Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Toxoplasma gondii Infection Among High-Risk Populations in Jiangsu Province, Eastern China
Toxoplasma gondii, an opportunistic protozoan, infects one-third of people worldwide and could lead to serious outcomes in immunodeficient or immunocompromised populations. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection among high-risk populations in Jiangsu Province, eastern China. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 4 categories of populations in 13 prefectures including HIV/AIDS patients, livestock breeding/processing (B/P) staff, pregnant women, and cancer patients. We detected specific immunoglobulin G and M (IgG and IgM) levels for each participant using enzyme-...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Observation of the Gut Microbiota Profile in C57BL/6 Mice Induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection
The genus of Plasmodium parasites can cause malaria, which is a prevalent infectious disease worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. C57BL/6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) will suffer from experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). However, the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice has rarely been investigated, especially regarding changes in the intestinal environment caused by infectious parasites. P. berghei ANKA-infected (PbA group) and uninfected C57BL/6 (Ctrl group) mice were used in this study. C57BL/6 mice were infected with PbA via intraperitoneal injection of 1 × 106 infected red blood cells...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In Vitro Activity of Auranofin in Combination With Aztreonam-Avibactam Against Metallo- β-lactamase (MBL)-Producing Enterobacterales
ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that AUR potentiated the activities of CAZ-AVI and ATM-AVI against MBL-producing isolates in vitro. Importantly, AUR restored the ATM-AVI activity against ATM-AVI resistant mutant strains. As a clinically approved drug, AUR might be repurposed in combination with ATM-AVI to treat infections caused by highly resistant MBL-producing Enterobacterales. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sesamol Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death in Leishmania donovani
ConclusionsSesamol inhibited the growth and proliferation of L. donovani promastigotes in a dose-dependent manner. It also reduced the intracellular parasite load without causing significant toxicity on host-macrophages. Overall, it showed antileishmanial effects through induction of ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis-like cell death to parasites. Our results suggested the possible use of sesamol for the treatment of leishmaniasis after further in vivo validations. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of the Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Trypanosoma cruzi: A Paradox in Host Response and Lipid Metabolism Modulation
Chagas disease is a major public health problem, especially in the South and Central America region. Its incidence is related to poverty and presents a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of Chagas disease is complex and involves many interactive pathways between the hosts and the Trypanosoma cruzi. Several factors have been implicated in parasite-host interactions, including molecules secreted by infected cells, lipid mediators and most recent, extracellular vesicles (EVs). The EVs of T. cruzi (EVsT) were reported for the first time in the epimastigote forms about 42 years ago. The EVsT are involved in ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology of Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli Causing Hemorrhagic Pneumonia in Mink in Northern China
The molecular epidemiology and biological characteristics of Escherichia coli associated with hemorrhagic pneumonia (HP) mink from five Chinese Provinces were determined. From 2017 to 2019, 85 E. coli strains were identified from 115 lung samples of mink suffering from HP. These samples were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility, detection of virulence genes, phylogenetic grouping, whole-genome sequencing, drug resistant gene, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and biofilm-forming assays. E. coli strains were divided into 18 serotypes. Thirty-nine E. coli strains belonged to the O11 serotype. Eighty-five E. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gene Expression Profiling of Early Acute Febrile Stage of Dengue Infection and Its Comparative Analysis With Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection
Infectious diseases are the disorders caused by organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Although many of them are permentantly hazardous, a number of them live in and on our bodies and they are normally harmless or even helpful. Under certain circumstances, some organisms may cause diseases and these infectious diseases may be passed directly from person to person or via intermediate vectors including insects and other animals. Dengue virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the critical and common sources of infectious diseases. So, it is critical to understand the gene expression profiling and their infer...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota, Glucose, Lipid, and Water-Electrolyte Metabolism in Children With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
