Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Production Capacity in Clostridioides difficile
BackgroundClostridioides difficile (C. difficile) is one of the primary pathogens responsible for infectious diarrhea. Antibiotic treatment failure, occurring in about 30% of patients, and elevated rates of antibiotic resistance pose a major challenge for therapy. Reinfection often occurs by isolates that produce biofilm, a protective barrier impermeable to antibiotics. We explored the association between antibiotic resistance (in planktonic form) and biofilm-production in 123 C. difficile clinical isolates.ResultsOverall, 66 (53.6%) out of 123 isolates produced a biofilm, with most of them being either a strong (44%)...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

PP2A Phosphatase as an Emerging Viral Host Factor
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most ubiquitous cellular proteins and is responsible for the vast majority of Ser/Thr phosphatase activity in eukaryotes. PP2A is a heterotrimer, and its assembly, intracellular localization, enzymatic activity, and substrate specificity are subject to dynamic regulation. Each of its subunits can be targeted by viral proteins to hijack and modulate its activity and downstream signaling to the advantage of the virus. Binding to PP2A is known to be essential to the life cycle of many viruses and seems to play a particularly crucial role for oncogenic viruses, which utilize PP2A to ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Akkermansia muciniphila Exerts Strain-Specific Effects on DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice
Akkermansia muciniphila is a commensal bacterium of the gut mucus layer. Although both in vitro and in vivo data have shown that A. muciniphila strains exhibit strain-specific modulation of gut functions, its ability to moderate immunity to ulcerative colitis have not been verified. We selected three isolated human A. muciniphila strains (FSDLZ39M14, FSDLZ36M5 and FSDLZ20M4) and the A. muciniphila type strain ATCC BAA-835 to examine the effects of different A. muciniphila strains on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. All of the A. muciniphila strains were cultured anaerobically in brain heart infusion medium supplemen...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Biofilms in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an ubiquitous commensal-turned-pathogen that colonises the respiratory mucosa in airways diseases including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). COPD is a progressive inflammatory syndrome of the lungs, encompassing chronic bronchitis that is characterised by mucus hypersecretion and impaired mucociliary clearance and creates a static, protective, humid, and nutrient-rich environment, with dysregulated mucosal immunity; a favourable environment for NTHi colonisation. Several recent large COPD cohort studies have reported NTHi as a significant and recurrent aetiological...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Development of a Comparative European Orthohantavirus Microneutralization Assay With Multi-Species Validation and Evaluation in a Human Diagnostic Cohort
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alterations of Vaginal Microbiota in Women With Infertility and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection
This study used metagenomic analysis of sequenced 16S rRNA gene amplicons to examine the vaginal microbial profiles of women with tubal infertility who were C. trachomatis-negative and those who were C. trachomatis-positive pre- and post-antibiotic treatment. Women who were C. trachomatis-negative and deemed healthy were recruited as references of eubiosis and dysbiosis. Women with tubal infertility and C. trachomatis infection presented a unique Lactobacillus iners-dominated vaginal microbiota rather than one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and displayed a decrease in Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacter, Ato...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Loss of Function of Scavenger Receptor SCAV-5 Protects C. elegans Against Pathogenic Bacteria
Scavenger receptors play a critical role in innate immunity by acting as the pattern-recognition receptors. There are six class B scavenger receptors homologs in C. elegans. However, it remains unclear whether they are required for host defense against bacterial pathogens. Here, we show that, of the six SCAV proteins, only loss of function scav-5 protect C. elegans against pathogenic bacteria S. typhimurium SL1344 and P. aeruginosa PA14 by different mechanism. scav-5 mutants are resistant to S. typhimurium SL1344 due to dietary restriction. While scav-5 acts upstream of or in parallel to tir-1 in conserved PMK-1 p38 MAPK p...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Integrative Longitudinal Analysis of Metabolic Phenotype and Microbiota Changes During the Development of Obesity
Obesity has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades in the United States. In addition to increased body mass, obesity is often accompanied by comorbidities such as Type II Diabetes Mellitus and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, with serious impacts on public health. Our understanding of the role the intestinal microbiota in obesity has rapidly advanced in recent years, especially with respect to the bacterial constituents. However, we know little of when changes in these microbial populations occur as obesity develops. Further, we know little about how other domains of the microbiota, na...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dynamicity in Host Metabolic Adaptation Is Influenced by the Synergistic Effect of Eugenol Oleate and Amphotericin B During Leishmania donovani Infection In Vitro
