Endotoxemia by Porphyromonas gingivalis Alters Endocrine Functions in Brown Adipose Tissue
This study indicates that endotoxemia by P. gingivalis potentially affects obesity by disrupting BAT function. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Porphyromonas gingivalis Produce Neutrophil Specific Chemoattractants Including Short Chain Fatty Acids
Neutrophil migration from blood to tissue-residing microbes is governed by a series of chemoattractant gradients of both endogenous and microbial origin. Periodontal disease is characterized by neutrophil accumulation in the gingival pocket, recruited by the subgingival biofilm consisting mainly of gram-negative, anaerobic and proteolytic species such as Porphyromonas gingivalis. The fact that neutrophils are the dominating cell type in the gingival pocket suggests that neutrophil-specific chemoattractants are released by subgingival bacteria, but characterization of chemoattractants released by subgingival biofilm species...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activity of Tracheal Cytotoxin of Bordetella pertussis in a Human Tracheobronchial 3D Tissue Model
Bordetella pertussis is a highly contagious pathogen which causes whooping cough in humans. A major pathophysiology of infection is the extrusion of ciliated cells and subsequent disruption of the respiratory mucosa. Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) is the only virulence factor produced by B. pertussis that has been able to recapitulate this pathology in animal models. This pathophysiology is well characterized in a hamster tracheal model, but human data are lacking due to scarcity of donor material. We assessed the impact of TCT and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the functional integrity of the human airway mucosa by using in vitro ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Herpes Simplex Virus Cell Entry Mechanisms: An Update
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can infect a broad host range and cause mild to life threating infections in humans. The surface glycoproteins of HSV are evolutionarily conserved and show an extraordinary ability to bind more than one receptor on the host cell surface. Following attachment, the virus fuses its lipid envelope with the host cell membrane and releases its nucleocapsid along with tegument proteins into the cytosol. With the help of tegument proteins and host cell factors, the nucleocapsid is then docked into the nuclear pore. The viral double stranded DNA is then released into the host cell’s nucleus. Release...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

RON Expression Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Dendritic Cell Maturation via March-I
The macrophage stimulating protein (MSP)–Recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) signaling pathway regulates macrophage function. Here, we verified RON receptor expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) by real time-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometry. Flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in MHC II and CD86 expression following the inhibition of RON in BMDCs and splenic dendritic cells (DCs). Immunoprecipitation and Western blot were used to detect the level of MHC II and CD86 ubiquitination. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect cytokine release, and a mixed lym...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Modulation of IMD, Toll, and Jak/STAT Immune Pathways Genes in the Fat Body of Rhodnius prolixus During Trypanosoma rangeli Infection
Trypanosoma rangeli is the second most common American trypanosome that infects man. It is vectored by triatomines from the genus Rhodnius, in which it invades the hemolymph and infects the salivary glands, avoiding the bug immune responses. In insects, these responses are initiated by well conserved pathways, mainly the IMD, Toll, and Jak/STAT. We hypothesize that long-term infection with T. rangeli in the gut or hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus triggers different systemic immune responses, which influence the number of parasites that survive inside the vector. Thus, we investigated groups of insects with infections in the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel RAMA/RON3 Rhoptry Protein Complex in Plasmodium falciparum Merozoites
Malaria causes a half a million deaths annually. The parasite intraerythrocytic lifecycle in the human bloodstream is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. Apical organelles of merozoite stage parasites are involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. A limited number of apical organellar proteins have been identified and characterized for their roles during erythrocyte invasion or subsequent intraerythrocytic parasite development. To expand the repertoire of identified apical organellar proteins we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum schizont-rich parasites and screened the antibodi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CLIPB10 is a Terminal Protease in the Regulatory Network That Controls Melanization in the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Humoral immune responses in animals are often tightly controlled by regulated proteolysis. This proteolysis is exerted by extracellular protease cascades, whose activation culminates in the proteolytic cleavage of key immune proteins and enzymes. A model for such immune system regulation is the melanization reaction in insects, where the activation of prophenoxidase (proPO) leads to the rapid formation of eumelanin on the surface of foreign entities such as parasites, bacteria and fungi. ProPO activation is tightly regulated by a network of so-called clip domain serine proteases, their proteolytically inactive homologs, an...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prognostic Significance of End-Stage Liver Diseases, Respiratory Tract Infection, and Chronic Kidney Diseases in Symptomatic Acute Hepatitis E
Symptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is sporadic, and usually occurs in a limited number of infected patients, which hinders the investigation of risk factors for clinical outcomes in patients with acute HEV infection. A retrospective cohort study enrolling 1913 patients with symptomatic acute hepatitis E in Beijing 302 Hospital from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2018 was conducted. The baseline characteristics, clinical features and laboratory data of these HEV infection cases were analyzed. Albumin (ALB), platelet (PLT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T-BiL), international normalized ratio (I...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 15, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Gut Microbiota Disturbance in Rat Models of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Maternal Separation and Multiple Early-Life Adversity
ConclusionsOur results highlight the importance in evaluating gut microbiota characteristics in IBS research while also systematically considering potential modeling procedural differences. The microbial compositional/functional differences identified in this study were suggestive to further investigation of mechanisms of early adversity induced IBS. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Persistence of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens —With a Focus on the Metabolic Perspective
Persistence has evolved as a potent survival strategy to overcome adverse environmental conditions. This capability is common to almost all bacteria, including all human bacterial pathogens and likely connected to chronic infections caused by some of these pathogens. Although the majority of a bacterial cell population will be killed by the particular stressors, like antibiotics, oxygen and nitrogen radicals, nutrient starvation and others, a varying subpopulation (termed persisters) will withstand the stress situation and will be able to revive once the stress is removed. Several factors and pathways have been identified ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Leaning Into the Bite: The piRNA Pathway as an Exemplar for the Genetic Engineering Need in Mosquitoes
The piRNA pathway is a specialized small RNA interference that in mosquitoes is mechanistically distant from analogous biology in the Drosophila model. Current genetic engineering methods, such as targeted genome manipulation, have a high potential to tease out the functional complexity of this intricate molecular pathway. However, progress in utilizing these methods in arthropod vectors has been geared mostly toward the development of new vector control strategies rather than to study cellular functions. Herein we propose that genetic engineering methods will be essential to uncover the full functionality of PIWI/piRNA bi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

( −)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits the Life Cycle of Pseudorabies Virus In Vitro and Protects Mice Against Fatal Infection
A newly emerged pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant with enhanced pathogenicity has been identified in many PRV-vaccinated swine in China since 2011. The PRV variant has caused great economic cost to the swine industry, and measures for the effective prevention and treatment of this PRV variant are still lacking. (–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) exhibits antiviral activity against diverse viruses and thus in this study, we investigated the anti-PRV activity of EGCG in vitro and in vivo. EGCG significantly inhibited infectivity of PRV Ra and PRV XJ5 strains in PK15 B6 cells and Vero cells. The anti-PRV activity of ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Mitochondrial Fission Regulator DRP1 Controls Post-Transcriptional Regulation of TNF- α
The mitochondrial network plays a critical role in the regulation of innate immune signaling and subsequent production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-β and IL-1β. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) promotes mitochondrial fission and quality control to maintain cellular homeostasis during infection. However, mechanisms by which DRP1 and mitochondrial dynamics control innate immune signaling and the proinflammatory response are incompletely understood. Here we show that macrophage DRP1 is a positive regulator of TNF-α production during sterile inflammation or bacterial infection. Silencing macrophage ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium avium Modulates the Protective Immune Response in Canine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
Mycobacterium avium, an opportunistic intracellular pathogen, is a member of the non-tuberculous mycobacteria species. M. avium causes respiratory disease in immunosuppressed individuals and a wide range of animals, including companion dogs and cats. In particular, the number of infected companion dogs has increased, although the underlying mechanism of M. avium pathogenesis in dogs has not been studied. Therefore, in the present study, the host immune response against M. avium in dogs was investigated by transcriptome analysis of canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. M. avium was shown to induce different immune resp...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA in Cryptosporidium parvum Reveals Significant Stage-Specific Antisense Transcription
In this study, we analyzed a C. parvum in vitro strand-specific RNA-seq developmental time series covering both asexual and sexual stages to identify lncRNAs associated with parasite development. In total, we identified 396 novel lncRNAs, mostly antisense, with 86% being differentially expressed. Surprisingly, nearly 10% of annotated mRNAs have an antisense transcript. lncRNAs occur most often at the 3′ end of their corresponding sense mRNA. Putative lncRNA regulatory regions were identified and many appear to encode bidirectional promoters. A positive correlation between lncRNA and upstream mRNA expression was obser...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Susceptibility Analysis in Several Mouse Strains Reveals Robust T-Cell Responses After Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in DBA/2 Mice