There is evidence that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affected by gut microbiota, glucose, and lipid. However, the function of water-electrolyte metabolism remains undefined in children with NAFLD. Therefore, the aim of this case-control study was to better understand these interactions. The sample consisted of 75 children, aged between 7 and 16, of whom 25 had nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), 25 had nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and 25 were obese and without NAFLD. These groups were matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Data were collected between June, 2019 and December, 2019 at the Hunan Children...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Changes in the Vaginal Microbiome and Associated Toxicities Following Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers
Postmenopausal women often suffer from vaginal symptoms associated with atrophic vaginitis. Additionally, gynecologic cancer survivors may live for decades with additional, clinically significant, persistent vaginal toxicities caused by cancer therapies, including pain, dyspareunia, and sexual dysfunction. The vaginal microbiome (VM) has been previously linked with vaginal symptoms related to menopause (i.e. dryness). Our previous work showed that gynecologic cancer patients exhibit distinct VM profiles from healthy women, with low abundance of lactobacilli and prevalence of multiple opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. Here...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Metagenomic Analysis of Dental Plaque on Pit and Fissure Sites With and Without Caries Among Adolescents
This study aimed to use metagenomic sequencing analyses to investigate the relationship between the plaque microbiome in the pit and fissure site and caries in adolescents. A total of 20 adolescents with active pit and fissure surface caries were involved as well as 20 age-matched, caries-free teenagers for control tests. Plaque samples were collected from the pit and fissure site and were subjected to metagenomic analyses, in which the microbial communities were investigated. Our results showed that the microbiota diversity was similar between those two groups. At the species level, the relative abundances of A. gerencser...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic Determinants of Pathogenicity and Antimicrobial Resistance for 60 Global Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Responsible for Invasive Infections
Listeria monocytogenes remains a significant public health threat, causing invasive listeriosis manifested as septicemia, meningitis, and abortion, with up to 30% of cases having a fatal outcome. Tracking the spread of invasive listeriosis requires an updated knowledge for virulence factors (VFs) and antimicrobial resistance features, which is an essential step toward its clinical diagnosis and treatment. Taking advantage of high-throughput genomic sequencing, we proposed that the differential genes based on the pathogenomic composition could be used to evaluate clinical observations and therapeutic options for listeriosis...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

“Immunoinformatic Identification of T-Cell and B-Cell Epitopes From Giardia lamblia Immunogenic Proteins as Candidates to Develop Peptide-Based Vaccines Against Giardiasis”
In this study, we identify and characterize potential T-cell and B-cell epitopes of Giardia immunogenic proteins by immunoinformatic approaches, and we discuss the potential role of those epitopes to stimulate the host´s immune system. We selected the main immunogenic and protective proteins of Giardia experimentally investigated. We predicted T-cell and B-cell epitopes using immunoinformatic tools (NetMHCII and BCPREDS). Variable surface proteins (VSPs), structural (giardins), metabolic, and cyst wall proteins were identified as the more relevant immunogens of G. lamblia. We described the protein sequences with the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Streptococcus gallolyticus Increases Expression and Activity of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent CYP1 Biotransformation Capacity in Colorectal Epithelial Cells
ConclusionThis study shows that gut bacteria have the potential to modulate the expression of biotransformation pathways in colonic epithelial cells in an AhR-dependent manner. This offers a novel theory on the contribution of intestinal bacteria to the etiology of CRC by modifying the capacity of intestinal epithelial or (pre-)cancerous cells to (de)toxify dietary components, which could alter intestinal susceptibility to DNA damaging events. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase as a Potential Vaccine Target Against Chagas Disease
Chagas’ disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, described in the early 20th century by the Brazilian physician Dr. Carlos Chagas. There was a great amount of research devoted to diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease. One of the most important discoveries made since then, impacting the understanding of how the parasite interacts with the host’s immune system, was the description of trans-sialidase. It is an unique enzyme, capable of masking the parasite’s presence from the host, while at the same time dampening the activation of CD8+ T cells, the most important components of the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Unconventional Animal Models in Infectious Disease Research
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Neuroimmune Evasion of Zika Virus to Facilitate Viral Pathogenesis
