Virus Control of Cell Metabolism for Replication and Evasion of Host Immune Responses

Virus Control of Cell Metabolism for Replication and Evasion of Host Immune Responses María Maximina B. Moreno-Altamirano1*, Simon E. Kolstoe2 and Francisco Javier Sánchez-García1* 1Laboratorio de Inmunorregulación, Departamento de Inmunología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico 2School of Health Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom Over the last decade, there has been significant advances in the understanding of the cross-talk between metabolism and immune responses. It is now evident that immune cell effector function strongly depends on the metabolic pathway in which cells are engaged in at a particular point in time, the activation conditions, and the cell microenvironment. It is also clear that some metabolic intermediates have signaling as well as effector properties and, hence, topics such as immunometabolism, metabolic reprograming, and metabolic symbiosis (among others) have emerged. Viruses completely rely on their host's cell energy and molecular machinery to enter, multiply, and exit for a new round of infection. This review explores how viruses mimic, exploit or interfere with host cell metabolic pathways and how, in doing so, they may evade immune responses. It offers a brief outline of key metabolic pathways, mitochondrial function and metabolism-related signaling pathways, followed by examples of the mechanisms ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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