Beyond CAR T Cells: Other Cell-Based Immunotherapeutic Strategies Against Cancer

Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors feature a costimulatory signal—enhancing T cell activation following recognition of the target antigen. These modified T cells have collectively shown promising success rates, particularly against hematologic malignancies (1), with growing excitement for these novel treatments (2). Pioneering work at the NIH resulted in promising therapies for melanoma (3) and synovial sarcoma (4). Some of these therapies have been approved as licensed drugs. CAR T cells targeting commonly overexpressed leukemia and lymphoma markers such as CD19 have shown promise in the prevention and treatment of malignancies such as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and other B cell malignancies (5–8). These CD19-CAR Phase I and II trials have demonstrated safety...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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ConclusionHCV core and IL-22 and SOCS-3 molecules are found to be correlated statistically under this study. Concluded from this study that HCV core protein plays a potential role in diverging the hepatocytes from normal to carcinogenic. One cell signaling path cannot decide, the direct role of a single viral protein in developing viral induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Interpreting the complex network of cell signaling involved in HCC development is impractical to study under single study. That is why step by step unmasking the interactive role of few molecules under single study is the ideal way to resolve the impact of vira...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we found that Lnc-OC1 was significantly higher in PCOS granulosa cells (GCs) compared to non-PCOS GCs. Lnc-OC1 knockdown inhibited cell viability and promoted cell apoptosis, expression of aromatase mRNA and production of estradiol in KGN cells. In PCOS mice, Lnc-OC1 promoted the serum insulin release, production of angiogenesis-related factors and IκBα phosphorylation, which could be partially restored by Lnc-OC1 shRNA. These results suggest that Lnc-OC1 plays an important part in the pathogenesis of PCOS.
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Yuanlin Wu, Jing Li, Parham Jabbarzadeh Kaboli, Jing Shen, Xu Wu, Yueshui Zhao, Huijiao Ji, Fukuan Du, Yejiang Zhou, Yongzhou Wang, Hanyu Zhang, Jianhua Yin, Qinglian Wen, Chi Hin Cho, Mingxing Li, Zhangang XiaoAbstractNatural killer (NK) cells are immune cells which are able to kill tumor and virus-infected cells and play an important role in both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Tumor immunotherapy is an emerging model of tumor treatment in the clinic. It is a re-emerging type of anticancer immunotherapy with the purpose o...
Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 February 2020Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Namita P. Tipnis, Jie Shen, Derek Jackson, Daniel Leblanc, Diane J. BurgessAbstractThe main objective of the current research was to develop a compendial flow-through cell apparatus based in vitro release testing method for sustained-release triamcinolone acetonide–loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres. Media-based and instrument-based parameters, such as surfactant type, concentration, media volume, flow rate, and testing temperature, were investigated. In addition, a detailed exploration w...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAmong uninsured and underinsured asthma patients with GAD and/or MDD who were initiated on a single antidepressant, those who were titrated to achieve target doses had reduced risk of severe asthma exacerbations and lower number of asthma ÔÇÉrelated outcomes than those who were not optimized to achieve target doses.
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusions: This retrospective registry-based study provides a picture of CIED first implants in HCM patients in a Swedish tertiary university hospital. ICDs were the most commonly implanted devices, covering 59% of CIED implants. HCM patients receiving a pacemaker or an ICD had different epidemiological and clinical profiles. PMID: 32054352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal - Category: Cardiology Tags: Scand Cardiovasc J Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Cristina Florean, Mario Dicato, Marc DiederichAbstractThe recent advances in cancer immunotherapy confirm the crucial role of the immune system in cancer progression and treatment. Chronic inflammation and reduced immune surveillance are both features of the tumor microenvironment. Strategies aimed at reverting pro-tumor inflammation and stimulating the antitumor immune components are being actively searched, and the anticancer effects of many candidate drugs have been linked to their ability to modulate the immune system. Marin...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Cheng YW, Fischer M Abstract Introduction: Up to 15% of hospitalized patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) develop severe CDI (SCDI) or Fulminant CDI (FCDI). Due to high rates of mortality in medically-refractory CDI cases, 30% of patients with severe infection historically require surgical intervention. However, colectomy itself is an imperfect solution because it is difficult to predict who will fail medical therapy, patients with SCDI are more likely to have underlying medical conditions that make them poor surgical candidates, and post-surgical mortality still approaches 30-50%.Areas c...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 February 2020Source: Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical CareAuthor(s): Sima Patel, Andrea Estevez, Nicholas Nedeff, Jose Gascon, Ilde LeeAbstractAcross the United States (U.S.), very few centers exist with an intensive care unit (ICU) solely dedicated to obstetrics (OB) and gynecology (GYN) patients. The management of obstetric patients, who are admitted to a general intensive care unit, can often be accompanied by a fair share of apprehension owing to the intricacy of care. Rather than discussing common obstetric emergencies and their management, we would like to call attention to bas...
Source: Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care - Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe variability of radiocholine uptake in adrenal glands depends probably on overall body metabolism and hypophyseal function expressed by statistically significant correlation with liver and pituitary gland uptake.Predominant focal or mixed with focal areas uptake patterns on positron emission tomography in normal in computed tomography adrenal glands should be assessed with caution to avoid a diagnostic mistake.
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
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