Benjamin Fingerhut receives the ERC Starting Grant
(Forschungsverbund Berlin) Dr. Benjamin Fingerhut, junior group leader at the Max Born Institute (MBI), is recipient of the prestigious ERC Starting Grant 2018. The project addresses ultrafast biomolecular dynamics via a non-adiabatic theoretical approach. The award is granted by the European Research Council (ERC) to support excellent researchers at the beginning of their independent research careers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 27, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Study shows ocean acidification is having major impact on marine life
(University of Plymouth) Carbon dioxide emissions are killing off coral reefs and kelp forests as heat waves and ocean acidification damage marine ecosystems, scientists have warned. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 27, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Trilobites: Worker Ants: You Could Have Been Queens
Whether an ant becomes a worker or colony royalty may depend on insulin metabolism. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - July 26, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: KAREN WEINTRAUB Tags: Insects Genetics and Heredity Insulin Ants Biology and Biochemistry Rockefeller University Daniel Kronauer Source Type: news

Unidentifiable fossils: palaeontological problematica
Some fossils have never been identified.Mark Carnall takes a look at a selection of UFOs – unidentifiable fossil organismsPalaeontological research can yield an amazing amount of information about the lives of long dead organisms, as specific as the last meal consumed, the colour of feathers, or the precise depth at which a marine organism lived. However, there are some fossils which defy classification either because their remains are incomplete, because they don ’t bear a resemblance to any known form of life, or because they are just plain weird.There is a detailed vocabulary used to describe organisms which...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mark Carnall Tags: Fossils Biology Science Evolution Source Type: news

World's marine wilderness is dwindling
(University of Queensland) An international study led by University of Queensland scientists has found that only 13 per cent of the ocean can still be classified as wilderness.Researchers from UQ's School of Biological Sciences and international collaborators identified marine areas devoid of intense human impacts by analysing 19 stressors including commercial shipping, sediment runoff and several types of fishing. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Previously overlooked 'coral ticks' weaken degraded reefs
(Georgia Institute of Technology) A previously overlooked predator -- a thumbnail-sized snail -- could be increasing the pressure on coral reefs already weakened by the effects of overfishing, rising ocean temperatures, pollution and other threats. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Engineers track neural activity, muscle movement in ageless aquatic creatures
(Rice University) Rice University scientists developed microfluidics platforms to study the nervous system of the hydra, a squid-like creature with remarkable regenerative abilities. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

NASA-developed coating investigated for protecting Smithsonian specimens
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) A technology that has shielded some of NASA's highest-profile space observatories from potentially harmful molecular contamination is now being evaluated as a possible solution for protecting the Smithsonian Institution's cultural artifacts and natural-science specimens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The last wild ocean
(University of California - Santa Barbara) The world's marine wilderness is dwindling, according to research from UCSB and the University of Queensland. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Molecules from breast milk and seaweed suggest strategies for controlling norovirus
(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology) New research from several universities in Germany, to be published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, suggests that it may be easier than anticipated to find a compound that could be used as a food supplement to stop the spread of norovirus in children's hospitals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - July 26, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Mysteries of Okinawan habu venom decoded
(Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University) Scientists from OIST have helped sequence the entire genome of the Okinawan habu. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Night-time lighting changes how species interact
(University of Exeter) Night-time lighting from streetlights and other sources has complex and unexpected effects on communities of plants and animals, new research shows. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Changes to small RNA in sperm may help fertilization
(University of Massachusetts Medical School) UMass Medical School Professor Oliver J. Rando, M.D., Ph.D., sheds new light on the processes of fertilization and epigenetic inheritance in mammals. New research provides important insight into how epigenetics -- the study of inheritable traits that are carried outside the genome -- work from father to offspring. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Solution to medical mystery may help some children avoid bone marrow transplantation
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) Researchers have helped solve a decades-old mystery about which mutations are responsible for an inherited bone marrow disorder. The answer may allow some children to avoid the risk and expense of bone marrow transplantation, a common treatment for leukemia and bone marrow disorders. Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and UCSF, led the study, which appears today in the scientific journal JCI Insight.The disorder is myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Size is key in predicting how calcifying organisms will respond to ocean acidification
(Oregon State University) New research suggests size is the main factor that predicts how calcifying organisms will respond to ocean acidification. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Dr. Jekyll, Mr. Hyde: Study reveals healing mesenchymal cells morph and destroy muscles in models of spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy
(Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute) Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP), in collaboration with the Fondazione Santa Lucia IRCCS in Rome, have discovered a new disease-specific role in FAP cells in the development of muscle tissue wasting, indicating a potential new avenue for treating motor neuron diseases including spinal cord injury, ALS and spinal muscular atrophy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Tropical treetops are warming, putting sensitive species at risk
(Florida State University) New research from FSU scientists show that tropical forest canopies are warming significantly faster than air temperatures. That could mean major consequences for overall forest health. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

