High-resolution cryo-EM analysis of the yeast ATP synthase in a lipid membrane
Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase comprises a membrane embedded Fo motor that rotates to drive ATP synthesis in the F1 subunit. We used single-particle cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to obtain structures of the full complex in a lipid bilayer in the absence or presence of the inhibitor oligomycin at 3.6- and 3.8-angstrom resolution, respectively. To limit conformational heterogeneity, we locked the rotor in a single conformation by fusing the F6 subunit of the stator with the subunit of the rotor. Assembly of the enzyme with the F6- fusion caused a twisting of the rotor and a 9° rotation of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Srivastava, A. P., Luo, M., Zhou, W., Symersky, J., Bai, D., Chambers, M. G., Faraldo-Gomez, J. D., Liao, M., Mueller, D. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Erratum for the Report "Translocation of a gut pathobiont drives autoimmunity in mice and humans" by S. Manfredo Vieira, M. Hiltensperger, V. Kumar, D. Zegarra-Ruiz, C. Dehner, N. Khan, F. R. C. Costa, E. Tiniakou, T. Greiling, W. Ruff, A. Barbieri, C. Kriegel, S. S. Mehta, J. R. Knight, D. Jain, A. L. Goodman, M. A. Kriegel
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Errata Source Type: news
The nuclear translocation of the kinases p38 and JNK promotes inflammation-induced cancer
The stimulated nuclear translocation of signaling proteins, such as MAPKs, is a necessity for the initiation and regulation of their physiological functions. Previously, we determined that nuclear translocation of the MAPKs p38 and JNK involves binding to heterodimers comprising importin 3 and either importin 7 or importin 9. Here, we identified the importin-binding region in p38 and JNK and developed a myristoylated peptide targeting this site that we called PERY. The PERY peptide specifically blocked the interaction of p38 and JNK with the importins, restricted their nuclear translocation, and inhibited phosphorylation o...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - April 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Maik-Rachline, G., Zehorai, E., Hanoch, T., Blenis, J., Seger, R. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Translocation of a gut pathobiont drives autoimmunity in mice and humans
Despite multiple associations between the microbiota and immune diseases, their role in autoimmunity is poorly understood. We found that translocation of a gut pathobiont, Enterococcus gallinarum, to the liver and other systemic tissues triggers autoimmune responses in a genetic background predisposing to autoimmunity. Antibiotic treatment prevented mortality in this model, suppressed growth of E. gallinarum in tissues, and eliminated pathogenic autoantibodies and T cells. Hepatocyte–E. gallinarum cocultures induced autoimmune-promoting factors. Pathobiont translocation in monocolonized and autoimmune-prone mice indu...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 8, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Manfredo Vieira, S., Hiltensperger, M., Kumar, V., Zegarra-Ruiz, D., Dehner, C., Khan, N., Costa, F. R. C., Tiniakou, E., Greiling, T., Ruff, W., Barbieri, A., Kriegel, C., Mehta, S. S., Knight, J. R., Jain, D., Goodman, A. L., Kriegel, M. A. Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Molecular structure of human P-glycoprotein in the ATP-bound, outward-facing conformation
The multidrug transporter permeability (P)–glycoprotein is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–binding cassette exporter responsible for clinical resistance to chemotherapy. P-glycoprotein extrudes toxic molecules and drugs from cells through ATP-powered conformational changes. Despite decades of effort, only the structures of the inward-facing conformation of P-glycoprotein are available. Here we present the structure of human P-glycoprotein in the outward-facing conformation, determined by cryo–electron microscopy at 3.4-angstrom resolution. The two nucleotide-binding domains form a closed dimer occluding t...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 22, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kim, Y., Chen, J. Tags: Biochemistry, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Defining the physiological role of SRP in protein-targeting efficiency and specificity
The signal recognition particle (SRP) enables cotranslational delivery of proteins for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but its full in vivo role remains incompletely explored. We combined rapid auxin-induced SRP degradation with proximity-specific ribosome profiling to define SRP’s in vivo function in yeast. Despite the classic view that SRP recognizes amino-terminal signal sequences, we show that SRP was generally essential for targeting transmembrane domains regardless of their position relative to the amino terminus. By contrast, many proteins containing cleavable amino-terminal signal peptides ...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 8, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Costa, E. A., Subramanian, K., Nunnari, J., Weissman, J. S. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Factors affecting the success of grizzly bear translocations
(Wiley) The number of grizzly bear translocations has increased in recent years to protect the bears and reduce conflicts with humans. In a recent Journal of Wildlife Management analysis of translocations in Alberta, Canada, researchers found that the most important factors for translocation success were the level of human-caused mortality risk at the release site and the time of year when the translocation occurred. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - January 10, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Increased systemic microbial translocation is associated with depression during early pregnancy - Zhou Z, Guille C, Ogunrinde E, Liu R, Luo Z, Powell A, Jiang W.