Immune metabolic adaptation in macrophages by intracellular parasites is recognized to play a crucial role during Leishmania infection. However, there is little accessible information about changes in a metabolic switch in L. donovani infected macrophages. In previous studies, we have reported on the anti-leishmanial synergic effect of eugenol oleate with amphotericin B. In the present study, we demonstrated that glycolytic enzymes were highly expressed in infected macrophages during combinatorial treatment of eugenol oleate (2.5 µM) and amphotericin B (0.3125 µM). Additionally, we found that the biphasic role ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota Is an Independent Risk Factor of Stroke-Associated Pneumonia: A Chinese Pilot Study
ConclusionWe demonstrate that a microbial community with depleted Roseburia and enriched opportunistic pathogens is associated with increased risk of SAP among AIS patients. Gut microbiota screening might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for SAP and provide clues for stroke treatment. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Elevated Plasma Fibrinogen Is Associated With Excessive Inflammation and Disease Severity in COVID-19 Patients
ConclusionsFibrinogen is commonly elevated in COVID-19 patients, especially in those with severe disease. Elevated fibrinogen correlates with excessive inflammation, disease severity, and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lessons Learned for Pathogenesis, Immunology, and Disease of Erythrocytic Parasites: Plasmodium and Babesia
Malaria caused by Plasmodium species and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes affects large human populations, while Ixodes ticks transmit Babesia species and cause babesiosis. Babesiosis in animals has been known as an economic drain, and human disease has also emerged as a serious healthcare problem in the last 20–30 years. There is limited literature available regarding pathogenesis, immunity, and disease caused by Babesia spp. with their genomes sequenced only in the last decade. Therefore, using previous studies on Plasmodium as the foundation, we have compared similarities and differences in the pathogenesis of ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Tick Microbiota Dysbiosis Promote Tick-Borne Pathogen Transstadial Transmission in a Babesia microti –Infected Mouse Model
Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites. They are important vectors for many pathogens, of both medical and veterinary importance. Antibiotic residues in animal food are known, but very little is known about the effects of antibiotic residues in animals on the microbiome diversity of ticks and tick-borne pathogen transmission. We used a Haemaphysalis longicornis–infested mouse model to evaluate the effect of antibiotic usage on tick microbiome. Nymphal ticks were fed on an antibiotic cocktail-treated or water control mice. Adult ticks molted from nymphs fed on the antibiotic cocktail-treated mouse had a dysbio...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chronic Hepatitis C Pathogenesis: Immune Response in the Liver Microenvironment and Peripheral Compartment
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) pathogenic mechanisms as well as the participation of the immune response in the generation of liver damage are still a topic of interest. Here, we evaluated immune cell populations and cytokines in the liver and peripheral blood (PB) to elucidate their role in CHC pathogenesis. B, CTL, Th, Treg, Th1, Th17, and NK cell localization and frequency were evaluated on liver biopsies by immunohistochemistry, while frequency, differentiation, and functional status on PB were evaluated by flow cytometry. TNF-α, IL-23, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-10, and TGF-β expressi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) In Vitro and a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis
In this study, we investigated whether CAPE can have antifungal and immunomodulatory effects on oral candidiasis. Preliminary tests to assess the antifungal activity of CAPE were performed using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assay that demonstrated inhibition in a range from 16 to 32 μg/mL, confirming its antifungal activity on several C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity. Subsequently, we analyzed Candida spp biofilms formed in vitro, in which CAPE treatment at 5 x MIC caused a reduction of 68.5% in the total biomass and ~2.60 Log in the viable cell count (CFU/mL) in relation to the untreated biofilm (p
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cytospora and Diaporthe Species Associated With Hazelnut Canker and Dieback in Beijing, China
This study explored the main pathogenic fungi species of Corylus heterophylla, completed the corresponding database of pathogenic fungi information, and clarified their biological characteristics. Moreover, the results of this study provided a theoretical basis for Corylus heterophylla disease management and prevention in China. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 2, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Combination Treatment With Remdesivir and Ivermectin Exerts Highly Synergistic and Potent Antiviral Activity Against Murine Coronavirus Infection
The recent COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgency to develop effective antiviral therapies against the disease. Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) is a coronavirus that infects mice and shares some sequence identity to SARS-CoV-2. Both viruses belong to the Betacoronavirus genus, and MHV thus serves as a useful and safe surrogate model for SARS-CoV-2 infections. Clinical trials have indicated that remdesivir is a potentially promising antiviral drug against COVID-19. Using an in vitro model of MHV infection of RAW264.7 macrophages, the safety and efficacy of monotherapy of remdesivir, chloroquine, ivermectin, an...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 30, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial Composition and Metabolomics of Dental Plaque From Adolescents
