Beyond CAR T Cells: Other Cell-Based Immunotherapeutic Strategies Against Cancer

Conclusions: CAR T cell therapies have demonstrated the clinical benefits of harnessing our body's own defenses to combat tumor cells. Similar research is being conducted on lesser known modifications and gene-modified immune cells, which we highlight in this review. Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors and engineered T cell receptors (based on previously identified high affinity T cell receptors) function by redirecting T cells to a predefined tumor-specific (or tumor-associated) target. Most of these modifications use retroviral or lentiviral vectors to integrate the construct, and most of the receptors feature a costimulatory signal—enhancing T cell activation following recognition of the target antigen. These modified T cells have collectively shown promising success rates, particularly against hematologic malignancies (1), with growing excitement for these novel treatments (2). Pioneering work at the NIH resulted in promising therapies for melanoma (3) and synovial sarcoma (4). Some of these therapies have been approved as licensed drugs. CAR T cells targeting commonly overexpressed leukemia and lymphoma markers such as CD19 have shown promise in the prevention and treatment of malignancies such as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and other B cell malignancies (5–8). These CD19-CAR Phase I and II trials have demonstrated safety...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In this study, we found that the PPL length of Korean SG isolates varied from 11 to 21 prolines and was longer than that of a live vaccine strain, SG 9R (9 prolines). According to growth competition in chickens, the growth of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 17 prolines exceeded that of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 15 prolines. We investigated the pseudogenes of the field isolates, SG 9R and reference strains in GenBank by resequencing and comparative genomics. The pseudogene profiles of the field isolates were notably different from those of the foreign SG strains, and they were subdivided into 7 pseudogene subgro...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sante Roperto, Valeria Russo, Francesca De Falco, Alessandra Rosati, Cornel Catoi, Franco RopertoAbstractE5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the bovine Deltapapillomavirus genus, has been detected in 17 of the 19 urothelial cancers by molecular and morphological procedures. In 10 urothelial cancers, the oxygen sensitive subunit HIF-1α, which is upregulated by hypoxia, was overexpressed. Mitophagy, the selective autophagic removal of dysfunctional mitochondria, was upregulated in hypoxic neoplastic cells infected by BPVs which was...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Preventive Veterinary MedicineAuthor(s): Ricardo Lopes, Amanda Brinch Kruse, Liza Rosenbaum Nielsen, Telmo Pina Nunes, Lis AlbanAbstractIn modern livestock farming, there is an increasing understanding that antimicrobial (AM) consumption must be kept low – preferably without compromising animal welfare or productivity. This requires an understanding of the relationship between AM use, productivity, biosecurity, vaccination and herd demographics. To obtain this, we undertook an Additive Bayesian Network analysis using data from 2014-15, covering 157 Danish sow herd...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of SolidsAuthor(s): D. Alburquenque, L. Troncoso, J.C. Denardin, J.F. Marco, J.L. GautierAbstractManganese nickel oxides with a spinel-related structure, NixMn3-xO4-δ (x = 0.5 or 0.75), were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted sol-gel method. Inductively coupled plasma atomic optical emission spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed good agreement with the nominal oxide compositions. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray data indicated that both Ni0.5Mn2.5O4-δ and Ni0.75Mn2.25O4-δ cryst...
Source: Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Authors: Vigna L, Morelli F, Agnelli GM, Napolitano F, Ratto D, Occhinegro A, Di Iorio C, Savino E, Girometta C, Brandalise F, Rossi P Abstract Epidemiological data indicate that subjects affected by obesity have an increased risk of developing mood disorders. The relationship between obesity and mood disorders is bidirectional. We assessed whether a Hericium erinaceus treatment improved depression, anxiety, sleep, and binge eating disorders after 8 weeks of supplementation in subjects affected by overweight or obesity under a low calorie diet regimen. Looking for a possible clinical biomarker, we assessed the seru...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: Formal consensus was achieved for the first time on a core list of knowledge items on how exercises and physical activities might stimulate anticancer immunity. This core list might be considered at the time of developing training/educational interventions and/or continuing education for primary healthcare providers and CAM practitioners. Future studies are still needed to investigate if such consensual lists might improve congruence in cancer care continuum and improve survival rates and wellbeing of cancer patients and survivors. PMID: 31118968 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Oei SL, Thronicke A, Schad F Abstract In early tumor development, cancer cells develop a plethora of strategies to escape surveillance from the adaptive and innate immune system. Cancer immunotherapies, in particular immune checkpoint inhibitors, are becoming a highly promising cancer therapeutic approach that has remarkable increased progress in combating various cancer types. Unfortunately, their mechanisms of action induce some complications, such as inflammatory reactions and immune-related adverse events. In the management of side effects during anticancer therapy, complementary and integrative therap...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Zhang J, Zhong Z, Yao Z, Qu S, Huang Y Abstract Electroacupuncture (EA) is considered a complementary therapy for depression. Trials also found that EA has additive benefits when combined with medication compared with medication alone. It is revealed that EA restores altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity in depressed brain. But precise molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of EA and EA combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on depressed (CUMS) rats. Then a new proteomics approach, isobaric tag for relative and absolute ...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 May 2019Source: Biosensors and BioelectronicsAuthor(s): Shao Su, Qian Sun, Ling Wan, Xiaodan Gu, Dan Zhu, Yi Zhou, Jie Chao, Lianhui WangAbstractUltrasensitive detection of cancer biomarkers has shown great promise for precision medicine. Here, a triple signal amplification strategy was developed for analysis of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by using MoS2-based nanocomposites. Gold nanoparticles-decorated molybdenum disulfide nanocomposite (MoS2-AuNPs) was used to construct the modified electrode and nanoprobe, which could efficiently amplify electrochemical signal due to its large su...
Source: Biosensors and Bioelectronics - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2019Source: Molecular Aspects of MedicineAuthor(s): Ester Saus, Susana Iraola-Guzmán, Jesse R. Willis, Anna Brunet-Vega, Toni GabaldónAbstractThe gastrointestinal tract harbors most of the microbiota associated with humans. In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in assessing the relationships between the gut microbiota and several gut alterations, including colorectal cancer. Changes in the gut microbiota in patients suffering colorectal cancer suggest a possible role of host-microbe interactions in the origin and development of this malignancy and, at th...
Source: Molecular Aspects of Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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