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen responsible for human community-acquired pneumonia. The number of antibiotic-resistant Mp strains is increasing; therefore, to develop novel therapeutics, it is crucial to precisely understand the pathogenesis of mycoplasma pneumonia. Herein, we examined the susceptibility and response to Mp among eight inbred mouse strains. Following infection, the bacterial load in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from DBA/2 mice was higher than that in the other tested strains such as BALB/c mice, which are frequently used in Mp research. In contrast, the numb...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 13, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Burkitt Lymphomas Evolve to Escape Dependencies on Epstein-Barr Virus
Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) can transform B cells and contributes to the development of Burkitt lymphoma and other cancers. Through decades of study, we now recognize that many of the viral genes required to transform cells are not expressed in EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma (BL) tumors, likely due to the immune pressure exerted on infected cells. This recognition has led to the hypothesis that the loss of expression of these viral genes must be compensated through some mechanisms. Recent progress in genome-wide mutational analysis of tumors provides a wealth of data about the cellular mutations found in EBV-positive BLs...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Molecular Diagnostics of Fungal Plant Pathogens: A Mini Review
Phytopathogenic fungal species can cause enormous losses in quantity and quality of crop yields and this is a major economic issue in the global agricultural sector. Precise and rapid detection and identification of plant infecting fungi are essential to facilitate effective management of disease. DNA-based methods have become popular methods for accurate plant disease diagnostics. Recent developments in standard and variant polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays including nested, multiplex, quantitative, bio and magnetic-capture hybridization PCR techniques, post and isothermal amplification methods, DNA and RNA based pro...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

From Initiators to Effectors: Roadmap Through the Intestine During Encounter of Toxoplasma gondii With the Mucosal Immune System
The gastrointestinal tract is a major portal of entry for many pathogens, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Billions of people worldwide have acquired T. gondii at some point in their life, and for the vast majority this has led to latent infection in the central nervous system. The first line of host defense against Toxoplasma is located within the intestinal mucosa. Appropriate coordination of responses by the intestinal epithelium, intraepithelial lymphocytes, and lamina propria cells results in an inflammatory response that controls acute infection. Under some conditions, infection elicits bacterial d...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Frequent Pet Contact as Risk Factor for Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis
Aspergillus fumigatus (Af) frequently colonizes the respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Af is associated with loss of pulmonary function and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a hypersensitivity fungal lung disease. Environmental factors have impact on CF patients’ lung function variation. The aim of this nationwide questionnaire survey was to investigate the amount of CF patients with frequent pet contact including pet species and to examine the potential impact of frequent pet contact on the occurrence of Af colonization and ABPA diagnosis in these patients. The survey was carried ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sensitive Immunoassay Detection of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Rapid, reliable, and sensitive detection of Plasmodium infection is central to malaria control and elimination. Many Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) developed for this purpose depend upon immunoassays that can be improved by advances in bound antibody sensor technology. In a previous study, immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was shown to provide highly sensitive detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) in monoclonal antibody (mAb) sandwich assays. Here, we show comparably high immunoassay sensitivity by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection of gold nanoparticles (...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bioenergetic Inhibitors: Antibiotic Efficacy and Mechanisms of Action in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Development of novel anti-tuberculosis combination regimens that increase efficacy and reduce treatment timelines will improve patient compliance, limit side-effects, reduce costs, and enhance cure rates. Such advancements would significantly improve the global TB burden and reduce drug resistance acquisition. Bioenergetics has received considerable attention in recent years as a fertile area for anti-tuberculosis drug discovery. Targeting the electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation machinery promises not only to kill growing cells but also metabolically dormant bacilli that are inherently more drug to...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 11, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Hetero-Multimeric Chitinase-Containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium gallinaceum Ookinete-Secreted Protein Complex Involved in Mosquito Midgut Invasion
