LSU Health awarded $2.5m grant to reduce stroke risk for obese women on contraceptives
(Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center) The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health has awarded Rinku Majumder, PhD, Associate Professor of Biochemistry& Molecular Biology at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, a $2.5 million grant over four years to help reduce the high stroke risk to women with obesity who take estrogen-containing birth control pills. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Toadlet peptide transforms into a deadly weapon against bacteria
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) Researchers at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Hamburg have discovered remarkable molecular properties of an antimicrobial peptide from the skin of the Australian toadlet. The discovery could inspire the development of novel synthetic drugs to combat bacterial infections (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Quantum computers to study the functioning of the molecules of life
(Universit à di Trento) A breakthrough that has implications for molecular biology, pharmacology and nanotechnologies. The fields of application are many. Identifying the mechanisms behind neurodegenerative processes in some proteins, for example, can help limit their proliferation. Understanding how a protein takes on a certain shape can open the way to use the nanomachines that nature has designed to cut, edit or block damaged or defective genes. Their study was published in the international academic journal Physical Review Letters (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 14, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Research breaks new ground in understanding how a molecular motor generates force
(University of Massachusetts Amherst) A team of biophysicists set out to tackle the long-standing question about the nature of force generation by myosin, the molecular motor responsible for muscle contraction. The key question they addressed - one of the most controversial topics in the field - was: how does myosin convert chemical energy, in the form of ATP, into mechanical work? The answer revealed new details into how myosin, the engine of muscle and related motor proteins, transduces energy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 14, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Phylodynamics for cell biologists
Multicellular organisms are composed of cells connected by ancestry and descent from progenitor cells. The dynamics of cell birth, death, and inheritance within an organism give rise to the fundamental processes of development, differentiation, and cancer. Technical advances in molecular biology now allow us to study cellular composition, ancestry, and evolution at the resolution of individual cells within an organism or tissue. Here, we take a phylogenetic and phylodynamic approach to single-cell biology. We explain how "tree thinking" is important to the interpretation of the growing body of cell-level data and...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Stadler, T., Pybus, O. G., Stumpf, M. P. H. Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only review Source Type: news

Structure of a transcribing RNA polymerase II-U1 snRNP complex
To initiate cotranscriptional splicing, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruits the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) to nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). Here, we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of a mammalian transcribing Pol II–U1 snRNP complex. The structure reveals that Pol II and U1 snRNP interact directly. This interaction positions the pre-mRNA 5' splice site near the RNA exit site of Pol II. Extension of pre-mRNA retains the 5' splice site, leading to the formation of a "growing intron loop." Loop formation may facilitate scanning of nascent pre-mRNA f...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Zhang, S., Aibara, S., Vos, S. M., Agafonov, D. E., Lührmann, R., Cramer, P. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news

Senolysis by glutaminolysis inhibition ameliorates various age-associated disorders
Removal of senescent cells (senolysis) has been proposed to be beneficial for improving age-associated pathologies, but the molecular pathways for such senolytic activity have not yet emerged. Here, we identified glutaminase 1 (GLS1) as an essential gene for the survival of human senescent cells. The intracellular pH in senescent cells was lowered by lysosomal membrane damage, and this lowered pH induced kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) expression. The resulting enhanced glutaminolysis induced ammonia production, which neutralized the lower pH and improved survival of the senescent cells. Inhibition of KGA-dependent glutamino...
Source: ScienceNOW - January 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Johmura, Y., Yamanaka, T., Omori, S., Wang, T.-W., Sugiura, Y., Matsumoto, M., Suzuki, N., Kumamoto, S., Yamaguchi, K., Hatakeyama, S., Takami, T., Yamaguchi, R., Shimizu, E., Ikeda, K., Okahashi, N., Mikawa, R., Suematsu, M., Arita, M., Sugimoto, M., Nak Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

A tight couple makes messenger RNAs
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - January 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jiang, D. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Mathematics explains how giant whirlpools form in developing egg cells
(Simons Foundation) Cell-spanning whirlpools in the immature egg cells of animals such as mice, zebrafish and fruit flies quickly mix the cells' innards, but scientists didn't know how these flows form. Using mathematical modeling, researchers have found an answer. The gyres result from the collective behavior of rodlike molecular tubes called microtubules that extend inward from the cells' membranes, the researchers report. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 13, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

EMBL becomes newest Instruct Centre
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) A major advance for structural biology provision within Europe has been achieved as Instruct-ERIC and EMBL join forces to launch Instruct Centre EMBL. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