Zika virus (ZIKV), which preferentially targets neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) especially in developing brain, is causally associated with fetal microcephaly, intrauterine retardation, and other congenital malformations in humans. However, there are, so far, no effective drugs and vaccines against ZIKV epidemics, warranting an enhanced understanding of ZIKV biology. Immune response is essential for neuronal cells to combat viral invasion. In turn, neurotropic ZIKV has developed a complex strategy of neuroimmune evasion to facilitate viral pathogenesis, especially developmental impairment in embryonic brain. Here, ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Decreased Frequencies of Gamma/Delta T Cells Expressing Th1/Th17 Cytokine, Cytotoxic, and Immune Markers in Latent Tuberculosis-Diabetes/Pre-Diabetes Comorbidity
Antigen-specific gamma-delta (γδ) T cells are important in exhibiting anti-mycobacterial immunity, but their role in latent tuberculosis (LTB) with diabetes mellitus (DM) or pre-DM (PDM) and non-DM comorbidities have not been studied. Thus, we have studied the baseline, mycobacterial (PPD, WCL), and positive control antigen-stimulated γδ T cells expressing Th1 (IFNγ, TNFα, IL-2) and Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22) cytokine as well as cytotoxic (perforin [PFN], granzyme [GZE B], granulysin [GNLSN]) and immune (GMCSF, PD-1, CD69) markers in LTB (DM, PDM, NDM) comorbidities by flow cytometry. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Activity of Phytic Acid: An Emerging Agent in Endodontics
In conclusion, IP6 had notable antimicrobial effects on planktonic and biofilm cultures and exhibited rapid bactericidal effects on E. faecalis. This research highlighted, for the first time the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of IP6, which could be exploited, not only in dental applications, but also other fields where novel strategies to counter antimicrobial resistance are required. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transition of Serotype 35B Pneumococci From Commensal to Prevalent Virulent Strain in Children
In our community-based prospective cohort study in young children, we observed a significant increase in pneumococcal serotype 35B nasopharyngeal (NP) commensal colonization during the 2011–2014 timeframe, but these strains were not associated with disease. Beginning in 2015 and continuing through to the present, the serotype 35B virulence changed, and it became the dominant bacteria isolated and associated with pneumococcal acute otitis-media (AOM) in our cohort. We performed comparative analyses of 250 35B isolates obtained from 140 children collected between 2006 and 2019. Changes in prevalence, clonal-complex com...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanisms of Colistin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital
ConclusionWe found that mcr-bearing COLR-KP emerged in our hospital and was growing at an increasing rate. Simultaneous emergence of hypervirulence and colistin–tigecycline–carbapenem resistance in the epidemic clone ST11 K. pneumoniae was also observed; this highlights the significance of active and continuous surveillance. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota and Fecal Metabolites Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Population
In this study, a total of 102 HIV infected participants were classified into two groups—those with NCI and those without—using the global deficit score (GDS). Fecal samples were collected from the participants for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and untargeted metabolomics. The plasma level of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) was also evaluated. Although α-diversity and β-diversity were comparable, the HIV patients with NCI were significantly different from those without NCI in terms of abundance of several gut microbiota. The decreased abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria (BPB) and increased abundance of...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Is Natural Population of Candida tropicalis Sexual, Parasexual, and/or Asexual?
Candida tropicalis is one of the most common opportunistic yeast pathogens of humans, especially prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. This yeast has broad ecological distributions, can be found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, including being associated with a diversity of trees, animals, and humans. Evolutionary theory predicts that organisms thriving in diverse ecological niches likely have efficient mechanisms to generate genetic diversity in nature. Indeed, abundant genetic variations have been reported in natural populations (both environmental and clinical) of C. tropicalis. However, at present, ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Host-Pathogen Interactions During Pneumococcal Infection
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Piscirickettsia salmonis Produces a N-Acetyl-L-Homoserine Lactone as a Bacterial Quorum Sensing System-Related Molecule
In this study, a fluorescent biosensor system method and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were combined to detect AHLs produced by P. salmonis. These analyses revealed an emitted fluorescence signal when the biosensor P. putida EL106 (RPL4cep) was co-cultured with both, P. salmonis LF-89 type strain and an EM-90-like strain Ps007, respectively. Furthermore, the production of an AHL-type molecule was confirmed by GC/MS by both P. salmonis strains, which identified the presence of a N-acetyl-L-homoserine Lactone in the supernatant extract. However, It is suggested that an alternate pathway could synthesize...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Emergence of Ceftazidime/Avibactam and Tigecycline Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Due to In-Host Microevolution