New technique offers faster, safer way to optimize industrial chemical reactions
(North Carolina State University) Researchers have developed a flow-based high-throughput screening technology that offers a faster, safer and less expensive means of identifying optimum conditions for performing high-pressure/high-temperature catalytic chemical reactions. The technique focuses on hydroformylation reactions, which are used to create a variety of commercial products. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

EPSRC announces £ 16 million investment in Supergen Energy Hubs and Solar Network
(Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) Three £ 5 million energy research hubs and a new £ 1 million network in solar energy that will build multidisciplinary collaborations between universities, academic bodies and industry were announced today by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Previously undiagnosed neurological disorder linked to gene IRF2BPL
(Baylor College of Medicine) Researchers discovered mutations of gene IRF2BPL that are associated with a previously undiagnosed neurological disorder. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Plant defense mechanisms
(Norwegian University of Science and Technology) Plants have to defend themselves against drought, enemies and disease. But different threats demand different responses. So how do plants know what's attacking them? And what do they do if one approach doesn't work? (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 26, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Report details harassment by famed biologist
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wadman, M. Tags: Scientific Community In Depth Source Type: news

Phase separation and gene control
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Transcriptome mapping in the 3D brain
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mao, S. Tags: Molecular Biology, Neuroscience twis Source Type: news

Using biology to remove cells
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Lavine, M. S. Tags: twil Source Type: news

Three-dimensional intact-tissue sequencing of single-cell transcriptional states
Retrieving high-content gene-expression information while retaining three-dimensional (3D) positional anatomy at cellular resolution has been difficult, limiting integrative understanding of structure and function in complex biological tissues. We developed and applied a technology for 3D intact-tissue RNA sequencing, termed STARmap (spatially-resolved transcript amplicon readout mapping), which integrates hydrogel-tissue chemistry, targeted signal amplification, and in situ sequencing. The capabilities of STARmap were tested by mapping 160 to 1020 genes simultaneously in sections of mouse brain at single-cell resolution w...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wang, X., Allen, W. E., Wright, M. A., Sylwestrak, E. L., Samusik, N., Vesuna, S., Evans, K., Liu, C., Ramakrishnan, C., Liu, J., Nolan, G. P., Bava, F.-A., Deisseroth, K. Tags: Molecular Biology, Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Coactivator condensation at super-enhancers links phase separation and gene control
Super-enhancers (SEs) are clusters of enhancers that cooperatively assemble a high density of the transcriptional apparatus to drive robust expression of genes with prominent roles in cell identity. Here we demonstrate that the SE-enriched transcriptional coactivators BRD4 and MED1 form nuclear puncta at SEs that exhibit properties of liquid-like condensates and are disrupted by chemicals that perturb condensates. The intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of BRD4 and MED1 can form phase-separated droplets, and MED1-IDR droplets can compartmentalize and concentrate the transcription apparatus from nuclear extracts. These ...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sabari, B. R., DallAgnese, A., Boija, A., Klein, I. A., Coffey, E. L., Shrinivas, K., Abraham, B. J., Hannett, N. M., Zamudio, A. V., Manteiga, J. C., Li, C. H., Guo, Y. E., Day, D. S., Schuijers, J., Vasile, E., Malik, S., Hnisz, D., Lee, T. I., Cisse, I Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Imaging dynamic and selective low-complexity domain interactions that control gene transcription
Many eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) contain intrinsically disordered low-complexity sequence domains (LCDs), but how these LCDs drive transactivation remains unclear. We used live-cell single-molecule imaging to reveal that TF LCDs form local high-concentration interaction hubs at synthetic and endogenous genomic loci. TF LCD hubs stabilize DNA binding, recruit RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II), and activate transcription. LCD-LCD interactions within hubs are highly dynamic, display selectivity with binding partners, and are differentially sensitive to disruption by hexanediols. Under physiological conditions, rapid a...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Chong, S., Dugast-Darzacq, C., Liu, Z., Dong, P., Dailey, G. M., Cattoglio, C., Heckert, A., Banala, S., Lavis, L., Darzacq, X., Tjian, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Mediator and RNA polymerase II clusters associate in transcription-dependent condensates
Models of gene control have emerged from genetic and biochemical studies, with limited consideration of the spatial organization and dynamics of key components in living cells. We used live-cell superresolution and light-sheet imaging to study the organization and dynamics of the Mediator coactivator and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directly. Mediator and Pol II each form small transient and large stable clusters in living embryonic stem cells. Mediator and Pol II are colocalized in the stable clusters, which associate with chromatin, have properties of phase-separated condensates, and are sensitive to transcriptional inhibi...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Cho, W.-K., Spille, J.-H., Hecht, M., Lee, C., Li, C., Grube, V., Cisse, I. I. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Bioelectronics: A New era in Medical Care Is on the Horizon
Bioelectronics, generally defined, isn't new. Doctors Rune Elmqvist and Ake Senning implanted the first pacemaker in 1958. FDA approved the first spinal cord stimulator (SCS) in 1989. While both solutions continue to help patients worldwide, smaller, more advanced technology has pushed bioelectronics into a new era. Researchers have developed novel methods to use electrical impulses to regulate the brain and/or nervous system, resulting in highly targeted, effective treatment. "While SCS benefits last as long as the device stimulates, and the pacemaker continually keeps the heart on path, we treat and hope to modify t...
Source: MDDI - July 25, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Heather R. Johnson Tags: Implants Electronics Source Type: news