FAU develops simplified COVID-19 diagnostic method to ramp up widespread testing
(Florida Atlantic University) A simplified COVID-19 testing protocol can detect minimal quantities of the SARS-CoV-2 using samples from the nose and throat as well as saliva and may be useful in testing patients with low viral titers such as asymptomatic patients or testing individuals prior to quarantine release. The high sensitivity method can be used in laboratories with minimal molecular biology equipment and expertise, and enables several patient samples to be pooled, decreasing the number of tests required for larger populations. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - January 12, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

New defense against dengue and emerging mosquito-borne viruses
(University of Queensland) New treatments to cut the global death rate from dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses could result from research led by The University of Queensland. Associate Professor Daniel Watterson from UQ's School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences said the team identified an antibody that improved survival rates in laboratory trials and reduced the presence of virus in the blood. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 7, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Developmental Biologist Kathryn Anderson Dies at 68
The Sloan Kettering researcher used mutagenic screening to probe genes and molecular pathways, including Toll and Hedgehog, essential to development in fruit flies and mice. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - January 6, 2021 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

A plant's way to its favorite food
(Institute of Science and Technology Austria) Nitrogen is one the most essential nutrients for plants. Its availability in the soil plays a major role in plant growth and development, thereby affecting agricultural productivity. Scientists at the IST Austria were now able to show, how plants adjust their root growth to varying sources of nitrogen. In a new study published in The EMBO Journal they give insights in the molecular pathways of roots adaptation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 5, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

HKUST Researchers Discover a Novel Mechanism of Recruiting Arf Family Proteins to specific subcellular localizations
(Hong Kong University of Science and Technology) Researchers of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) recently uncovered a novel molecular mechanism that regulates the subcellular localizations of Arf proteins, shedding light on the mechanism underlying various inherited diseases and offering new insight to the treatment of them. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 5, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Scientists discover how mother-of-pearl self-assembles into a perfect structure
(Technische Universit ä t Dresden) In a new study published in Nature Physics, researchers from the B CUBE - Center for Molecular Bioengineering at TU Dresden and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble describe, for the first time, that structural defects in self-assembling nacre attract and cancel each other out, eventually leading to a perfect periodic structure. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

In kefir, microbial teamwork makes the dream work
(European Molecular Biology Laboratory) While scientists know that microorganisms often live in communities and depend on their fellow community members for survival, mechanistic knowledge of this phenomenon has been quite limited. Researchers from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory combined a variety of state-of-the-art methods to better understand the microbial communities. This revealed that cooperation allows the microbes to do something they can't do alone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 4, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Detecting oxygen changes in the lungs
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zacharias, W. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology perspective Source Type: news

Co-co assembly for oligomers
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Protecting the lung from hypoxic stress
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Airway stem cells sense hypoxia and differentiate into protective solitary neuroendocrine cells
Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are epithelial cells that possess many of the characteristics of neurons, including the presence of secretory vesicles and the ability to sense environmental stimuli. The normal physiologic functions of solitary airway NE cells remain a mystery. We show that mouse and human airway basal stem cells sense hypoxia. Hypoxia triggers the direct differentiation of these stem cells into solitary NE cells. Ablation of these solitary NE cells during hypoxia results in increased epithelial injury, whereas the administration of the NE cell peptide CGRP rescues this excess damage. Thus, we identify stem cells...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Shivaraju, M., Chitta, U. K., Grange, R. M. H., Jain, I. H., Capen, D., Liao, L., Xu, J., Ichinose, F., Zapol, W. M., Mootha, V. K., Rajagopal, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Interactions between nascent proteins translated by adjacent ribosomes drive homomer assembly
In this study, we investigated whether direct interaction of two nascent proteins, emerging from nearby ribosomes (co-co assembly), constitutes a general mechanism for oligomer formation. We used proteome-wide screening to detect nascent chain–connected ribosome pairs and identified hundreds of homomer subunits that co-co assemble in human cells. Interactions are mediated by five major domain classes, among which N-terminal coiled coils are the most prevalent. We were able to reconstitute co-co assembly of nuclear lamin in Escherichia coli, demonstrating that dimer formation is independent of dedicated assembly machi...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 31, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bertolini, M., Fenzl, K., Kats, I., Wruck, F., Tippmann, F., Schmitt, J., Auburger, J. J., Tans, S., Bukau, B., Kramer, G. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

In plants, channels set the rhythm
(CNRS) Like animals, plants have 'molecular switches' on the surface of their cells that transduce a mechanical signal into an electrical one in milliseconds. In animals, sound vibrations activate 'molecular switches' located in the ear. French scientists have found that in plants, rapid oscillations of stems and leaves due to wind may activate these 'switches' very effectively. They could allow plants to 'listen' to the wind. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 29, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