This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which CRKP acquires CZA and TGC resistance in vivo under β-lactam antibiotic and TGC exposure. Three CRKP strains (XDX16, XDX31 and XDX51) were consecutively isolated from an inpatient with a urinary tract infection in two months. PFGE and MLST showed that these strains were closely related and belonged to sequence type (ST) 4496, which is a novel ST closely related to ST11. Compared to XDX16 and XDX31, XDX51 developed CZA and TGC resistance. Sequencing showed that double copies of blaKPC-2 were located on a 108 kb IncFII plasmid, increasing blaKPC-2 expression in XDX5...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vibrio neptunius Produces Piscibactin and Amphibactin and Both Siderophores Contribute Significantly to Virulence for Clams
Vibrio neptunius is an inhabitant of mollusc microbiota and an opportunistic pathogen causing disease outbreaks in marine bivalve mollusc species including oysters and clams. Virulence of mollusc pathogenic vibrios is mainly associated with the production of extracellular products. However, siderophore production is a common feature in pathogenic marine bacteria but its role in fitness and virulence of mollusc pathogens remains unknown. We previously found that V. neptunius produces amphibactin, one of the most abundant siderophores in marine microbes. In this work, synthesis of the siderophore piscibactin was identified a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota Is Associated With the Progression of Radiation-Induced Intestinal Injury and Is Alleviated by Oral Compound Probiotics in Mouse Model
In this study, mouse model were treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of 0, 4, 8 and 12 Gy, and the intestinal tissues and fecal samples were collected at 6 h, 3.5 d and 7 d post radiation. We found that the intestinal injuries were manifested in a radiation dose-dependent manner. Results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the diversity of gut microbiota was not significantly affected at the prodromal stage of acute RIII, after 6 h of radiation. At the critical stage of acute RIII, after 3.5 d of radiation, the composition of gut microbiota was correlated with the radiation dose. The Pearson’s correl...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Structure-Based Primer Design Minimizes the Risk of PCR Failure Caused by SARS-CoV-2 Mutations
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused and is still causing tremendous damage to the global economy and human health. Qualitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) is the golden standard for COVID-19 test. However, the SARS-CoV-2 variants may not only make vaccine less effective but also evade RT-qPCR test. Here we suggest an innovative primer design strategy for the RT-qPCR test of SARS-CoV-2. The principle is that the primers should be designed based on both the nucleic acid sequence and the structure of the protein encoded. The three nucleotides closest to the 3′ end of the primer should be the codon...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Host Response to SARS-CoV2 and Emerging Variants in Pre-Existing Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases
ConclusionsThe changes in the spike protein of emerging variants, immunomodulation by viral proteins, and altered expression of host viral entry receptor in pre-existing diseases are the key determinants of host response to SARS-CoV2 and its disease outcome. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical Predictors of COVID-19 Severity and Mortality: A Perspective
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge socio-economic losses and continues to threat humans worldwide. With more than 4.5 million deaths and more than 221 million confirmed COVID-19 cases, the impact on physical, mental, social and economic resources is immeasurable. During any novel disease outbreak, one of the primary requirements for effective mitigation is the knowledge of clinical manifestations of the disease. However, in absence of any unique identifying characteristics, diagnosis/prognosis becomes difficult. It intensifies misperception and leads to delay in containment of disease spread. Numerous clinical research ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Improved Metabolite Prediction Using Microbiome Data-Based Elastic Net Models
We report the best-predictable compounds in all these three datasets from two different body sites. For example, the metabolites trehalose, maltose, stachyose, and ribose are all well predicted by the supragingival microbiome. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: DEAD-Box Helicase DDX6 Facilitated RIG-I-Mediated Type-I Interferon Response to EV71 Infection
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of TLR4-Mediated Autophagy and Nitroxidative Stress
Pathogenic infections have badly affected public health and the development of the breeding industry. Billions of dollars are spent every year fighting against these pathogens. The immune cells of a host produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which promote the clearance of these microbes. In addition, autophagy, which is considered an effective method to promote the destruction of pathogens, is involved in pathological processes. As research continues, the interplay between autophagy and nitroxidative stress has become apparent. Autophagy is always intertwined with nitroxidative stress. Autophagy reg...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The ERK-p38MAPK-STAT3 Signalling Axis Regulates iNOS Expression and Salmonella Infection in Senescent Cells
