uses a crowdsourcing model to call on people of all ages around the world to help train AI to identify viruses. Visit www.diamond.ac.uk/zooniverse to learn more (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pitt bioengineers create ultrasmall, light-activated electrode for neural stimulation
(University of Pittsburgh) In a recently published paper, the University of Pittsburgh's Takashi D. Y. Kozai detailed a less invasive method of neural stimulation that would use an untethered ultrasmall electrode activated by light, a technique that may mitigate damage done by current methods. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Trinity College Dublin researchers describe the first model of mitochondrial epilepsy
(Trinity College Dublin) Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have become the first to describe a model of mitochondrial epilepsy which raises hope for better therapies for patients with this incapacitating condition.Despite the severity of this epilepsy, up to now there have been no animal models available to provide a mechanistic understanding of the condition.That is set to change though as researchers at Trinity can now explain the important role that astrocytes play in seizure generation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UTA engineer earns NSF CAREER grant to develop bioinspired, shape-morphing 3D materials
(University of Texas at Arlington) Kyungsuk Yum, an assistant professor in the Materials Science and Engineering Department has been awarded a five-year, $500,000 National Science Foundation Early Career Development, or CAREER, Program grant to design and develop bioinspired 3D materials with programmed shapes and motions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Professional societies unveil consortium on sexual harassment in STEMM
(American Society for Cell Biology) The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) and 52 other leading academic and professional societies announced the creation the Societies Consortium on Sexual Harassment in STEMM at a panel discussion during the AAAS Annual Meeting on February 15, 2019. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study shows hope for fighting disease known as Ebola of frogs
(University of Central Florida) Despite widespread infection, some frog populations are surviving a deadly disease that is the equivalent of mankind's Ebola virus. The reason -- genetic diversity. That's the finding of a new study published this week in the journal Immunogenetics. Anna Savage, an assistant professor of biology at the University of Central Florida, is the lead author of the study. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biologists identify honeybee 'clean' genes known for improving survival
(York University) The key to breeding disease-resistant honeybees could lie in a group of genes -- known for controlling hygienic behaviour -- that enable colonies to limit the spread of harmful mites and bacteria, according to genomics research conducted at York University. The researchers narrowed in on the 'clean' genes known to improve the colony's chance of survival. The finding was published today in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Elk avoid beetle-killed forest areas
(University of Wyoming) While previous studies showed elk often move into areas disturbed by fires or timber harvest to take advantage of new plant growth, that isn't happening in Wyoming's Sierra Madre Mountains, where elk strongly avoid beetle-killed areas in the summer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Graphene-based wearables for health monitoring, food inspection and night vision
(Graphene Flagship) The Graphene Pavilion, organised by the Graphene Flagship and supported by the European Commission and GSMA, is returning to Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2019 with over 20 graphene-based prototypes, four of which are developed by the Graphene Flagship partner ICFO, based in Barcelona. These technologies aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Synchrotron light to analyze mining waste in marine sediment in the Portman Bay
(University of Barcelona) The light of ALBA Synchrotron will enable revealing the environmental impact of the tons of mining waste thrown for over forty years in the Portman bay (Murcia, Spain), as part of the research project by the Consolidated Research Group in Marine Geosciences of the Faculty of Earth Sciences of the University of Barcelona, which will apply new technologies to study one of the most severe pollution episodes from mining in Europe. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 15, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study: No race or gender bias seen in initial NIH grant reviews
(University of Wisconsin-Madison) Examinations of National Institutes of Health grants in the last 15 years have shown that white scientists are more likely to be successful in securing funding from the agency than their black peers.A new study from the University of Wisconsin-Madison shows that bias is unlikely to play out in the initial phase of the process NIH uses to review applications for the billions of federal grant dollars it apportions annually to biology and behavior research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - February 15, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Chimpanzees ‘talk’ just like humans. It’s time to realise how similar we are | Jules Howard
New research shows that gestures used by chimpanzees follow the same rules as human language. Are we really so different?It ’s a bit garbled but you can definitely hear it in the mobile phone footage. As the chimpanzees arrange their branches into a makeshift ladder and one of them makes itsdaring escape from its Belfast zoo enclosure, some words ring out loud and clear: “Don’t escape, you bad little gorilla!” a child onlooker shouts from the crowd. And … POP … with that a tiny explosion goes off inside my head. Something knocks me back about this sentence. It’s a “kids-say...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jules Howard Tags: Animal behaviour Primatology Animals Linguistics Biology Science World news Source Type: news

