Epidemiology and Genomic Characteristics of Bloodstream Infection Caused by Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae With Decreased Susceptibility to Aztreonam/Avibactam in China
Aztreonam/avibactam (AZA), as one of the novel β-lactamases and β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, is considered to be a promising option for bloodstream infection (BSI) of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp). However, decreased susceptibility of AZA activity in Enterobacterales has been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms of BSI CR-Kp with decreased susceptibility of AZA (minimal inhibitory concentration above 16/4 mg/L) (AZAH-Kp). Nine BSI AZAH-Kp isolates were screened from 317 CR-Kp isolates in Blood Bacterial Resistant Investigation Collaborative System (BRICS) program. Who...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evolutionary Insights Into Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in human health and disease status. So far, microbiota transplantation is considered a potential therapeutic approach for treating some chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The diversity of gut microbiota is critical for maintaining resilience, and therefore, transplantation with numerous genetically diverse gut microbiota with metabolic flexibility and functional redundancy can effectively improve gut health than a single probiotic strain supplement. Studies have shown that natural fecal microbiota transplantation or washing microbiota transplanta...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Shewanella putrefaciens WS13 Biofilms Under Cold Stress
This study provided useful data for better understanding of the biofilm formation of S. putrefaciens, and also laid a theoretical foundation for novel vaccine and drug targets against the severe spoilage bacterium under the cold stress. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

GW4064 Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Counteracts Autism-Associated Behaviors in BTBR T+tf/J Mice
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is considered a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant social, communication, and behavioral impairments. The gut microbiota is increasingly considered a promising therapeutic target in ASD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has recently been shown to modulate the gut microbiota. We hypothesized that FXR agonist GW4064 could ameliorate behavioral deficits in an animal model for autism: BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mouse. As expected, administration of GW4064 rescued the sociability of BTBR mice in the three-chamber sociability test and male-female social reciprocal interac...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Intra-Host Diversity of Dengue Virus in Mosquito Vectors
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arbovirus, causing a significant burden on both the economy and global healthcare systems. The virus is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquitoes as a swarm of closely related virus genomes, collectively referred to as a quasispecies. The level of genomic diversity within this quasispecies varies as DENV moves through various ecological niches within its transmission cycle. Here, the factors that influence the level of DENV quasispecies diversity during the course of infection in the mosquito vectors are reviewed. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota-Derived Diaminopimelic Acid Promotes the NOD1/RIP2 Signaling Pathway and Plays a Key Role in the Progression of Severe Acute Pancreatitis
Impaired intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota dysbiosis are believed to be related to exacerbation of acute pancreatitis (AP). As a bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan component, diaminopimelic acid (DAP) is a specific ligand of NOD1 that regulates the NOD1/RIP2/NF-kB signaling pathway. Here, we investigated the role of DAP in the crosstalk between the gut microbiota and pancreas during the occurrence of AP. Upregulation of NOD1/RIP2/NF-kB and elevated serum DAP levels were found in severe AP (SAP) model rats. The accumulation of DAP in SAP patients corroborated its ability to serve as an indicator of disease sever...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cyclic-di-AMP Phosphodiesterase Elicits Protective Immune Responses Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra Infection in Mice
In this study, recombinant CnpB was administered subcutaneously to mice. We found that CnpB had strong immunogenicity and induced high levels of humoral response and lung mucosal immunity after M. tuberculosis intranasally infection. CnpB immunization stimulated splenocyte proliferation and the increasing number of activated NK cells but had little effects on Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses in spleens. However, CnpB induced significant Th1/Th2 cellular immune responses with a decreased number of T and B cells in the lungs, and significantly recruits of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after M. tuberculosis attenuated strain H37Ra i...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 22, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Associations of Clinical Factors and Blood Groups With the Severity of COVID-19 Infection in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia
ConclusionThe association between the different blood groups with the prevalence and mortality of COVID-19 among infected patients has yet to be elucidated as we found no significant differences in the observed versus expected distribution of ABO phenotypes among the included cases. The prevalence of RDS, pneumonia, and respiratory failure was found higher among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the deceased group. However, other factors such as fever, cough, and asthma appeared to be more significantly lower than in the recovered group. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vitellogenin-2 Accumulation in the Fat Body and Hemolymph of Babesia-Infected Haemaphysalis longicornis Ticks
The protozoan parasite Babesia spp. invades into tick oocytes and remains in the offspring. The transovarial transmission phenomenon of Babesia in ticks has been demonstrated experimentally, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Babesia invasion into oocytes occurs along with the progression of oogenesis. In the present study, to find the key tick factor(s) for Babesia transmission, we focused on molecules involved in yolk protein precursor (vitellogenin, Vg) synthesis and Vg uptake, which are crucial events in tick oogenesis. With a Haemaphysalis longicornis tick–Babesia ovata experimental model, the expression p...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of ZAP and TRIM25 RNA Binding in Restricting Viral Translation
The innate immune response controls the acute phase of virus infections; critical to this response is the induction of type I interferon (IFN) and resultant IFN-stimulated genes to establish an antiviral environment. One such gene, zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP), is a potent antiviral factor that inhibits replication of diverse RNA and DNA viruses by binding preferentially to CpG-rich viral RNA. ZAP restricts alphaviruses and the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) by inhibiting translation of their positive-sense RNA genomes. While ZAP residues important for RNA binding and CpG specificity have been identifi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring the Role of Low-Density Neutrophils During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which primarily infects the lungs but can also cause extrapulmonary disease. Both the disease outcome and the pathology of TB are driven by the immune response mounted by the host. Infection with Mtb elicits inflammatory host responses that are necessary to control infection, but can also cause extensive tissue damage when in excess, and thus must be precisely balanced. In particular, excessive recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection has been associated with poor control of Mtb infection, prompting investigations into ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

PLGA-Based Nanoplatforms in Drug Delivery for Inhibition and Destruction of Microbial Biofilm
The biofilm community of microorganisms has been identified as the dominant mode of microbial growth in nature and a common characteristic of different microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The biofilm structure helps in the protection from environmental threats including host immune system and antimicrobial agents. Thus, the biofilm community has led to a higher prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in recent years. In this regard, the use of a new class of antibiotics, natural compounds, and anti-biofilm enzymes has been considered for the destruct...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring the Association Between Cervical Microbiota and HR-HPV Infection Based on 16S rRNA Gene and Metagenomic Sequencing
The relationship between the cervico-vaginal microbiome and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is well observed. However, there is a lack of adequate research regarding the cervical microbiota in HR-HPV infection. Most published research results have used 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology; this technology only focuses on marker sequences, resulting in incomplete gene information acquisition. Metagenomic sequencing technology can effectively compensate for the deficiency of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, thus improving the analysis of microbiota function. Cervical swab samples from 20 females with HR-HPV infection and 20 ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Vaginal Microbiota Changes Caused by HPV Infection in Chinese Women
In conclusion, our study was a large cross-sectional study that evaluated the relationship between vaginal microbiota and HPV infection, and brought essential comparable data. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Difference of Gut Microbiota and Their Correlations With Urinary Organic Acids Between Autistic Children With and Without Atopic Dermatitis
Autism is a kind of biologically based neurodevelopmental condition, and the coexistence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is not uncommon. Given that the gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of both diseases, we aimed to explore the differences of gut microbiota and their correlations with urinary organic acids between autistic children with and without AD. We enrolled 61 autistic children including 36 with AD and 25 without AD. The gut microbiota was sequenced by metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and the diversity, compositions, and functional pathways were analyzed further. Urinary organic acids were assayed ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research