Plasma level of microbial translocation is a marker of mucosal permeability. Increased mucosal permeability ignites elevated microbial translocation and as a consequence of systemic inflammation. Pregnant women with depression have higher levels of inflamm... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - December 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
Nuclear hyaluronidase 2 drives alternative splicing of CD44 pre-mRNA to determine profibrotic or antifibrotic cell phenotype
The cell surface protein CD44 is involved in diverse physiological processes, and its aberrant function is linked to various pathologies such as cancer, immune dysregulation, and fibrosis. The diversity of CD44 biological activity is partly conferred by the generation of distinct CD44 isoforms through alternative splicing. We identified an unexpected function for the ubiquitous hyaluronan-degrading enzyme, hyaluronidase 2 (HYAL2), as a regulator of CD44 splicing. Standard CD44 is associated with fibrotic disease, and its production is promoted through serine-arginine–rich (SR) protein–mediated exon exclusion. H...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - November 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Midgley, A. C., Oltean, S., Hascall, V., Woods, E. L., Steadman, R., Phillips, A. O., Meran, S. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Atomic model for the dimeric FO region of mitochondrial ATP synthase
Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase produces the majority of ATP in eukaryotic cells, and its dimerization is necessary to create the inner membrane folds, or cristae, characteristic of mitochondria. Proton translocation through the membrane-embedded FO region turns the rotor that drives ATP synthesis in the soluble F1 region. Although crystal structures of the F1 region have illustrated how this rotation leads to ATP synthesis, understanding how proton translocation produces the rotation has been impeded by the lack of an experimental atomic model for the FO region. Using cryo–electron microscopy, we...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 16, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Guo, H., Bueler, S. A., Rubinstein, J. L. Tags: Biochemistry reports Source Type: news
Structure of the mitochondrial inner membrane AAA+ protease YME1 gives insight into substrate processing
We present an atomic model of a substrate-bound inner mitochondrial membrane AAA+ quality control protease in yeast, YME1. Our ~3.4-angstrom cryo–electron microscopy structure reveals how the adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) form a closed spiral staircase encircling an unfolded substrate, directing it toward the flat, symmetric protease ring. Three coexisting nucleotide states allosterically induce distinct positioning of tyrosines in the central channel, resulting in substrate engagement and translocation to the negatively charged proteolytic chamber. This tight coordination by a network of conserved residues def...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 2, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Puchades, C., Rampello, A. J., Shin, M., Giuliano, C. J., Wiseman, R. L., Glynn, S. E., Lander, G. C. Tags: Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
The condensin complex is a mechanochemical motor that translocates along DNA
Condensin plays crucial roles in chromosome organization and compaction, but the mechanistic basis for its functions remains obscure. We used single-molecule imaging to demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae condensin is a molecular motor capable of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis–dependent translocation along double-stranded DNA. Condensin’s translocation activity is rapid and highly processive, with individual complexes traveling an average distance of ≥10 kilobases at a velocity of ~60 base pairs per second. Our results suggest that condensin may take steps comparable in length to its ~50-nanometer c...