Sea Grant & ASLO bring helping hands to Puerto Rico
(University of Minnesota) Scientists from 52 countries will be providing hands-on help in Puerto Rico to restore marine and coastal resources damaged during hurricane Maria in 2017 in connection with the annual meeting of the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography February 23 to March 2, 2019. The Puerto Rico and Minnesota Sea Grant programs are working together with Puerto Rico-based members of the meeting committee to offer educational and volunteer opportunities focused on environmental restoration. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Virus promoting love and kindness created for Valentine's day
(Integral Molecular) What if love and kindness could spread like a virus? As part of the University City Science Center's BioArt Residency, artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg created a custom virus able to increase the production of oxytocin, a hormone that induces feelings of love, kindness, and empathy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sea worms and jellyfish treat cancer and kill insects
(Far Eastern Federal University) Scientists of the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (PIBOC) of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS) and the Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) found out marine invertebrates living in Troitsa Bay, the Sea of Japan, contain biologically active compounds with strong antitumor and antimicrobial properties, and also capable of killing insects. An article on that was published in the Russian Journal of Marine Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 14, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Lipoproteins behave 'almost like a tiny Velcro ball'
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) Setbacks in drug trials aiming to raise HDL have led researchers to reassess the particle's effects on heart health. A study in the Journal of Lipid Research combining proteomics and mouse genetics may help researchers understand researchers understand the proteins in the particle, how they get there and how they determine HDL function. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Making better embryos
(University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM)) One out of every six Canadian couples experiences infertility. Some resort to in vitro fertilization. But the embryos obtained through this technique often have defects. In a study published today in the journal Current Biology, researchers from the University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM) succeeded in reducing the number of defects in mouse embryos in the laboratory. In the medium term, this unprecedented discovery could improve infertile couples' chances of giving birth. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - February 14, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Immunological scarring from coeliac disease
(Cardiff University) Immune cells in the bowel of people who suffer with coeliac disease are permanently replaced by a new subset of cells that promote inflammation, suggests a new study involving researchers at Cardiff University. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biocolonizer species are putting the conservation of the granite at Machu Picchu at risk
(University of the Basque Country) The UPV/EHU's IBeA research group has used a non-destructive methodology to determine the role of specific algae, lichens, mosses, cyanobacteria, etc. that may be causing exfoliation and delamination, which are degrading the Sacred Rock of Machu Picchu, one of the most important symbols in the Peruvian archaeological city. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

'Lack of cleaning' in brain cells is central to Alzheimer's disease
(University of Copenhagen The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences) An international research team with representation from the University of Copenhagen has created a better understanding of Alzheimer's. They have shown that the cleaning system of the brain cells, the so-called mitophagy, is very weakened in animals and humans with Alzheimer's. And when they improve the cleaning system in the animals, the Alzheimer's symptoms almost disappear. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

To tool or not to tool?
(University of Vienna) Flexible tool use is closely associated to higher mental processes such as the ability to plan actions. Now a group of cognitive biologists and comparative psychologists around Isabelle Laumer found out that the apes carefully weighed their options. To do so the apes considered the details such as differences in quality between the two food rewards and the functionality of the available tools in order to obtain a high quality food reward. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Anti-obesity Drug Discovery and Development - Volume 4
(Bentham Science Publishers) The fourth volume of the series brings forth cutting-edge reviews on topics related to the development of new medicines that can help treat obesity and related disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Artificial intelligence to boost Earth system science
(Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena) A study by German scientists from Jena and Hamburg shows that artificial intelligence (AI) can substantially improve our understanding of the climate and the Earth system. Especially the potential of deep learning has only partially been exhausted so far. In particular, complex dynamic processes can be better described with the help of AI. As a result, climate and Earth system models will be improved, with new models combining AI and physical modeling. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