Supragingival dental plaque samples were collected from 40 Swedish adolescents, including 20 with caries lesions (CAR) and 20 caries-free (CF). Fresh plaque samples were subjected to an ex vivo acid tolerance (AT) test where the proportion of bacteria resistant to an acid shock was evaluated through confocal microscopy and live/dead staining, and the metabolites produced were quantified by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR). In addition, DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced by Illumina sequencing, in order to characterize bacterial composition in the same samples. There were no significant differences ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 30, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CEACAM1 Activation by CbpF-Expressing E. coli
Recent studies on the oral, anaerobic, gram-negative bacterium Fusobacterium nucleatum revealed its presence and involvement in colorectal, esophageal and breast cancer. We previously demonstrated that F. nucleatum binds and activates the human inhibitory receptors TIGIT and CEACAM1 leading to inhibition of T and NK cell anti-tumor immunity. CEACAM1 was found to be bound and activated by the fusobacterial trimeric autotransporter adhesin CbpF. Here we report the generation of a recombinant E. coli expressing full-length CbpF that efficiently binds and activates CEACAM1. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Impact of Gut Microbiota on Radiation-Induced Enteritis
Radiotherapy is an important treatment for abdominal tumors. A critical side effect for this therapy is enteritis. In this review, we aim to summarize recent findings in radiation enteritis, in particular the role of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the development and therapy of the disease. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in the occurrence of various diseases, such as radiation enteritis. Abdominal radiation results in changes in the composition of microbiota and reduces its diversity, which is mainly reflected in the decrease of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and increase of Escherichia coli and...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tissue/Biofluid Specific Molecular Cartography of Leishmania donovani Infected BALB/c Mice: Deciphering Systemic Reprogramming
Pathophysiology of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is not fully understood and it has been widely accepted that the parasitic components and host immune response both contribute to the perpetuation of the disease. Host alterations during leishmaniasis is a feebly touched area that needs to be explored more to better understand the VL prognosis and diagnosis, which are vital to reduce mortality and post-infection sequelae. To address this, we performed untargeted metabolomics of Leishmania donovani (Ld) infected, uninfected and treated BALB/c mice’s tissues and biofluids to elucidate the host metabolome changes using gas ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Revisiting the Mechanisms of Immune Evasion Employed by Human Parasites
For the establishment of a successful infection, i.e., long-term parasitism and a complete life cycle, parasites use various diverse mechanisms and factors, which they may be inherently bestowed with, or may acquire from the natural vector biting the host at the infection prelude, or may take over from the infecting host, to outmaneuver, evade, overcome, and/or suppress the host immunity, both innately and adaptively. This narrative review summarizes the up-to-date strategies exploited by a number of representative human parasites (protozoa and helminths) to counteract the target host immune defense. The revisited informat...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Celebrating Microbial Diversity: The Many Cell Cycles of Eukaryotic Microbes
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Calcium in the Backstage of Malaria Parasite Biology
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger involved in key biological processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In Plasmodium species, Ca2+ signaling plays a central role in the parasite life cycle. It has been associated with parasite development, fertilization, locomotion, and host cell infection. Despite the lack of a canonical inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor gene in the Plasmodium genome, pharmacological evidence indicates that inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate triggers Ca2+ mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum. Other structures such as acidocalcisomes, food vacuole and mitochondria are proposed to ac...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Reductive Power Generated by Mycobacterium leprae Through Cholesterol Oxidation Contributes to Lipid and ATP Synthesis
In conclusion, our findings confirm the accumulation of cholesterol in infected SCs and its potential delivery to the intracellular bacterium. Furthermore, we provide strong evidence that cholesterol oxidation is an essential catabolic pathway for M. leprae pathogenicity and point to 3β-HSD as a prime drug target that may be used in combination with current multidrug regimens to shorten leprosy treatment and ameliorate nerve damage. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Attenuated Protective Effect of Outer Membrane Vesicles Produced by a mcr-1 Positive Strain on Colistin Sensitive Escherichia coli