IdentifySensors Biologics' at-home test can detect Covid-19 earlier, more accurately
The test's biggest advantage is its ability to accurately detect asymptomatic and early infections on a molecular level. (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines - December 28, 2020 Category: Health Management Authors: Mary Vanac Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS Special Topics - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS Patient Care - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS Operations - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS: Journal of Emergency Medical Services News - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS Latest News - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

Students Learn How to Save Lives with University of Rhode Island EMS
By Lauren Poirier University of Rhode Island’s Emergency Medical Services has dealt with almost every medical emergency you could imagine, from heart attacks to car accidents and from the flu to sports injuries. However, the 85 student volunteers who are the backbone of the service never expected they would be dealing with a worldwide pandemic in their undergraduate years. Even so, as one of the oldest collegiate emergency medical services in the country, which provides on-site emergency medical service and ambulance transport to area hospitals, the team wants the URI community to know that it has the skills ne...
Source: JEMS Administration and Leadership - December 25, 2020 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: JEMS Staff Tags: Operations Spotlight EMS Rhode Island Source Type: news

The thymus as key to healthy pregnancies
(IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) How the immune system adapts to pregnancy has puzzled researchers for decades. An international team of researchers, including scientists from IMBA (Institute of Molecular Biotechnology) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences has now discovered that important changes in the thymus occur in order to prevent miscarriages and gestational diabetes. The results are published in the journal Nature. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 23, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Coronavirus vaccine will be equally effective against new mutant of coronavirus: CSIR DG
The CSIR's Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (IGIB), Delhi and Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad have alone done sequencing of over 2,200 genome sequences of coronavirus in India. (Source: The Economic Times)
Source: The Economic Times - December 21, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Those We Lost in 2020
The scientific community bid farewell to researchers who furthered the fields of molecular biology, virology, sleep science, and immunology, among others. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - December 18, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

New mechanism of force transduction in muscle cells discovered
(University of M ü nster) Researchers at the University of M ü nster (Germany) have now discovered how the muscle-specific adhesion molecule metavinculin modulates mechanical force transduction on the molecular level. The research results have just been published in the journalNature Communications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 18, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

The Mark Foundation awards grants to accelerate new class of cancer drugs based on induced proximity
(The Mark Foundation for Cancer Research) The projects are centered around the molecular strategy of induced proximity, which involves controlling the physical distance between proteins to regulate or perturb biological processes in the cancer cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - December 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Turning the tables on microRNA decay
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Splicing machine shifts into gear
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jiang, D. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Mechanism of protein-guided folding of the active site U2/U6 RNA during spliceosome activation
Spliceosome activation involves extensive protein and RNA rearrangements that lead to formation of a catalytically active U2/U6 RNA structure. At present, little is known about the assembly pathway of the latter and the mechanism whereby proteins aid its proper folding. Here, we report the cryo–electron microscopy structures of two human, activated spliceosome precursors (that is, pre-Bact complexes) at core resolutions of 3.9 and 4.2 angstroms. These structures elucidate the order of the numerous protein exchanges that occur during activation, the mutually exclusive interactions that ensure the correct order of ribo...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Townsend, C., Leelaram, M. N., Agafonov, D. E., Dybkov, O., Will, C. L., Bertram, K., Urlaub, H., Kastner, B., Stark, H., Lührmann, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

The ZSWIM8 ubiquitin ligase mediates target-directed microRNA degradation
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to direct widespread posttranscriptional gene repression. Although association with AGO typically protects miRNAs from nucleases, extensive pairing to some unusual target RNAs can trigger miRNA degradation. We found that this target-directed miRNA degradation (TDMD) required the ZSWIM8 Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. This and other findings support a mechanistic model of TDMD in which target-directed proteolysis of AGO by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway exposes the miRNA for degradation. Moreover, loss-of-function studies indicated that the ZSWIM8 Cullin-RING lig...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Shi, C. Y., Kingston, E. R., Kleaveland, B., Lin, D. H., Stubna, M. W., Bartel, D. P. Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