Malaria parasites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. During its life cycle in the mosquito vector the Plasmodium ookinete escapes the proteolytic milieu of the post-blood meal midgut by traversing the midgut wall. This process requires penetration of the chitin-containing peritrophic matrix lining the midgut epithelium, which depends in part on ookinete-secreted chitinases. Plasmodium falciparum ookinetes have one chitinase (PfCHT1), whereas ookinetes of the avian-infecting parasite, P. gallinaceum, have two, a long and a short form, PgCHT1 and PgCHT2, respectively. Published data indicates that PgCHT2 form...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Dynamic Roles of the Inner Membrane Complex in the Multiple Stages of the Malaria Parasite
Apicomplexan parasites, such as human malaria parasites, have complex lifecycles encompassing multiple and diverse environmental niches. Invading, replicating, and escaping from different cell types, along with exploiting each intracellular niche, necessitate large and dynamic changes in parasite morphology and cellular architecture. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unique structural element that is intricately involved with these distinct morphological changes. The IMC is a double membrane organelle that forms de novo and is located beneath the plasma membrane of these single-celled organisms. In Plasmodium spp. para...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Profiling the Blood Compartment of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients During Human Cytomegalovirus Reactivation
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread pathogen establishing a latent infection in its host. HCMV reactivation is a major health burden in immunocompromised individuals, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here we determined HCMV genomic levels using droplet digital PCR in different peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations in HCMV reactivating HSCT patients. This high sensitivity approach revealed that all PBMC populations harbored extremely low levels of viral DNA at the peak of HCMV DNAemia. Transcriptomic analysis of PBMCs from high-...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorating Pseudomonas aeruginosa –induced Acute Lung Infection via Inhibition of NLRC4 Inflammasome
ConclusionsPA infection attenuated macrophage phagocytosis through activation of NLRC4 inflammasome in macrophages, which eventually led to pulmonary inflammatory damage in mouse; ASCs reduced the activation of NLRC4 inflammasome in macrophages induced by PA infection, thereby increasing the phagocytic ability of macrophages, and ultimately improving lung tissue damage in mouse; ASCs may inhibit NLRC4 inflammasome through the secretion of STC-1. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Novel Triple-Fluorescent HCMV Strain Reveals Gene Expression Dynamics and Anti-Herpesviral Drug Mechanisms
In conclusion, our data argues that this experimental approach allows the identification and characterization of new drug candidates in a single step. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nanocarriers From Natural Lipids With In Vitro Activity Against Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni (CJ) is the most prevalent zoonotic pathogen of chicken meat and related products, which may lead to gastroenteritis and autoimmune diseases in humans. Although controlling this bacterium is important, CJ strains resistance against traditional antibiotic therapy has been increased. Vegetable oils and fats are natural biomaterials explored since the Ancient times, due to their therapeutic properties. Nanotechnology has promoted the miniaturization of materials, improving bioavailability and efficacy, while reducing the toxicity of loaded active molecules. In this work, a screening of 28 vegetable oils w...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Challenge of Bovine Foot Skin Fibroblasts With Digital Dermatitis Treponemes Identifies Distinct Pathogenic Mechanisms
This study used RNA sequencing to determine global differential mRNA expression in primary bovine foot skin fibroblasts following challenge with three representative BDD treponemes and a commensal treponeme, Treponema ruminis. A pro-inflammatory response was elicited by the BDD treponemes, mediated through IL-8/IL-17 signaling. Unexpectedly, the three BDD treponemes elicited distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis. T. phagedenis and T. pedis increased abundance of mRNA transcripts associated with apoptosis, while T. medium and T. pedis increased transcripts involved in actin rearrangement and loss of cell adhesion, likely prom...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning Algorithms Evaluate Immune Response to Novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
ConclusionWe exploited the use of machine learning algorithms as a key tool to evaluate large immunological datasets. This identified several antigen–cytokine pairs with the potential to improve immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis in children. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Complex Interactions Between Rotavirus and the Gut Microbiota
Human rotavirus (HRV) is the leading worldwide cause of acute diarrhea-related death in children under the age of five. RV infects the small intestine, an important site of colonization by the microbiota, and studies over the past decade have begun to reveal a complex set of interactions between RV and the gut microbiota. RV infection can temporarily alter the composition of the gut microbiota and probiotic administration alleviates some symptoms of infection in vivo, suggesting reciprocal effects between the virus and the gut microbiota. While development of effective RV vaccines has offered significant protection against...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chlamydia muridarum Can Invade the Central Nervous System via the Olfactory and Trigeminal Nerves and Infect Peripheral Nerve Glial Cells
Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect the brain and has been linked to late-onset dementia. Chlamydia muridarum, which infects mice, is often used to model human chlamydial infections. While it has been suggested to be also important for modelling brain infection, nervous system infection by C. muridarum has not been reported in the literature. C. pneumoniae has been shown to infect the olfactory bulb in mice after intranasal inoculation, and has therefore been suggested to invade the brain via the olfactory nerve; however, nerve infection has not been shown to date. Another path by which certain bacteria can reach the brain is ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Investigating Major Recurring Campylobacter jejuni Lineages in Luxembourg Using Four Core or Whole Genome Sequencing Typing Schemes
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, which has motivated the monitoring of genetic profiles circulating in Luxembourg since 13 years. From our integrated surveillance using a genotyping strategy based on an extended MLST scheme including gyrA and porA markers, an unexpected endemic pattern was discovered in the temporal distribution of genotypes. We aimed to test the hypothesis of stable lineages occurrence by implementing whole genome sequencing (WGS) associated with comprehensive and internationally validated schemes. This pilot study assessed four WGS-based typing schemes to classify a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic Epidemiology of Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Southern China
This study provides evidence for a genomic population with drug resistance in Southern China and also illustrates the utility of SNP microarrays for large-scale parasite molecular epidemiology. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Global Lysine Crotonylation Alterations of Host Cell Proteins Caused by Brucella Effector BspF
In Brucella spp., the type IV secretion system (T4SS) is essential for bacterial intracellular survival and inhibition of the host innate immune response. The Brucella T4SS secretes 15 different effectors to escape host immunity and promote intracellular replication. Among them, BspF has a GNAT-family acetyltransferase domain, implying its acetyltransferase activity. We confirmed that BspF has acetyltransferase activity (data not shown) and de-crotonyltransferase activity. However, BspF overexpressed in HEK-293T cells can also enhance octamer crotonylation in vitro. Then we enriched crotonylated proteins and conducted LC-M...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic Epidemiology and Active Surveillance to Investigate Outbreaks of Hantaviruses
Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses pose significant public health, economic, and societal burdens. Hantaviruses (genus Orthohantavirus, family Hantaviridae, order Bunyavirales) are enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded, tripartite RNA viruses that are emerging zoonotic pathogens harbored by small mammals such as rodents, bats, moles, and shrews. Orthohantavirus infections cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in humans (HCPS). Active targeted surveillance has elucidated high-resolution phylogeographic relationships between patient- and rodent-derived orthohantavir...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Histoplasma capsulatum Glycans From Distinct Genotypes Share Structural and Serological Similarities to Cryptococcus neoformans Glucuronoxylomannan
The cell wall is a ubiquitous structure in the fungal kingdom, with some features varying depending on the species. Additional external structures can be present, such as the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn), its major virulence factor, mainly composed of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), with anti-phagocytic and anti-inflammatory properties. The literature shows that other cryptococcal species and even more evolutionarily distant species, such as the Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis can produce GXM-like polysaccharides displaying serological reactivity to GXM-specific monoclonal antibodi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Viral Janus: Viruses as Aetiological Agents and Treatment Options in Colorectal Cancer
In recent years, our understanding of the importance of microorganisms on and within our bodies has been revolutionized by the ability to characterize entire microbial communities. No more so is this true than in cases of disease. Community studies have revealed strong associations between microbial populations and disease states where such concomitance was previously absent from aetiology: including in cancers. The study of viruses, in particular, has benefited from the development of new community profiling techniques and we are now realising that their prominence within our physiology is nearly as broad as the diversity...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Niche-Specific Adaptive Evolution of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Isolated From Human Feces and Paocai
Lactobacillus plantarum, a widely used probiotic in the food industry, exists in diverse habitats, which has led to its niche-specific genetic evolution. However, the relationship between this type of genetic evolution and the bacterial phenotype remains unclear. Here, six L. plantarum strains derived from paocai and human feces were analyzed at the genomic and phenotypic levels to investigate the features of adaptive evolution in different habitats. A comparative genomic analysis showed that 93 metabolism-related genes underwent structural variations (SVs) during adaptive evolution, including genes responsible for carbohy...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Breath Biopsy and Discovery of Exclusive Volatile Organic Compounds for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases
We describe different chemical classes of VOCs and their role in the host cell-microbial interactions and their impact on infection disease pathology. We also update on recent progress on VOC signatures emitted by isolated bacterial species and microbiomes, and VOCs identified in exhaled breath of patients with respiratory tract and gastrointestinal diseases, and inflammatory syndromes, including the acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. The VOC curated databases and instrumentations have been developed through statistically robust breathomic research in large patient populations. Scientists have now the opportun...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of Blood Bacterial Communities in Periodontal Health and Periodontal Disease