Can a cat-poo parasite turn you into a millionaire?
Scientists have discovered that people infected with toxoplasmosis are more go-getting. But that doesn ’t mean we should all be trying to catch itName: Toxoplasma gondii.Location: All over the place.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - July 25, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Guardian Staff Tags: Cats Biology Health & wellbeing Pets Animals Life and style Science Source Type: news

Gene-edited plants and animals are GM foods, EU court rules
Landmark decision means gene-edited plants and animals will be regulated under the same rules as genetically modified organismsPlants and animals created by innovative gene-editing technology have been genetically modified and should be regulated as such, the EU ’s top court has ruled.Thelandmark decision ends 10 years of debate in Europe about what is – and is not – a GM food, with a victory for environmentalists, and a bitter blow to Europe’s biotech industry.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - July 25, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Arthur Neslen Tags: GM Plants Animals Farming Environment Science World news Europe Biology Genetics Source Type: news

Third Retraction for Harvard Cancer Biologist
The move follows two major corrections to a 2011 Nature paper, in which researchers demonstrated that a natural compound selectively kills cancer cells. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - July 25, 2018 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Healthy people experience glucose spikes similar to those seen in diabetes
According to a study in the journalPLOS Biology, people considered healthy can also experience sugar level fluctuations that are similar to those seen in diabetic patients.Medical Xpress (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Source: Society for Endocrinology - July 25, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news

Happy 40th Birthday IVF. Now let ’s discuss your dirty secret | Zeynep Gurtin
As the world ’s first IVF baby tuns 40, it’s time to make fertility treatment more widely available in the UK and abroadToday marks the40th anniversary of the first IVF birth. Louise Brown, born in Oldham General Hospital in 1978, was heralded by the world ’s press as a British medical marvel and a beacon of hope for people with fertility problems. Forty years later, IVF has unquestionably transformed the lives of millions of men and women, giving them the children they so deeply desired. But, despite its evident positives, IVF also hides a dirty se cret: its benefits remain largely limited to those who c...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - July 25, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zeynep Gurtin Tags: IVF Fertility problems Health Society NHS Health policy Public services policy Politics UK news Reproduction Biology Science Source Type: news

Amphibians face many challenges in Brazilian rain forest
(Michigan State University) Deforestation remains the biggest threat to animals that call the rain forest 'home.' However, even measured, sensible development projects can have unforeseen effects because there's no model to follow. Now, thanks to new research published in Ecological Applications, there's a guide to help land-use development and efforts to conserve amphibians, which are rapidly declining worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

