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What Causes Hyponatremia?
Discussion Normal kidneys regulate water balance to maintain a plasma osmolality of 275-290 mOsm/kg normally. Thirst and arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are the primary regulators of plasma osmolality. ADH is made in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidney’s distal collecting duct to increase water reabsorption. ADH is appropriately released in hypovolemic states, such as dehydration caused by gastroenteritis. ADH has an ~10 minute half-life and therefore can respond to rapid changes in volume status. Sodium balance is regulated by aldosterone (as part...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - April 23, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: pediatriceducationmin Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

World Immunization Week 2018: Protected Together, #VaccinesWork
22 April 2018, Cairo – This year’s World Immunization Week campaign, celebrated from 24 to 30 April, aims to highlight that protecting entire communities with vaccines protects everyone and so the theme of this year’s campaign is “Protected Together, #VaccinesWork”.  Immunization is one of the most successful and cost-effective health interventions. Studies show that every US$ 1 spent on childhood immunization returns US$ 44 in economic and social benefits.  Immunization protects everyone – from infants to senior citizens – against disabling illnesses, disability a...
Source: WHO EMRO News - April 22, 2018 Category: Middle East Health Source Type: news

Fall 2018 flu vaccine will be 20 percent effective, study predicts
This fall's flu vaccine will be 20 percent effective for the dominant circulating strain of influenza A, the same as shots given the past two years. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - April 19, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Kenya:Kenya Doesn't Have a Flu Vaccine Policy. Why It Needs One for Babies
[The Conversation Africa] Each year the World Health Organisation gathers data on influenza strains and recommends which strains countries should include in formulating vaccines for the next year. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Study predicts 2018 flu vaccine will have 20 percent efficacy
(Rice University) A Rice University study of 6,610 human flu sequences predicts that this fall's flu vaccine will likely have the same reduced efficacy against the dominant circulating strain of influenza A as the vaccine given in 2016 and 2017 due to viral mutations related to vaccine production in eggs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

2018 National Adult and Influenza Immunization Summit
May 17-18, 2018; Atlanta, GA. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Source: PHPartners.org - April 16, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

South Africa:North West On Bird Flu Outbreak in Parts of the Province
[Govt of SA] The Department of Rural, Environment and Agricultural Development (READ) would like to confirm that parts of the Bokone Bophirima province has been hit by an outbreak of High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) commonly known as Bird Flu. Two of the outbreaks are in Madibeng (in Bojanala Platinum District) and one in Maquassie Hills. One of the outbreaks involving commercial flock involves quails that are hatched, grown and slaughtered on the farm. The second outbreak in Madibeng involved wild ducks that wer (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - April 16, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Flu Outbreaks Genome Sequencing to Define Institutional Flu Outbreaks
Is routine genome sequencing a useful means of defining influenza outbreaks in hospitals or long-term care facilities?Emerging Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - April 12, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary Supplements During an Influenza Pandemic
Drug Safety (Source: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research - What's New)
Source: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research - What's New - April 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news

VaxArray rapid response to seasonal strain changes for influenza vaccines
(InDevR, Inc.) InDevR expanded its license agreement with the Technology Transfer Program at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to address strain changes recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for 2018/2019 seasonal influenza vaccines. The new VaxArray ® Influenza Seasonal HA reagent kit (v2.0) has improved sensitivity to the latest A/H3N2 and B/Victoria-like viruses. Version 2.0 of the potency test is available now for evaluation and will be available for purchase by April 21, 2018. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Genetic screening tool identifies how the flu infiltrates cells
(University of Chicago Medical Center) Researchers at the University of Chicago have developed a genetic screening tool that identified two key factors that allow the influenza virus to infect human lung cells. The technique uses new gene editing tools to create a library of modified cells, each missing a different gene, allowing scientists to see which changes impact their response to flu. This in turn could identify potential targets for antiviral drugs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - April 10, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Infectious Diseases A-Z: Number of flu cases dropping; season not over
The number of flu cases is dropping, but flu season is not over. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says many states still are reporting flu cases, with influenza B more frequently reported than influenza A. ?The influenza season at this time has tapered off substantially," says Dr. Pritish Tosh, an infectious diseases [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)
Source: News from Mayo Clinic - April 9, 2018 Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: news