Source: ScienceNOW - November 2, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Terakawa, T., Bisht, S., Eeftens, J. M., Dekker, C., Haering, C. H., Greene, E. C. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Two classes of GGAA-microsatellites in a Ewing sarcoma context
(Nationwide Children's Hospital) In a study published in PLOS ONE, researchers describe two types of GGAA-microsatellites and their roles in EWS/FLI binding and gene regulation in Ewing sarcoma. Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone malignancy. It is initiated by chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12), which creates the fusion protein and oncogenic driver EWS/FLI. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - November 1, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
University of Seville researchers reveal the role of a DNA repair mechanism
(University of Seville) An important step forward in understanding more exactly what the mechanisms are that allow, if not correctly repaired, certain DNA breaks to be exchanged with others, so generating chromosomal translocation. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - October 31, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Inhibition of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 causes G2-M cell cycle arrest and enhanced vincristine sensitivity in Ewings sarcoma
Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) is a rare and highly malignant cancer that grows in the bones or surrounding tissues mostly affecting adolescents and young adults. A chimeric fusion between the RNA binding protein EWS and the ETS family transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1), which is generated from a chromosomal translocation, is implicated in driving most ES cases by modulation of transcription and alternative splicing. The small-molecule YK-4-279 inhibits EWS-FLI1 function and induces apoptosis in ES cells. We aimed to identify both the underlying mechanism of the drug and potential combination therapies that might enhance its...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - October 3, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Zöllner, S. K., Selvanathan, S. P., Graham, G. T., Commins, R. M. T., Hong, S. H., Moseley, E., Parks, S., Haladyna, J. N., Erkizan, H. V., Dirksen, U., Hogarty, M. D., Üren, A., Toretsky, J. A. Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update
Microphthalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) comprises Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC.08/29/2017 (Source: Kidney Cancer Association)
Source: Kidney Cancer Association - August 29, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: news
Scientists map sex chromosome evolution in pathogenic fungi
(Duke University) Duke researchers recently mapped the evolutionary turning point that transformed the pathogenic Cryptococcus fungus from an organism with thousands of sexes to only two. They found that during evolution, a reshuffling of DNA known as translocation brought together separate chunks of sex-determining genes onto a single chromosome, essentially mimicking the human X or Y chromosome. Surprisingly, these translocations occurred at the chromosome's centromeres, regions so dense that they were once thought to suppress recombination. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - August 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Ratchet-like polypeptide translocation mechanism of the AAA+ disaggregase Hsp104
Hsp100 polypeptide translocases are conserved members of the AAA+ family (adenosine triphosphatases associated with diverse cellular activities) that maintain proteostasis by unfolding aberrant and toxic proteins for refolding or proteolytic degradation. The Hsp104 disaggregase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae solubilizes stress-induced amorphous aggregates and amyloids. The structural basis for substrate recognition and translocation is unknown. Using a model substrate (casein), we report cryo–electron microscopy structures at near-atomic resolution of Hsp104 in different translocation states. Substrate interactions ar...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 20, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Gates, S. N., Yokom, A. L., Lin, J., Jackrel, M. E., Rizo, A. N., Kendsersky, N. M., Buell, C. E., Sweeny, E. A., Mack, K. L., Chuang, E., Torrente, M. P., Su, M., Shorter, J., Southworth, D. R. Tags: Biochemistry r-articles Source Type: news
Bidirectional eukaryotic DNA replication is established by quasi-symmetrical helicase loading
Bidirectional replication from eukaryotic DNA replication origins requires the loading of two ring-shaped minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicases around DNA in opposite orientations. MCM loading is orchestrated by binding of the origin recognition complex (ORC) to DNA, but how ORC coordinates symmetrical MCM loading is unclear. We used natural budding yeast DNA replication origins and synthetic DNA sequences to show that efficient MCM loading requires binding of two ORC molecules to two ORC binding sites. The relative orientation of these sites, but not the distance between them, was found to be critical for MCM loading...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 20, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Coster, G., Diffley, J. F. X. Tags: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
'Overturning established fact' leads to new new target in MLL-rearranged leukemia
(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) A University of Colorado Cancer Center paper published today in the journal Cancer Cell challenges existing understanding of potential therapeutic targets in MLL-translocation leukemia. Specifically, the study shows that within the family of MLL-related proteins, MLL2 and not MLL is the most appropriate target for drugs challenging the disease. In other words, drug developers aiming at MLL may have been missing slightly to one side of the real target. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 13, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Cytogenetic Abnormalities Do Not Affect Prognosis in Pediatric CML
Chromosomal abnormalities such as a variant t(9;22) translocation do not appear to have significant prognostic impact on children with chronic myeloid leukemia. (Source: CancerNetwork)
Source: CancerNetwork - May 22, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Dave Levitan Tags: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Hematologic Malignancies News Source Type: news
Tetraspanin microdomains control localized protein kinase C signaling in B cells
Activation of B cells by the binding of antigens to the B cell receptor (BCR) requires the protein kinase C (PKC) family member PKCβ. Because PKCs must translocate to the plasma membrane to become activated, we investigated the mechanisms regulating their spatial distribution in mouse and human B cells. Through live-cell imaging, we showed that BCR-stimulated production of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) resulted in the translocation of PKCβ from the cytosol to plasma membrane regions containing the tetraspanin protein CD53. CD53 was specifically enriched at sites of BCR signaling, suggesting that BCR-d...
