The repositioned drugs disulfiram/diethyldithiocarbamate combined to benznidazole: Searching for Chagas disease selective therapy, preventing toxicity and drug resistance
Chagas disease (CD) affects at least 6 million people in 21 South American countries besides several thousand in other nations all over the world. It is estimated that at least 14,000 people die every year of CD. Since vaccines are not available, chemotherapy remains of pivotal relevance. About 30% of the treated patients cannot complete the therapy because of severe adverse reactions. Thus, the search for novel drugs is required. Here we tested the benznidazole (BZ) combination with the repositioned drug disulfiram (DSF) and its derivative diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) upon Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo. DETC-BZ ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Signaling in stress sensing and resistance in parasitic protozoa
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 29, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lenalidomide potentially reduced the level of cell- associated HIV RNA and improved persistent inflammation in patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis a pilot study
ConclusionsLenalidomide was preliminarily confirmed to reduce the level of cell- associated HIV RNA and improve persistent inflammation in patients with HIV-Associated cryptococcal meningitis, which was a potential intervention for clinical use to inhibit viral transcription of the HIV-1 reservoir and reduced HIV-related inflammation in HIV-1 patients during ART. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Role of HPV16 E1 in cervical carcinogenesis
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide. More than 90% of cases are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines developed only guard against a few HPV types and do not protect people who have already been infected. HPV is a small DNA virus that infects the basal layer of the stratified epithelium of the skin and mucosa through small breaks and replicates as the cells differentiate. The mucosal types of HPV can be classified into low-risk and high-risk groups, based on their association with cancer. Among HPV types in high-risk group, HPV type 16 (HPV-16) is the most common, causing 50% of...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The reservoir of latent HIV
The persistence of latent reservoir of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is currently the major challenge in curing HIV infection. After HIV infects the human body, the latent HIV is unable to be recognized by the body’s immune system. Currently, the widely adopted antiretroviral therapy (ART) is also unble to eliminate it, thus hindering the progress of HIV treatment. This review discusses the existence of latent HIV vault for HIV treatment, its formation and factors affecting its formation, cell, and tissue localization, methods for detection and removing latent reservoir, to provide a comprehensive understanding ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Point-of-care testing for infectious and foodborne pathogens
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insights into the roles of bacterial infection and antibiotics in Parkinson ’s disease
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which is accompanied with the classical motor symptoms and a range of non-motor symptoms. Bacterial infection affects the neuroinflammation associated with the pathology of PD and various antibiotics have also been confirmed to play an important role not only in bacterial infection, but also in the PD progression. This mini-review summarized the role of common bacterial infection in PD and introduced several antibiotics that had anti-PD effects. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic effect of fecal microbiota transplantation on chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression
ConclusionFMT exerted antidepressant effects on CUMS-induced depression in rats, and the mechanism involved various neurotransmitters, inflammatory factors, neurotrophic factors, and glucagon-like peptides. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Establishment of a rapid diagnosis method for Candida glabrata based on the ITS2 gene using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strips
In this study, RPA-LFS was used to amplify the internal transcribed spacer region 2 gene of C. glabrata. The primer–probe design was optimized by introducing base mismatches (probe modification of one base) to obtain a highly specific and sensitive primer–probe combination for clinical sample detection. RPA-LFS was performed on 23 common clinical pathogens to determine the specificity of the assay system. The RPA-LFS system specifically detected C. glabrata without cross-reaction with other fungi or bacteria. Gradient dilutions of the template were tested to explore the lower limit of detection of this detection system...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pathological and protective roles of dendritic cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: Interaction between host immune responses and pathogen evasion
Dendritic cells (DCs) are principal defense components that play multifactorial roles in translating innate immune responses to adaptive immunity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections. The heterogeneous nature of DC subsets follows their altered functions by interacting with other immune cells, Mtb, and its products, enhancing host defense mechanisms or facilitating pathogen evasion. Thus, a better understanding of the immune responses initiated, promoted, and amplified or inhibited by DCs in Mtb infection is an essential step in developing anti-tuberculosis (TB) control measures, such as host-directed adjunctive ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Streptococcus pneumoniae interactions with the complement system
Host innate and adaptive immunity to infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is critically dependent on the complement system, demonstrated by the high incidence of invasive S. pneumoniae infection in people with inherited deficiency of complement components. The complement system is activated by S. pneumoniae through multiple mechanisms. The classical complement pathway is activated by recognition of S. pneumoniae by C-reactive protein, serum amyloid P, C1q, SIGN-R1, or natural or acquired antibody. Some S. pneumoniae strains are also recognised by ficolins to activate the mannose binding lectin (MBL) activation pathway. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Changes of gut microbiota structure in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii
This study demonstrates that the gut microbiota plays an important role in T. gondii infection in rats. The data will improve our understanding of the association between T. gondii infection and gut microbiota in rodents. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Malproduction of endogenous hydrogen gas in COVID-19
The molecular footprints of COVID-19 occur everywhere, even reaching the family of biologically active gases and gasotransmitters. Besides nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, COVID-19 might also alter the homeostasis of dihydrogen (H2), another gaseous bioactive molecule produced endogenously by the human gut bacteria. Many studies have shown various alterations of the gut microbiota in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, including the lower abundance of hydrogen-producing bacteria that could instigate the shortage of hydrogen output. Since dihydrogen has many important bioactivities, including cytoprotective, antioxida...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genetic characterization and passage instability of a novel hybrid virulence plasmid in a ST23 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae
Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pnuemoniae (hvKP), which causes life-threatening infections, is a global priority pathogen and frequently harbours virulence plasmids. The virulence plasmids have emerged as the predominant vehicles carrying the major pathogenic determinants of hypermucoviscosity and hypervirulence phenotypes. In the present study, we characterized a novel virulence plasmid in AP8555, an ST23 hvKP strain, which induced a metastatic infection and fatal septic shock in a critically ill patient. The serum killing assay, the quantitative biofilm formation assay, the G.mellonella infection model, and the mou...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Broadening the spectrum of ivermectin: Its effect on Trypanosoma cruzi and related trypanosomatids
Chagas disease is an endemic American parasitosis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. The current therapies, benznidazole (BZN) and nifurtimox (NFX), show limited efficacy and multiple side effects. Thus, there is a need to develop new trypanocidal strategies. Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug with low human and veterinary toxicity with effects against T. brucei and Leishmania spp. Considering this and its relatively low cost, we evaluate IVM as a potential repurposed trypanocidal drug on T. cruzi and other trypanosomatids. We found that IVM affected, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of T. cruz...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - July 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research