How This Flu Season Could Have A Second Wave
What do recent numbers from the CDC on influenza A and Influenza B say? And what should you do? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - April 7, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Bruce Y. Lee, Contributor Source Type: news

This Flu Season Could Have A Second Wave
What do recent numbers from the CDC on influenza A and Influenza B say? And what should you do? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - April 7, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Bruce Y. Lee, Contributor Source Type: news

Research offers clues for improved influenza vaccine design
These efforts contribute to NIAID ’s larger plan to develop a universal influenza vaccine. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases - April 6, 2018 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Second wave of flu season hits U.S.
The winter season ended last month, but that doesn't mean you are no longer in danger of getting the flu as a B strain of influenza causes a late-season wave. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - April 6, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Impact of Initial Influenza Exposure on Immunity in Infants (U01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
Funding to establish, follow, and characterize longitudinal cohorts of infants to determine how initial and repeated natural influenza infections and/or influenza vaccinations shape infant and childhood immunity to future influenza exposures. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide key information to facilitate design of durable, broadly protective influenza vaccines. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Source: PHPartners.org - April 6, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A third of health practitioners do not get vaccinated against flu
This NIHR Signal found flu vaccination uptake amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) in England is below NHS target of 75%. This suggests that efforts to improve immunisation uptake must start with education about the benefits of influenza immunisation for HCWs themselves (Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH))
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - April 6, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Research offers clues for improved influenza vaccine design
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Influenza vaccines that better target the influenza surface protein called neuraminidase (NA) could offer broad protection against various influenza virus strains and lessen the severity of illness, according to new research published in Cell. The new research builds on previous studies of NA and was conducted by a team of scientists including investigators from the Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) program, which is organized and funded by NIAID. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - April 6, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

For a better influenza vaccine, focus on the neglected 'N'
(University of Chicago Medical Center) In the April 5, 2018, issue of the journal Cell, researchers push for greater emphasis on the neglected viral-surface influenza protein neuraminidase. For decades, flu vaccines have concentrated on hemagglutinin. The authors maintain that a focus on neuraminidase could lower infection rates and lessen severity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - April 5, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

In promoting vaccination, behavioral strategies more effective than persuasion
(Association for Psychological Science) Faced with outbreaks of influenza and other vaccine-preventable diseases, parents, educators, healthcare providers, and policymakers around the world often want to know how to persuade people to get their vaccinations. But a comprehensive review of the scientific findings from research on vaccination behavior shows that the most effective interventions focus directly on shaping patients' and parents' behavior instead of trying to change their minds. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - April 4, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New CDC Director Named
Dr. Robert Redfield has been named the new director for the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) by Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar. The position does not require Senate confirmation. The announcement came on March 21, 2018, a couple of months after former CDC Director Brenda Fitzgerald resigned from the position because of her myriad conflicts of interest arising from her failure to divest from investments in tobacco and healthcare companies. Redfield, a virologist and professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, has an extensive background in HIV/AIDS research. He manages...
Source: Public Policy Reports - April 2, 2018 Category: Biology Authors: AIBS Source Type: news

Recombinant Influenza Vaccine Found to Be Safe in Children
MONDAY, April 2, 2018 -- The recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) is well tolerated in children aged 6 to 17 years, and it provides immunogenicity comparable to that of the inactivated vaccine, according to a study published online April 2 in... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - April 2, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers: Interpreting CDC Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel-Influenza A(H7) [Eurasian Lineage] Assay Test Results
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 03/27/2018 This two-page fact sheet provides information about the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s issuing of an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Human Influenza Virus Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel-Influenza A(H7) [Eurasian Lineage] Assay to test for the presumptive presence of novel influenza A(H7N9) virus in several clinical specimens. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - April 1, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

Rate of MI, Stroke Higher After Respiratory Infection
Substantially increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke in week after S. pneumoniae or influenza (Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge)
Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge - March 30, 2018 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Cardiology, Family Medicine, Infections, Internal Medicine, Neurology, Pathology, Pulmonology, Journal, Source Type: news