This study reveals significant phylogenetic differences in blood bacterial population profiles when comparing periodontal health to periodontal disease cohorts. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

TLR4 Deficiency Exacerbates Biliary Injuries and Peribiliary Fibrosis Caused by Clonorchis sinensis in a Resistant Mouse Strain
Mice with different genetic backgrounds have various susceptibilities to infection with Clonorchis sinensis, although the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as one of the most important pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) is essential for the invasion, survival, pathogenesis, and elimination of worms. The roles played by TLR4 in C. sinensis infection may vary due to the different genetic backgrounds of mice. In the present study, a relatively resistant mouse strain-C57BL/10 to C. sinensis was used for investigation on the possible roles of TLR4 in the biliary injuries and peribiliary fi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - January 5, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sugar-Coated Killer: Serotype 3 Pneumococcal Disease
Capsular polysaccharide (CPS), which surrounds the bacteria, is one of the most significant and multifaceted contributors to Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence. Capsule prevents entrapment in mucus during colonization, traps water to protect against desiccation, can serve as an energy reserve, and protects the bacterium against complement-mediated opsonization and immune cell phagocytosis. To date, 100 biochemically and serologically distinct capsule types have been identified for S. pneumoniae; 20 to 30 of which have well-defined propensity to cause opportunistic human infection. Among these, serotype 3 is perhaps th...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CRISPR Genome Editing Applied to the Pathogenic Retrovirus HTLV-1
CRISPR editing of retroviral proviruses has been limited to HIV-1. We propose human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) as an excellent model to advance CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technologies against actively expressing and latent retroviral proviruses. HTLV-1 is a tumorigenic human retrovirus responsible for the development of both leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a neurological disease (HAM/TSP). The virus immortalizes and persists in CD4+ T lymphocytes that survive for the lifetime of the host. The most important drivers of HTLV-1-mediated transformation and proliferation are the tax and hbz viral genes. Tax, transcribed ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intracellular Porphyromonas gingivalis Promotes the Proliferation of Colorectal Cancer Cells via the MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathway
In conclusion, P. gingivalis can invade cells and promote the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by activating the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Gingipain is an essential virulence factor in this interaction. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Clostridium difficile ST81 Infection in a Teaching Hospital in Eastern China
ConclusionThis study revealed the molecular epidemiology and risk factors for the dominant C. difficile ST81 genotype infection in eastern China. Continuous and stringent surveillance on the emerging ST81 genotype needs to be initiated. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Autophagy Receptor Tollip Facilitates Bacterial Autophagy by Recruiting Galectin-7 in Response to Group A Streptococcus Infection
Bacterial autophagy—a type of macroautophagy that is also termed xenophagy—selectively targets intracellular bacteria such as group A Streptococcus (GAS), a ubiquitous pathogen that causes numerous serious diseases, including pharyngitis, skin infections, and invasive life-threatening infections. Although bacterial autophagy is known to eliminate invading bacteria via the action of autophagy receptors, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, we elucidated that Tollip functions as a bacterial-autophagy receptor in addition to participating involved in the intracellular immunity mechanism that defends a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Interaction Between Microorganisms, Metabolites, and Immune System in the Female Genital Tract Microenvironment
The female reproductive tract microenvironment includes microorganisms, metabolites, and immune components, and the balance of the interactions among them plays an important role in maintaining female reproductive tract homeostasis and health. When any one of the reproductive tract microorganisms, metabolites, or immunity is out of balance, it will affect the other two, leading to the occurrence and development of diseases and the appearance of corresponding symptoms and signs, such as infertility, miscarriage, premature delivery, and gynecological tumors caused by infectious diseases of the reproductive tract. Nutrie...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Does the Microbiome Affect the Outcome of Renal Transplantation?
The role of the human microbiome in health and disease is becoming increasingly apparent. Emerging evidence suggests that the microbiome is affected by solid organ transplantation. Kidney transplantation is the gold standard treatment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), the advanced stage of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The question of how ESRD and transplantation affect the microbiome and vice versa includes how the microbiome is affected by increased concentrations of toxins such as urea and creatinine (which are elevated in ESRD), whether restoration of renal function following transplantation alters the composition of...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - December 23, 2020 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research