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - May 9, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Zuidscherwoude, M., Dunlock, V.-M. E., van den Bogaart, G., van Deventer, S. J., van der Schaaf, A., van Oostrum, J., Goedhart, J., In 't Hout, J., Hämmerling, G. J., Tanaka, S., Nadler, A., Schultz, C., Wright, M. D., Adjobo-Hermans, M. J. W., va Tags: STKE Research Articles Source Type: news
Research questions effectiveness of translocation conservation method
A DNA study of endangered greater prairie chickens in Illinois indicates that supplementing the dwindling population with birds from out of state did not improve genetic diversity. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 22, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: news
[Research Article] Phosphorylation of the exocyst protein Exo84 by TBK1 promotes insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking
An inflammation-associated kinase also stimulates glucose uptake through plasma membrane translocation of GLUT4 in response to insulin. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - March 21, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Maeran Uhm, Merlijn Bazuine, Peng Zhao, Shian-Huey Chiang, Tingting Xiong, Sheelarani Karunanithi, Louise Chang, Alan R. Saltiel Source Type: news
Abnormal development of the brain in an intractable disease, thanatophoric dysplasia
In this study, by combining ferrets, whose brain is rather similar to that of humans, and unique technique developed by the present researchers, neuronal translocation along radial glial fibers to the cerebral cortex during fetal brain development has been discovered to be aberrant, which suggests the cause underlying TD. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - March 17, 2017 Category: Science Source Type: news
Abnormal development of the brain in an intractable disease, thanatophoric dysplasia
In this study, by combining ferrets, whose brain is rather similar to that of humans, and unique technique developed by the present researchers, neuronal translocation along radial glial fibers to the cerebral cortex during fetal brain development has been discovered to be aberrant, which suggests the cause underlying TD. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - March 17, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
[Perspective] Hematopoietic stem cells gone rogue
Cardiovascular disease is considered to be an aging-related disease and is the leading cause of death in the elderly in developed countries (1). As of 2013, 65% of deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease occurred among patients 75 years and older. A hallmark of aging is the accumulation of somatic DNA mutations in proliferative tissue. Although somatic mutations in the hematopoietic (blood cell) system are frequently observed in patients with hematological cancers, there is also a close correlation between hematopoietic somatic mutations and increased incidence of diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease-r...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 23, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Yanfang Peipei Zhu Tags: Cardiovascular Disease Source Type: news
Targeted sequencing of FKBP5 in suicide attempters with bipolar disorder - Breen ME, Gaynor SC, Monson ET, de Klerk K, Parsons MG, Braun TA, DeLuca AP, Zandi PP, Potash JB, Willour VL.
FKBP5 is a critical component of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, a system which regulates our response to stress. It forms part of a complex of chaperones, which inhibits binding of cortisol and glucocorticoid receptor translocation to the n... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - January 5, 2017 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
[Research Article] The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL mediates nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor
The kinase AXL promotes cetuximab resistance by promoting the nuclear accumulation of EGFR. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 3, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Toni M. Brand, Mari Iida, Kelsey L. Corrigan, Cara M. Braverman, John P. Coan, Bailey G. Flanigan, Andrew P. Stein, Ravi Salgia, Jana Rolff, Randall J. Kimple, Deric L. Wheeler Source Type: news
[Editors' Choice] NIK sends mitochondria to the periphery
The kinase NIK promotes tumor cell invasion by stimulating the translocation of mitochondria to the cell periphery. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment - January 3, 2017 Category: Science Authors: Nancy Gough (mailto:ngough at aaas.org) Source Type: news
[Perspective] Spying on the neighbors' pool
The structure and properties of the proton in water are of fundamental importance in many areas of chemistry and biology. The high mobility of the proton in an aqueous solution is understood in terms of its “hopping” between neighboring water molecules, as suggested by the two-century-old Grotthuss mechanism. The barrier for this process intimately depends on the proton's surrounding environment, which is manifested by the connectivity of the immediate hydrogen-bonding network as well as its dynamics caused by thermal fluctuations. On page 1131 of this issue, Wolke et al. (1) shed new light on the role that the...