In this study, we examine the roles of three major kinases viz. p38 MAPK, ERK, and STAT3 in regulating iNOS expression and thereby the levels of the free radical Nitric oxide in senescent cells. Our study revealed that these kinases could differentially regulate iNOS in senescent cells compared to non-senescent cells. Further, we tested the physiological relevance of these alterations with Salmonella infection assays and established an inter-regulatory network between these kinases unique to infected senescent cells. Overall, our findings show how key signalling networks may be rewired in senescent cells rendering them phe...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Proline Isomerization as a Key Determinant for Hsp90-Toxin Interactions
The A chains of ADP-ribosylating toxins exploit Hsp90 for translocation into the host cytosol. Here, we hypothesize that cis proline residues play a key role in toxin recognition by Hsp90. Our model is largely derived from studies on the unusual interplay between Hsp90 and the catalytic A1 subunit of cholera toxin (CTA1), including the recent identification of an RPPDEI-like binding motif for Hsp90 in CTA1 and several other bacterial toxins. Cis/trans proline isomerization is known to influence protein-protein interactions and protein structure/function, but it has not yet been proposed to affect Hsp90-toxin interactions. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: A Remarkable Clinical Therapy for Slow Transit Constipation in Future
Slow transit constipation is a common condition that would be difficult to treat in clinical practice with a widespread incidence in the population. Pharmacotherapy and surgery are common treatment modalities. However, the clinical effect is limited, and patients still suffer from it. As the researchers strived in this field for decades, the profound relationship between slow transit constipation and fecal microbiota transplantation has comprehensively been sustained. It is very pivotal to maintain intestinal homeostasis, the structure function and metabolic function of symbiotic bacteria, which can inhibit the engraftment...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Presence of Candida tropicalis on Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms Facilitated Biofilm Production and Candida Dissemination: An Impact of Fungi on Bacterial Biofilms
In conclusion, SE> CT biofilms prominently induced biofilm matrix, fungemia, macrophage responses, and sepsis severity, whereas the microbial burdens were lower than in the single-organism biofilms. All biofilms were attenuated by l-cysteine. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Duplex Reverse Transcription-Multienzyme Isothermal Rapid Amplification in a Point-of-Care Testing
In this study, we used an isothermal amplification method—Multienzyme Isothermal Rapid Amplification (MIRA)—for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. We designed the primers and probes in ORF1ab and N gene of SARS-CoV-2. The amplicons could be monitored by lateral flow dipsticks (LFDs). The reaction temperature, time, concentrations of primers and probes, and working volume were optimized. Four commercial swab collection buffers were used to test the amplification efficacy of our assay without RNA extraction. Our assay was able to amplify duplex targets of SARS-CoV-2 in one single reaction using one-step RT-MIRA. The ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Impact of ACE2 Polymorphisms on COVID-19 Disease: Susceptibility, Severity, and Therapy
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has currently spread worldwide, leading to high morbidity and mortality. As the putative receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is widely distributed in various tissues and organs of the human body. Simultaneously, ACE2 acts as the physiological counterbalance of ACE providing homeostatic regulation of circulating angiotensin II levels. Given that some ACE2 variants are known to cause an increase in the ligand-receptor affinity, their roles in acquisition, progression and severity of COVI...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phylogenetic Analysis Indicates That Evasin-Like Proteins of Ixodid Ticks Fall Into Three Distinct Classes
Chemokines are structurally related proteins that activate leucocyte migration in response to injury or infection. Tick saliva contains chemokine-binding proteins or evasins which likely neutralize host chemokine function and inflammation. Biochemical characterisation of 50 evasins from Ixodes, Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus shows that they fall into two functional classes, A and B, with exclusive binding to either CC- or CXC- chemokines, respectively. Class A evasins, EVA1 and EVA4 have a four-disulfide-bonded core, whereas the class B evasin EVA3 has a three-disulfide-bonded “knottin” structure. All 29 class B e...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Host Blood Gene Signatures Can Detect the Progression to Severe and Cerebral Malaria
Malaria is a major international public health problem that affects millions of patients worldwide especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although many tests have been developed to diagnose malaria infections, we still lack reliable diagnostic biomarkers for the identification of disease severity, especially in endemic areas where the diagnosis of cerebral malaria is very difficult and requires the exclusion of all other possible causes. Previous host and pathogen transcriptomic studies have not yielded homogenous results that can be harnessed into a reliable diagnostic tool. Here we utilized a multi-cohort analysis approach us...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Altered Pseudomonas Strategies to Inhibit Surface Aspergillus Colonies