With Warmer Weather Comes Wrap-Up of Severe Flu Season
FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 -- Spring continues to take the bite out of this year's brutal flu season, new numbers show. For starters: yet another drop was seen in doctor visits, and less severe strains of influenza are becoming ever more dominant. But... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - March 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Rate of MI, Stroke Higher After Respiratory Infection
FRIDAY, March 30, 2018 -- The risk for myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke remains higher after laboratory-confirmed Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza, according to a study published March 21 in the European Respiratory Journal. Charlotte... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - March 30, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Ask Well: Can You Get Two Colds at Once?
People can, and often do, get infected with multiple germs. Sometimes it helps; sometimes it hurts. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 30, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: RICHARD KLASCO, M.D. Tags: Viruses Colds Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Influenza Hepatitis Source Type: news

Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness Influenza Risk Assessment Tool for Prepandemic Preparedness
An influenza risk assessment tool developed by the CDC could have important implications for pre-pandemic preparedness.Emerging Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - March 29, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

Flu! The 1918 Spanish Influenza in American and World History
July 9-27, 2018; Blacksburg Virginia and Washington DC. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Source: PHPartners.org - March 27, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

A Second Wave of Flu May Be On the Way, CDC Warns
Flu season may have peaked in February, but we’re not out of the woods yet. The bulk of this year’s deadly flu season was dominated by the H3N2 virus, an influenza A strain that is more severe and less receptive to vaccines than other types of the disease. As the season winds down, however, influenza B has overtaken influenza A, setting the scene for a possible second wave of flu, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data. While flu activity nationwide has dropped to just above non-flu-season levels, influenza B viruses were reported more frequently than influenza A viruses during the w...
Source: TIME: Health - March 27, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jamie Ducharme Tags: Uncategorized healthytime onetime public health Source Type: news

Infectious Diseases A-Z: Prevent norovirus with good hand hygiene
Norovirus is a highly contagious infection. It's a?leading cause of illness and outbreaks from contaminated food in the U.S., and is often described by those affected as?a stomach flu. "When most people refer to a stomach flu, they?re not referring to influenza at all," says Dr. Pritish Tosh, an infectious diseases specialist at Mayo Clinic. [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)
Source: News from Mayo Clinic - March 26, 2018 Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: news

Ask Well: Do Face Masks Really Keep You Healthy?
Wearing a mask may protect you from infecting others or your own chances of getting sick, but they are far from foolproof. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 23, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: RICHARD KLASCO, M.D. Tags: Masks Protective Clothing and Gear Influenza Epidemics Hygiene and Cleanliness Source Type: news

Human infection with a seasonal reassortant A(H1N2) influenza virus – Netherlands
On 20 March 2018, the National International Health Regulations focal point for the Netherlands notified WHO about a human infected with a new reassortant A(H1N2) of seasonal influenza viruses that was detected in the routine sentinel influenza surveillance for influenza-like illness and other acute respiratory infections in the Netherlands. The patient is a child aged less than two years old, who had onset of symptoms in early March 2018. He was seen by a general practitioner, but did not require hospitalization and has fully recovered. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - March 23, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news

How Not to Get Sick on a Plane? Choose Your Seat Wisely
That coughing person in seat 14C? Make sure you ’ re at least two rows away. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - March 22, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: NICHOLAS BAKALAR Tags: Airlines and Airplanes Influenza Coughs Bathrooms and Toilets Hygiene and Cleanliness Source Type: news

University of Maryland School of Medicine experts lead trial on avian flu vaccine
(University of Maryland School of Medicine) Vaccine experts at the University of Maryland School of Medicine have begun multiple clinical trials of vaccines designed to protect against H7N9, an avian influenza virus that was first reported in humans in 2013 in China. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 22, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

New flu forecasting system being rolled out; will aggressively push toxic vaccines with "science" propaganda
(Natural News) Researchers from the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health in New York City have come up with a new tracking system that they claim will be able to predict the geographic spread of seasonal influenza before it starts to run its course. Published in the journal PNAS, a paper outlining the new... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - March 21, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Next flu pandemic could kill 886,000 people in the UK says BBC show
UK Government officials have previously warned an outbreak of a mutated influenza strain is on the horizon and poses a bigger threat to humanity than terrorism. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - March 21, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