Source: ScienceNOW - December 1, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Sotiris S. Xantheas Tags: Chemical Physics Source Type: news
[Research Article] A nuclease that mediates cell death induced by DNA damage and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1
Inhibition or genetic deletion of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is protective against toxic insults in many organ systems. The molecular mechanisms underlying PARP-1–dependent cell death involve release of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and its translocation to the nucleus, which results in chromatinolysis. We identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a PARP-1–dependent AIF-associated nuclease (PAAN). AIF was required for recruitment of MIF to the nucleus, where MIF cleaves genomic DNA into large fragments. Depletion of MIF, disruption of the AIF-MIF interaction, o...
Source: ScienceNOW - October 6, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Yingfei Wang Source Type: news
Critical But Overlooked: ICU Patients' Gut Bacteria
Paul Wischmeyer Our bodies are full of bacteria, and when we get sick, those microbial populations change. Hospitals monitor patients' bloodwork and vitals, so why not track the makeup of their microbiomes too? Paul Wischmeyer and his collaborators are conducting research that could allow them to do just that, opening the door for microbiome diagnostic indicators and probiotic measures to restore patients' normal bacterial signatures. We asked him about the research, and what he's learned so far. This text was edited for length. Read the full interview on ResearchGate News. ResearchGate: How did you first get involve...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - September 6, 2016 Category: Science Source Type: news
OriGene's ALK UltraMAB® Antibody (OTI1A4) Outperform D5F3...
Recent Studies Validate High performance and Accurate Results for OriGene's UltraMAB® OTI1A4 as an Effective Screening Tool for ALK Translocation in Lung Adenocarcinomas(PRWeb April 14, 2016)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/04/prweb13344220.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals - April 15, 2016 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
[Report] Activation of proto-oncogenes by disruption of chromosome neighborhoods
Oncogenes are activated through well-known chromosomal alterations such as gene fusion, translocation, and focal amplification. In light of recent evidence that the control of key genes depends on chromosome structures called insulated neighborhoods, we investigated whether proto-oncogenes occur within these structures and whether oncogene activation can occur via disruption of insulated neighborhood boundaries in cancer cells. We mapped insulated neighborhoods in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found that tumor cell genomes contain recurrent microdeletions that eliminate the boundary sites of insulated nei...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 24, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Denes Hnisz Source Type: news
Bacterial DNA a Potential Biomarker of Crohn's RelapseBacterial DNA a Potential Biomarker of Crohn's Relapse
In patients with Crohn's disease in remission, bacterial DNA (bactDNA) translocation may be a biomarker that can identify who is more likely to flare, according to new research. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines - March 21, 2016 Category: Pathology Tags: Gastroenterology News Source Type: news
Marine Corps postpones plans to translocate 1,185 tortoises for training grounds
The Marine Corps base at Twenty-Nine Palms said Friday it had postponed plans to move 1,185 tortoises off prospective combat training grounds until wildlife agencies can determine whether the plan complies with the Endangered Species Act. The $50-million tortoise translocation effort was expected... (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Source: Los Angeles Times - Science - March 19, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Louis Sahagun Source Type: news
[Report] Prostaglandin E2 constrains systemic inflammation through an innate lymphoid cell–IL-22 axis
Systemic inflammation, which results from the massive release of proinflammatory molecules into the circulatory system, is a major risk factor for severe illness, but the precise mechanisms underlying its control are not fully understood. We observed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), through its receptor EP4, is down-regulated in human systemic inflammatory disease. Mice with reduced PGE2 synthesis develop systemic inflammation, associated with translocation of gut bacteria, which can be prevented by treatment with EP4 agonists. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGE2-EP4 signaling acts directly on type 3 innate lymphoid cel...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 17, 2016 Category: Science Authors: Rodger Duffin Source Type: news
TET proteins help maintain genome integrity
(La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology) Members of the TET (short for ten-eleven translocation) family have been known to function as tumor suppressors for many years, but how they keep a lid on the uncontrolled cell proliferation of cancer cells had remained uncertain. Now, researchers at the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology demonstrate that TET proteins collectively constitute a major class of tumor suppressors and are required to maintain genome instability. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - December 9, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
An In Vitro Assay for Substrate Translocation by FhaC in Liposomes
The two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway is used by gram-negative bacteria to secrete a large family of virulence exoproteins. Its name is derived from the fact that it involves two proteins, a secreted TpsA protein and a cognate TpsB transporter in the outer membrane. A typical TPS system is represented by the filamentous hemagglutinin FhaB (TpsA protein) and its transporter FhaC (TpsB protein) of Bordetella pertussis. Results from mutational analysis and heterologous expression experiments suggested that FhaC is essential for FhaB translocation across the outer membrane of bacteria. We have devised a cell-free biochemical...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Protein Science - October 6, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: news
Burn injury alters the intestinal microbiome and increases gut permeability and bacterial translocation - Earley ZM, Akhtar S, Green SJ, Naqib A, Khan O, Cannon AR, Hammer AM, Morris NL, Li X, Eberhardt JM, Gamelli RL, Kennedy RH, Choudhry MA.
Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death in burn patients who survive the initial insult of injury. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier has been shown after burn injury; this can lead to the translocation of bacteria or their products ... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - July 15, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Burns, Electricity, Explosions, Fire, Scalds Source Type: news
Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas in young adults
Little is known about the biological behavior of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) as few clinical studies have been performed using a large sample size.07/01/2015 (Source: Kidney Cancer Association)
Source: Kidney Cancer Association - July 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Purple Power For Your Brain
During one of my trips to Brazil a few years ago, I went in search of new healing herbs I could use at my wellness center. That’s when I discovered açaí berries. Now everyone’s talking about these berries. And they really are one of the richest sources in antioxidants, vitamins A, B, C, and E, minerals and omega-3s. In fact, I ended up including powdered açaí berries in one of my supplements. Back then, they were pretty much a novelty outside of South America, but now I even see frozen açaí berry smoothie packs when I’m in the grocery store. An...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - June 29, 2015 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr. Al Sears Tags: Brain Health Nutrition Acai berry anthocyanin extract brain-derived neurotrophic Parkinson’s disease Source Type: news
Multiple Approaches for the Investigation of Bacterial Small Regulatory RNAs Self-assembly
We present here the various approaches that can be used for the detection and analysis of bacterial small noncoding RNA self-assemblies. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Biotechnology)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Biotechnology - April 25, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: news
Assay of Rab17 and Its Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Rabex-5 in the Dendrites of Hippocampal Neurons
Neurons are functionally and morphologically compartmentalized into axons and dendrites, and the localization of specific proteins within these compartments is critical to the proper formation of neuronal networks, which includes neurite morphogenesis and synapse formation. The small GTPase Rab17 is specifically localized in dendrites and is not found in axons, and it regulates the dendrite morphogenesis and postsynaptic development of mouse hippocampal neurons. However, the spatiotemporal regulation of Rab17 is poorly understood. We recently identified Rabex-5, originally described as a Rab5-guanine nucleotide exchange fa...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Biochemistry - March 26, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: news
Methods for the Assembly and Analysis of In Vitro Transcription-Coupled-to-Translation Systems
RNA polymerase is a complex machinery, which is further embedded in interactions with other cellular components that interplay with either the transcribed DNA (DNA polymerases, topoisomerases, etc.) or the nascent RNA (RNA processing enzymes, ribosomes, etc.). In prokaryotes, coupling of transcription and translation is thought to play many regulatory roles but the mechanistic understanding of their interactions has been hindered by the lack of a defined experimental system. Here, we describe a pure transcription-coupled-to-translation system in which control of the ribosome has been achieved through its stepwise transloca...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: news
Monitoring Translocation of Multisubunit RNA Polymerase Along the DNA with Fluorescent Base Analogues
We describe two template DNA strand designs where translocation of RNA polymerase from a pre-translocation to a post-translocation state results in disruption of stacking interactions of fluorophore with neighboring bases, with a concomitant large increase in fluorescence intensity. (Source: Springer protocols feed by Microbiology)
Source: Springer protocols feed by Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: news
Mapping the Escherichia coli Transcription Elongation Complex with Exonuclease III
RNA polymerase interactions with the nucleic acids control every step of the transcription cycle. These contacts mediate RNA polymerase recruitment to promoters, induce pausing during RNA chain synthesis, and control transcription termination. These interactions are dissected using footprinting assays, in which a bound protein protects nucleic acids from the digestion by nucleases or modification by chemical probes. Exonuclease III is frequently employed to study protein–DNA interactions owing to relatively simple procedures and low background. Exonuclease III has been used to determine RNA polymerase position in tra...
Source: Springer protocols feed by Microbiology - February 13, 2015 Category: Microbiology Source Type: news
Expression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T CellsExpression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T Cells
This article analyzes microbial translocation and expression of the gut-homing B7 receptor on peripheral T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - February 9, 2015 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: HIV/AIDS Journal Article Source Type: news