UM professor receives award of excellence in fish physiology
(University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine& Atmospheric Science) MIAMI-- University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Professor Martin Grosell received the Award of Excellence in fish physiology from the American Fisheries Society. The award was presented to Grosell during the 13th International Congress on the Biology of Fish for his outstanding career contributions to the study of fish physiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Benefits of early antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children
(Institut Pasteur) The initial findings of the ANRS CLEAC study coordinated by Pierre Frange (H ô pital Necker -- AP-HP), help define the immunological and virological benefits of early antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children living in France. The results of this study will be presented by Florence Buseyne (Oncogenic Virus Epidemiology& Pathophysiology Team -- Institut Pasteur) this Wednesday, July 25 at the 22nd International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2018) being held in Amsterdam from July 23 to 26, 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Manure slipping through (soil) cracks
(American Society of Agronomy) A new study shows water infiltrates deeper into cracking clay when liquid hog manure is applied. The study also showed that even though water infiltration went deeper in the presence of manure, it did not reach depths of tile drains designed to remove excess subsurface water. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

This cat-borne parasite might just make you more entrepreneurial
(University of Colorado at Boulder) Infection from the globally prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii may increase a person's likelihood of pursuing entrepreneurial and business-related activities, new University of Colorado Boulder research finds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Team shatters theoretical limit on bio-hydrogen production
(University of Nebraska-Lincoln) A bacterium engineered at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln produced 46 percent more hydrogen per cell than a naturally occurring form of the same species. The team's highest reported yield -- 5.7 units of hydrogen for every unit of glucose fed to the bacterium -- easily surpassed the longstanding theoretical limit of 4 units. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Feds back Rice U. study of nanoscale electrocatalysis
(Rice University) The U.S. Department of Energy awards Rice University researchers $1.1 million to study single nanoparticles and their ability to act as electrocatalysts. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

University researchers discover new species of venomous snake
(Swansea University) Researchers at Swansea University's College of Science are part of an international team that has discovered a new species of venomous snake in Australia. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

First-time observation of genetic/physiological damage caused by nanoplastics in mussels
(Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona) Researchers at the UAB, in collaboration with the University of Aveiro, Portugal, were able to confirm for the first time that small concentrations of nanoplastics cause genetic and physiological damage in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The research was recently published in Science of the Total Environment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Fish body shape holds key to make fishery management cheaper, easier
(Smithsonian) A simple body-shape analysis can reveal what part of the ocean a fish came from, according to a new study from Smithsonian scientists working to develop better tools for managing small-scale fisheries. The researchers found that body-shape analysis reliably discriminated between yellowtail snapper caught at Caribbean fishing grounds just 5 kilometers apart -- and it did so more accurately than two more costly and technology-intensive techniques. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Creating 'synthetic' fossils in the lab sheds light on fossilization processes
(University of Bristol) A newly published experimental protocol, involving University of Bristol scientists, could change the way fossilization is studied. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

A new catalyst for water splitting that is the best of both worlds
(American Chemical Society) Taking water and ripping it apart into hydrogen and oxygen could form the basis of artificial photosynthetic devices that could ultimately power homes and businesses. However, catalysts, including those used to 'split' water, have either worked well but are expensive and unstable, or are affordable and stable, but don't work as well. Now, researchers report in ACS Central Science a new catalyst that is really the best of both worlds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The hidden hazards of antibiotic resistance genes in air
(American Chemical Society) People are often notified about poor air quality by weather apps, and this happens frequently in urban areas, where levels of outdoor pollution containing particulates and soot are high. But now scientists are reporting in ACS' Environmental Science& Technology that there is another type of air contaminant that they say isn't receiving enough attention: antibiotic-resistance genes. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Easy-Bake fossils
(Field Museum) Scientists have discovered a new way to simulate the fossilization process in a lab in about 24 hours. They take materials like feathers, lizard feet, and leaves and cook them in a lab oven under heat and pressure conditions that mimic what real fossils undergo. These 'Easy-Bake fossils' give us a better idea of how fossilization works and what kinds of biological materials can become fossils. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Among golden-crowned sparrows, a false crown only fools strangers
(University of California - Santa Cruz) Scientists studying winter flocks of golden-crowned sparrows at the UC Santa Cruz Arboretum have discovered surprisingly complex social behavior in these small migratory birds. A new study reveals that the sparrows have different ways to assess dominance status depending on whether the interaction is with a familiar bird or a stranger. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 25, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news