NLM Joins National Capital Area Institutions to Host " Flu! The 1918 Spanish Influenza in American and World History, " a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Seminar for K-12 Teachers
During the week of July 16, 2018, NLM will join the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Records Administration, and The Catholic University of America, to host Flu! The 1918 Spanish Influenza in American and World History, a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) Summer Seminar for K-12 Teachers, organized by Virginia Tech through an NEH grant to that institution. (Source: News from the National Library of Medicine)
Source: News from the National Library of Medicine - March 20, 2018 Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: news

NLM Joins National Capital Area Institutions to Host
During the week of July 16, 2018, NLM will join the Library of Congress, the National Archives and Records Administration, and The Catholic University of America, to host Flu! The 1918 Spanish Influenza in American and World History, a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) Summer Seminar for K-12 Teachers, organized by Virginia Tech through an NEH grant to that institution. (Source: NLM General Announcements)
Source: NLM General Announcements - March 20, 2018 Category: Databases & Libraries Source Type: news

Clusters of Human Infection and Transmission of Influenza A Clusters of Human Infection and Transmission of Influenza A
An analysis of clusters of human infections during epidemics of influenza A virus sheds light on the human-to-human transmissibility of the virus.Emerging Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - March 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases Journal Article Source Type: news

UAB approved to test avian flu vaccines
UAB ’s School of Medicine’s Alabama Vaccine Research Clinic has been selected as a national trial site to test a new avian flu vaccine. The clinic is one of four national trial sites to test a candidate for the H7N9, a strain of the avian influenza.  The trial is sponsored by the National Instit ute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, part of the National Institutes of Health, with the purpose of having an effective vaccine ready for any future H7N9 pandemic. “We are excited for the opportunity… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care News Headlines - March 19, 2018 Category: Health Management Authors: Tyler Patchen Source Type: news

Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Training
World Health Organization. 03/2018 This course provides a general overview of influenza and in-depth training on the purpose and procedures involved in conducting sentinel influenza surveillance. Participants learn through a combination of online lectures with interactive content and downloadable scenario-based activities that help them to apply the concepts learned. The course provides a public health background of influenza; introduces the major steps and concepts involved in conducting public health surveillance; and discusses the rationale and objectives for conducting sentinel surveillance for influenza. (Video or Mul...
Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health - March 19, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: The U.S. National Library of Medicine Source Type: news

NIH approves clinical trials for vaccine against avian influenza
A federal agency has approved two clinical Phase 2 trials to vaccinate for H7N9, a strain of avian influenza that has not reached humans in the United States. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Source: Health News - UPI.com - March 16, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Flu Season Finally Slowing Down
FRIDAY, March 16, 2018 -- As winter nears its end so too does a tough flu season, with new data showing a decline in doctor visits and less severe strains of influenza beginning to dominate. But hospitalizations for the flu remained a problem, and... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - March 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

H7N9 Influenza Vaccine Clinical Trials Begin
Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the United States. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Source: PHPartners.org - March 15, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

H7N9 influenza vaccine clinical trials begin
Trials for an experimental vaccine for the H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the United States. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases - March 15, 2018 Category: American Health Source Type: news

Alexa Barbin dies of the flu hours after she felt 'a bit of a cold'  
Alexa Barbin, 19, of Escondido, California, died from influenza B virus just one day after experiencing cold-like symptoms. The teen did not receive a flu vaccination this season. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - March 15, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

H7N9 influenza vaccine clinical trials begin
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Two new clinical trials testing an experimental vaccine to prevent influenza caused by an H7N9 influenza virus are now enrolling volunteers at sites across the U.S. The Phase 2 studies, sponsored by NIAID, will test different dosages of the inactivated influenza vaccine candidate (called 2017 H7N9 IIV) as well as different vaccination schedules. The studies also will evaluate whether an adjuvant boosts the immune responses of people receiving the vaccine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - March 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news

Southern Africa:SADC Updates Bird Flu Disaster Response Plan
[The Herald] Southern African countries, jolted by a debilitating avian influenza outbreak in 2017, which left an extensive effect on the region including in Zimbabwe, have reviewed and updated the regional preparedness and response plan, which is expected to guide management and control of the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - March 14, 2018 Category: African Health Source Type: news