In this study, we showed that both OMVs from the mcr-1 negative and positive Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains conferred dose-dependent protection from colistin. However, OMVs from the mcr-1 positive strain conferred attenuated protection when compared to the OMVs of a mcr-1 negative strain at the same concentration. The attenuated protective effect of OMVs was related to the reduced ability to absorb colistin from the environment, thus promoting the killing of colistin sensitive E. coli strains. Lipid A modified with phosphoethanolamine was presented in the OMVs of the mcr-1 positive E. coli strain and resulted in decrea...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Understanding Host-Pathogen Interactions in Acute Chorioamnionitis Through the Use of Animal Models
Inflammation of the chorion and/or amnion during pregnancy is called chorioamnionitis. Acute chorioamnionitis is implicated in approximately 40% of preterm births and has wide-ranging implications for the mother, fetus, and newborn. Large disease burden and lack of therapeutic approaches drive the discovery programs to define and test targets to tackle chorioamnionitis. Central to the advancement of these studies is the use of animal models. These models are necessary to deepen our understanding of basic mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions central to chorioamnionitis disease pathogenesis. Models of chorioamnionitis ha...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mass Spectrometry Proteotyping-Based Detection and Identification of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans in Blood
In this study, a culture-independent workflow for pathogen detection and identification in blood samples was developed, using peptide biomarkers and applying bottom-up proteomics analyses, i.e., so-called “proteotyping”. To demonstrate the feasibility of detection of blood infectious pathogens, using proteotyping, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were included in the study, as the most prominent bacterial causes of bacteremia and sepsis, as well as Candida albicans, one of the most prominent causes of fungemia. Model systems including spiked negative blood samples, as well as positive blood cultures, ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Echinococcus in Sheep in China From 1983 to 2020
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of cestode species that belong to the genus Echinococcus. The infection of hydatid in sheep is very common in China, especially in the northwestern China. Here, we conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of echinococcosis in sheep in China. Six databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Baidu Library, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese Journal Database) were used to retrieve the literatures on echinococcosis in sheep in China from 1983 to 2020, and 74 studies. The random effects model was used in the “meta” package of the R software and the PFT was chos...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phosphoribosyltransferase Promotes Bacterial Survival in Macrophages by Inducing Histone Hypermethylation in Autophagy-Related Genes
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibits autophagy to promote its survival in host cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Mtb inhibits autophagy are poorly understood. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism in which Mtb phosphoribosyltransferase (MtbPRT) inhibits autophagy in an mTOR, negative regulator of autophagy, independent manner by inducing histone hypermethylation (H3K9me2/3) at the Atg5 and Atg7 promoters by activating p38-MAPK- and EHMT2 methyltransferase-dependent signaling pathways. Additionally, we find that MtbPRT induces EZH2 methyltransferase-dependent H3K27me3 hypermethylation and reduc...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pharmacological Targeting of BMP6-SMAD Mediated Hepcidin Expression Does Not Improve the Outcome of Systemic Infections With Intra-Or Extracellular Gram-Negative Bacteria in Mice
ConclusionThese data indicate that targeting the BMP receptor or the BMP-SMAD pathway is not sufficient to suppress hepcidin expression in the course of infection with both intra- or extracellular bacteria. This suggests that upon pharmacological inhibition of the central SMAD-BMP pathways during infection, other signaling cascades are compensatorily induced to ensure sufficient hepcidin formation and iron restriction to circulating microbes. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Miltefosine Against Scedosporium and Lomentospora Species: Antifungal Activity and Its Effects on Fungal Cells
Scedosporium and Lomentospora species are filamentous fungi responsible for a wide range of infections in humans and are frequently associated with cystic fibrosis and immunocompromising conditions. Because they are usually resistant to many antifungal drugs available in clinical settings, studies of alternative targets in fungal cells and therapeutic approaches are necessary. In the present work, we evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of miltefosine against Scedosporium and Lomentospora species and how this phospholipid analogue affects the fungal cell. Miltefosine inhibited different Scedosporium and Lomentospora ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Dichloromethane Fraction of Croton sonorae, A Plant Used in Sonoran Traditional Medicine, Affect Entamoeba histolytica Erythrophagocytosis and Gene Expression
In this study, we analyzed the antiamoebic activity of the aerial part of Croton sonorae. The dichloromethane fraction of C. sonorae (CsDCMfx) contained flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and glycosides. The ultrastructural morphology of the amoebae treated for 72 h with CsDCMfx was completely abnormal. CsDCMfx reduced erythrophagocytosis of trophozoites and the expression of genes involved in erythrocyte adhesion (gal/galnac lectin) and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the phagocytosis pathway (rho1 gtpase and formin1). Interestingly, CsDCMfx decreased the expression of genes involved in Entamoeba histolytica tropho...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of Smoking on Inflammatory Markers in a Healthy Population as Analyzed via the Gut Microbiota