In zebrafish eggs, most rapidly growing cell inhibits neighbors through mechanical signals
(Institute of Science and Technology Austria) In animal embryonic development a group of cells starts out all being the same. But then one cell puts the brake on its neighbors, sending inhibitory signals that stop their differentiation. The 'winning' cell, in the end, is different from its neighbors. Scientists at IST Austria now describe a new mechanism for lateral inhibition in a publication in today's edition of Cell: In zebrafish ovarian follicles, granulosa cells compete mechanically! (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Combo T cell and targeted therapy strategy for resistant melanoma with BRAF mutation
(The Wistar Institute) Collaborative research by The Wistar Institute and Moffitt Cancer Center has demonstrated that BRAF targeted therapies render resistant melanoma more sensitive to the attack of killer T cells. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Aloe sanguinalis, a new red Aloe from Somaliland
(Pensoft Publishers) Aloe sanguinalis, or Somali Red Aloe, forms large, conspicuous clumps and has blood red sap. Its clumps can easily be spotted from the road, but the species has only just been named and described in the open access journal PhytoKeys. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The smallest skeletons in the marine world observed in 3D by synchrotron techniques
(European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) Coccolithophores are microscopic marine algae that use carbon dioxide to grow and release carbon dioxide when they create their miniature calcite shells. Scientists from the CNRS, Le Mans Universit é , Sorbonne Universit é , Aix-Marseille Universit é and the ESRF, the European Synchrotron, have revealed the nano-level 3D structure of their calcite shells, providing new perspectives for assessment of the role of these tiny microorganisms in the global carbon cycle. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Shaping light lets 2D microscopes capture 4D data
(Rice University) Rice University researchers have created a method to design custom masks that transform 2D fluorescent microscopy images into 3D movies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Hop to it: Researchers evaluate rabbits' evolved resistance to myxoma virus
(Arizona State University) Partnering with the University of Cambridge and several other research institutes, Biodesign researchers, as part of Grant McFadden's Center of for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, validated the role of specific rabbit genes in contributing to this acquired resistance in research published in Science Magazine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Improved RNA data visualization method gets to the bigger picture faster
(Yale University) Like going from a pinhole camera to a Polaroid, a significant mathematical update to the formula for a popular bioinformatics data visualization method will allow researchers to develop snapshots of single-cell gene expression not only several times faster but also at much higher-resolution. Published in Nature Methods, this innovation by Yale mathematicians will reduce the rendering time of a million-point single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) data set from over three hours down to just fifteen minutes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Researchers discover a weakness in a rare cancer that could be exploited with drugs
(Rockefeller University) Researchers have identified a rare type of cancer cell that cannot make cholesterol, a key nutrient. By targeting this deficiency, scientists may be able to develop new strategies for treating the disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New molecular blueprint advances our understanding of photosynthesis
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have used one of the most advanced microscopes in the world to reveal the structure of a large protein complex crucial to photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into cellular energy. The finding will allow scientists to explore for the first time how the complex functions, and could have implications for the production of a variety of bioproducts, including plastic alternatives and biofuels. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Earth first origins project seeks to replicate the cradle of life
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) NASA's Astrobiology Program has awarded a $9 million grant to Earth First Origins project, led by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Assistant Professor Karyn Rogers,   to uncover the conditions on early Earth that gave rise to life by identifying, replicating, and exploring how prebiotic molecules and chemical pathways could have formed under realistic early Earth conditions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The human gut bacterial genotoxin colibactin alkylates DNA
Certain Escherichia coli strains residing in the human gut produce colibactin, a small-molecule genotoxin implicated in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. However, colibactin’s chemical structure and the molecular mechanism underlying its genotoxic effects have remained unknown for more than a decade. Here we combine an untargeted DNA adductomics approach with chemical synthesis to identify and characterize a covalent DNA modification from human cell lines treated with colibactin-producing E. coli. Our data establish that colibactin alkylates DNA with an unusual electrophilic cyclopropane. We show that this metabolite i...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wilson, M. R., Jiang, Y., Villalta, P. W., Stornetta, A., Boudreau, P. D., Carra, A., Brennan, C. A., Chun, E., Ngo, L., Samson, L. D., Engelward, B. P., Garrett, W. S., Balbo, S., Balskus, E. P. Tags: Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Bacterial warhead targets DNA
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ash, C. Tags: Microbiology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

A human P spliceosome structure
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news