A ubiquitin ligase mediates target-directed microRNA decay independently of tailing and trimming
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act in concert with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to repress target messenger RNAs. After AGO loading, miRNAs generally exhibit slow turnover. An important exception occurs when miRNAs encounter highly complementary targets, which can trigger a process called target-directed miRNA degradation (TDMD). During TDMD, miRNAs undergo tailing and trimming, suggesting that this is an important step in the decay mechanism. We identified a cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL), containing the substrate adaptor ZSWIM8, that mediates TDMD. The ZSWIM8 CRL interacts with AGO proteins, promotes TDMD in a tailing and trimming&n...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Han, J., LaVigne, C. A., Jones, B. T., Zhang, H., Gillett, F., Mendell, J. T. Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Celia Milstein obituary
My friend Celia Milstein, who has died aged 92, was among those who contributed to the invention of monoclonal antibodies, which led to the Nobel prize for medicine of 1984, won by her husband,C ésar Milstein, with Georges Kohler and Niels Jerne. Monoclonal antibodies are used in both treatment and diagnosis of diseases, including cancers, and are being trialled against Covid-19.Celia was born and grew up in the outskirts of Buenos Aires, to Efrain Prilleltensky, an accountant, and his wife, Ana (nee Davidson), both immigrants from the Ukraine who spoke Yiddish. She recalled her childhood as full of beauty.Continue ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - December 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Peter Lawrence Tags: Immunology Medicine Biochemistry and molecular biology Education Medical research Science Source Type: news

Undruggable diseases gain a new RNA drug-discovery tool
(Scripps Research Institute) A new RNA-targeting tool enables scientists to tackle difficult molecular recognition problems to aid drug discovery for incurable diseases. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 15, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Biomarkers could help predict severe SARS-CoV-2 infection
(EMBO) Molecular markers in the blood shown to be predictive of severe COVID-19 outcomes resulting from SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infection have been identified in a study by a Chinese research team. The study results extend understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical progress of COVID-19 with potential for identifying early during the course of infection which individuals are most at risk of developing severe conditions and requiring hospital care. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 14, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Why does exercise make some people healthier than others?
(Pennington Biomedical Research Center) Why do some people benefit so much from exercise while others enjoy few health gains or even suffer harm? Does age matter when it comes to exercise's health benefits? Are there " molecular signatures " - sets of genes, proteins and other variables ¬ that reveal the answers?Researchers at Pennington Biomedical Research Center plan to answer these and related questions with a new $2.5 million award from the National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Aging. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

How AI could make therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer more accurate, affordable
(Salesforce) Deep learning-enabled breast cancer technology could make breast cancer therapy decisions more accurate, affordable and accessible. For newly diagnosed breast cancer, estrogen receptor status (ERS) is a key molecular marker used for prognosis and treatment decisions. This is an expensive, time-consuming process. Here we show that machine learning can determine molecular marker status. Our approach could augment clinicians' capabilities in cancer prognosis and theragnosis by harnessing biological signals imperceptible to the human eye. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A matter of balance: asymmetric divisions are crucial to form a functional retina
(Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia) Researchers at the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ci ê ncia and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden, Germany, have discovered that in the developing retina, and important part of the central nervous system, the divisions leading to the first differentiating neurons are asymmetric and that this asymmetry is necessary to generate the correct types of neurons in the right numbers and proportions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - December 11, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

CiBER-seq dissects genetic networks
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 10, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Genetics, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Trunk formation in a dish
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - December 10, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Development, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Developmental clock and mechanism of de novo polarization of the mouse embryo
Embryo polarization is critical for mouse development; however, neither the regulatory clock nor the molecular trigger that it activates is known. Here, we show that the embryo polarization clock reflects the onset of zygotic genome activation, and we identify three factors required to trigger polarization. Advancing the timing of transcription factor AP-2 gamma (Tfap2c) and TEA domain transcription factor 4 (Tead4) expression in the presence of activated Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) induces precocious polarization as well as subsequent cell fate specification and morphogenesis. Tfap2c and Tead4 induce expression of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 10, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhu, M., Cornwall-Scoones, J., Wang, P., Handford, C. E., Na, J., Thomson, M., Zernicka-Goetz, M. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Mouse embryonic stem cells self-organize into trunk-like structures with neural tube and somites
Post-implantation embryogenesis is a highly dynamic process comprising multiple lineage decisions and morphogenetic changes that are inaccessible to deep analysis in vivo. We found that pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) form aggregates that upon embedding in an extracellular matrix compound induce the formation of highly organized "trunk-like structures" (TLSs) comprising the neural tube and somites. Comparative single-cell RNA sequencing analysis confirmed that this process is highly analogous to mouse development and follows the same stepwise gene-regulatory program. Tbx6 knockout TLSs developed ad...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 10, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Veenvliet, J. V., Bolondi, A., Kretzmer, H., Haut, L., Scholze-Wittler, M., Schifferl, D., Koch, F., Guignard, L., Kumar, A. S., Pustet, M., Heimann, S., Buschow, R., Wittler, L., Timmermann, B., Meissner, A., Herrmann, B. G. Tags: Development, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news