This study was conducted to explore whether smoking affects diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. We enrolled 33 smokers and 121 non-smokers. We collected fecal samples from all participants and performed whole-genome sequencing. Smoking significantly affected the gut microbiota. At the phylum through genus levels, the smokers’ microbiotas showed slight changes compared with those of the non-smokers. The α- and β-diversities differed significantly between the smokers and non-smokers, and the smokers’ gut microbiota compositions differed significantly from those of the non-smokers. At the specie...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The sRNA Regulated Protein DdbA Is Involved in Development and Maintenance of the Chlamydia trachomatis EB Cell Form
The chlamydial small non coding RNA, IhtA, regulates the expression of both HctA and DdbA, the uncharacterized product of the C. trachomatis L2 CTL0322 gene. HctA is a small, highly basic, DNA binding protein that is expressed late in development and mediates the condensation of the genome during RB to EB differentiation. DdbA is conserved throughout the chlamydial lineage, and is predicted to express a small, basic, cytoplasmic protein. As it is common for sRNAs to regulate multiple mRNAs within the same physiological pathway, we hypothesize that DdbA, like HctA, is involved in RB to EB differentiation. Here, we show that...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sinus Microbiota in Patients With Eosinophilic and Non-Eosinophilic Chronic Rhinosinusitis With Nasal Polyps
This study highlights that microbiota composition may contribute to the different clinical types of CRSwNP, inspiring new therapeutic strategies to resolve this chronic inflammation process. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Possible Emergence of Zika Virus of African Lineage in Brazil and the Risk for New Outbreaks
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 23, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Unraveling the Complicated Environment of Uncomplicated rUTIs
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in humans, affecting the upper and lower urinary tract. Present diagnosis relies on the positive culture of uropathogenic bacteria from urine and clinical markers of inflammation of the urinary tract. The bladder is constantly challenged by adverse environmental stimuli which influence urinary tract physiology, contributing to a dysbiotic environment. Simultaneously, pathogens are primed by environmental stressors such as antibiotics, favoring recurrent UTIs (rUTIs), resulting in chronic illness. Due to different confounders for UTI onset, a greater understanding of the fundamen...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Endothelial Activation in Orientia tsutsugamushi Infection Is Mediated by Cytokine Secretion From Infected Monocytes
Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a common systemic infection in Asia. Delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to vasculitis in the visceral organs and other complications. The mechanisms that drive endothelial activation and the inflammatory response in O. tsutsugamushi infection remain unknown. In addition, the interaction between monocytes and endothelial cells is still unclear. Here we demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi-infected human dermal microvascular endothelial cells produced moderate levels of chemokines and low levels of IL-6 and IFN-β, but not TNF or IL-1β. Recombinant TNF and cytok...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

L-Arabinose Transport and Metabolism in Salmonella Influences Biofilm Formation
In this study we examined the impact of L-arabinose on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) biofilm formation. Using mutants impaired for the transport and metabolism of L-arabinose, we showed that L-arabinose metabolism negatively impacts S. Typhimurium biofilm formation in vitro. When L-arabinose metabolism is abrogated, biofilm formation returned to baseline levels. However, without the ability to import extracellular L-arabinose, biofilm formation significantly increased. Using RNA-Seq we identified several gene families involved in these different phenotypes including curli expression, amino acid s...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Application of Imaging Flow Cytometry for Characterisation and Quantification of Bacterial Phenotypes
In this study, we applied high-throughput Imaging Flow Cytometry (IFC) to characterise and quantify, at single-cell level and over time, the phenotypic heterogeneity and morphological changes in cultured populations of four bacterial species, Bacillus subtilis, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici and Escherichia coli. Morphologies in relation to growth stage and stress responses, cell integrity and metabolic activity were analysed. Additionally, we were able to identify and morphologically classify dormant cell phenotypes such as VBNC cells and monitor the resuscitation of persister cells in Escherichia...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Description of Pathogens and Antibiotic Treatment Guidance in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia Using Combined Mass Spectrometry Methods
The objective of this study was to evaluate the value of molecular methods in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Previously developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods combined with quantitative real-time PCR (combined-MS methods) were used to describe the aetiology and evaluate antibiotic therapy in the enrolled children. Sputum collected from 302 children hospitalized with CAP were analyzed using the combined-MS methods, which can detect 19 viruses and 12 bacteria related to CAP. Based on the results, appropriate antibiotics were determined using national guidelines and compared with the...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A  Metatranscriptomics Survey of Microbial Diversity on Surfaces Post-Intervention of cleanSURFACES® Technology in an Intensive Care Unit