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus infections frequently co-localize in lungs of immunocompromised patients and individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). The antifungal activity of P. aeruginosa has been described for its filtrates. Pyoverdine and pyocyanin are the principal antifungal P. aeruginosa molecules active against A. fumigatus biofilm metabolism present in iron-limited or iron-replete planktonic P. aeruginosa culture filtrates, respectively. Using various P. aeruginosa laboratory wild-type strains (PA14, PAO1, PAK), we found antifungal activity against Aspergillus colonies on agar. Comparing 36 PA14 an...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alterations in Faecal Metagenomics and Serum Metabolomics Indicate Management Strategies for Patients With Budd-Chiari Syndrome
We investigated the effects of gut microbiota and serum metabolite levels in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (B-CS) and their importance for guiding clinical management strategies. In total, 214 B-CS patients (93 untreated and 121 treated) and 41 healthy controls were enrolled. Gut microbiota and serum metabolome were analysed using shotgun metagenomics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The gut microbiota of the patients showed abundance of Campylobacter and low levels of Saccharomyces, Deinococcus, and Thiomonas (P 1, P 1.2 or FC
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Elevated Levels of Neutrophil Activated Proteins, Alpha-Defensins (DEFA1), Calprotectin (S100A8/A9) and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Are Associated With Disease Severity in COVID-19 Patients
In this study, we aimed to compare circulatory levels of neutrophil secretory proteins, alpha-defensins (DEFA1), calprotectin (S100A8/A9), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in COVID-19 patients with different clinical presentations. We studied 19 healthy subjects, 63 COVID-19 patients with mild (n=32) and severe (n=31) disease, 23 asymptomatic individuals identified through contact tracing programme and 23 recovering patients (1-4 months post-disease). At the time of disease presentation, serum levels of DEFA1 were significantly higher in patients with mild (mean230 ± 17, p
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbiota and Ocular Diseases
Recent advances have identified significant associations between the composition and function of the gut microbiota and various disorders in organ systems other than the digestive tract. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and multiomics approaches, the microbial community that possibly impacts ocular disease has been identified. This review provides an overview of the literature on approaches to microbiota analysis and the roles of commensal microbes in ophthalmic diseases, including autoimmune uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and other ocular disorders. In addition, this review discusses the hypothes...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of Ku70 as a Cytosolic DNA Sensor in Innate Immunity and Beyond
Human Ku70 is a well-known endogenous nuclear protein involved in the non-homologous end joining pathway to repair double-stranded breaks in DNA. However, Ku70 has been studied in multiple contexts and grown into a multifunctional protein. In addition to the extensive functional study of Ku70 in DNA repair process, many studies have emphasized the role of Ku70 in various other cellular processes, including apoptosis, aging, and HIV replication. In this review, we focus on discussing the role of Ku70 in inducing interferons and proinflammatory cytokines as a cytosolic DNA sensor. We explored the unique structure of Ku70 bin...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of Specific IgG-Antibodies Against Toxoplasma gondii in the Serum and Milk of Domestic Donkeys During Lactation in China: A Potential Public Health Concern
Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide zoonotic protozoan. Donkeys are often susceptible to many pathological agents, acting as carriers of pathogens for other animal species and humans. However, data on the prevalence of T. gondii in donkeys during lactation and on the status of antibodies against T. gondii in donkey milk are lacking. A cross-sectional study evaluated the variation of the anti-T. gondii antibodies in the blood and milk of domestic donkeys during lactation. A total of 418 domestic donkeys were randomly selected from the Shandong province, eastern China from January 2019 to March 2020. The anti-T. gondii antibodi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Pathogenesis of Fungal Biofilms in Different Environmental Conditions and Clinical Outcomes
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Reprocessing 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon Sequencing Studies: (Meta)Data Issues, Robustness, and Reproducibility
High-throughput sequencing technology provides an efficient method for evaluating microbial ecology. Different bioinformatics pipelines can be used to convert 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing data into an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) table that is used to analyze microbial communities. It is important to assess the robustness of these pipelines, each with specific algorithms and/or parameters, and their influence on the outcome of statistical tests. Articles with publicly available datasets on the oral microbiome were searched for, and five datasets were retrieved. These were from studies on changes in microb...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: The Role of Environmental Reservoirs in Campylobacter-Mediated Infection
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research