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) pose a serious threat to patients, and hospitals spend billions of dollars each year to reduce and treat these infections. Many HAIs are due to contamination from workers’ hands and contact with high-touch surfaces. Therefore, we set out to test the efficacy of a new preventative technology, AIONX® Antimicrobial Technologies, Inc’s cleanSURFACES®, which is designed to complement daily chemical cleaning events by continuously preventing re-colonization of surfaces. To that end, we swabbed surfaces before (Baseline) and after (Post) application of the cleanSURFACES®...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fighting the Antibiotic Crisis: Flavonoids as Promising Antibacterial Drugs Against Helicobacter pylori Infection
Over half of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. Chronic infection with this microbial class I carcinogen is considered the most important risk factor for developing gastric cancer. The increasing antimicrobial resistance to first-line antibiotics mainly causes the failure of current eradication therapies, inducing refractory infections. The alarming increase in multidrug resistance in H. pylori isolates worldwide is already beginning to limit the efficacy of existing treatments. Consequently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has included H. pylori in its list of “pri...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tityus serrulatus (Scorpion): From the Crude Venom to the Construction of Synthetic Peptides and Their Possible Therapeutic Application Against Toxoplasma gondii Infection
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a major public concern owing to its neurotropic nature and high morbidity and mortality rates in immunocompromised patients and newborns. Current treatment for this disease is inefficient and produces side effects. Inflammatory mediators produced during T. gondii infection (e.g., cytokines and nitric oxide) are crucial in controlling parasite replication. In this context, Tityus serrulatus venom (TsV) induces the production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Thus, this study aimed to isolate and identify the components of TsV with potential anti-T. gondii activity. TsV...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tick Saliva and the Alpha-Gal Syndrome: Finding a Needle in a Haystack
This article reviews the current understanding of AGS and its involvement with tick species. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Acquisition of a Stable and Transferable blaNDM-5-Positive Plasmid With Low Fitness Cost Leading to Ceftazidime/Avibactam Resistance in KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae During Treatment
In this study, CAZ/AVI MICs of CAZ/AVI-susceptible and -resistant isolates (KP135194 and KP137060) were 4 mg/L and 128 mg/L, respectively; and the two isolates had the same antibiotic resistance pattern to other carbapenems. Two strains were then submitted for whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. ompK36 was not detected in two isolates. No mutation was observed in blaKPC-2, ompK35 and ompK37 in this study and there was no significant difference of the expression in blaKPC-2, ompK35 and ompK37 between the two isolates (p>0.05). Two isolates were sequence type 11 and harbored blaKPC-2, blaSHV-182 and blaTEM...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Msn2 Transcription Factor Regulates Acaricidal Virulence in the Fungal Pathogen Beauveria bassiana
Beauveria bassiana holds promise as a feasible biological control agent for tick control. The B. bassiana stress–response transcription factor Msn2 is known to contribute to fungal growth, conidiogenesis, stress–response and virulence towards insects; however, little is known concerning whether Msn2 is involved in infection across Arthropoda classes. We evaluated the effects of Msn2 on B. bassiana virulence against Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae) using wild-type, targeted gene knockout (ΔBbmsn2) and complemented mutant (ΔBbmsn2/Bbmsn2) strains. Reproductive parameters of R. microplus engor...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Does Day-to-Day Variability in Stool Consistency Link to the Fecal Microbiota Composition?
ConclusionThis study supports an association between stool consistency and fecal microbiota, but no effect of day-to-day fluctuations in stool consistency within seven days. This consolidates the importance of considering stool consistency in gut microbiota research, though confirms the validity of single fecal sampling to represent an individual’s microbiota at a given time point. NCT00775060. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 20, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biological Effect of Streptococcus pyogenes-Released Extracellular Vesicles on Human Monocytic Cells, Induction of Cytotoxicity, and Inflammatory Response
Most bacteria naturally release spherical lipid-bilayered extracellular vesicles (EVs) containing proteins, nucleic acids, and virulence-related molecules, thus contributing to diverse biological functions including transport of virulence factors. The group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS), a major human pathogen, also releases EVs; however, it remains unclear how GAS EVs interact physiologically and pathologically with host cells, and what the differences are between invasive and non-invasive strains. The proteome profile in this study revealed that GAS EVs enclosed many virulence-related proteins such as str...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research