NOTCH signaling in COVID-19: a central hub controlling genes, proteins, and cells that mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry, the inflammatory response, and lung regeneration
In the lungs of infected individuals, the downstream molecular signaling pathways induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are incompletely understood. Here, we describe and examine predictions of a model in which NOTCH may represent a central signaling axis in lung infection in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A pathway involving NOTCH signaling, furin, ADAM17, and ACE2 may be capable of increasing SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and infection. NOTCH signaling can also upregulate IL-6 and pro-inflammatory mediators induced to hyperactivation in COVID-19. Furthermore, if NOTCH signaling fails to t...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of herbal formulas with the function of gut microbiota regulation for gastric and colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis study indicates that herbal formulas that could regulate the composition and proportion of gut microbiota have a positive effect in three stages (perioperative, postoperative, and advanced) of GC and CRC. They could promote the recovery of postoperative gastrointestinal function, increase tumor response, improve performance status, and reduce the incidence of adverse events. Herbal formulas exerted anti-cancer efficacy through multiple mechanisms and pathways; among them, the regulation of gut microbiota has not been paid enough attention. To further support the conclusion and better understand the role of g...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dissection of the macrophage response towards infection by the Leishmania-viral endosymbiont duo and dynamics of the type I interferon response
Leishmania RNA virus 1 (LRV1) is a double-stranded RNA virus found in some strains of the human protozoan parasite Leishmania, the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. Interestingly, the presence of LRV1 inside Leishmania constitutes an important virulence factor that worsens the leishmaniasis outcome in a type I interferon (IFN)–dependent manner and contributes to treatment failure. Understanding how macrophages respond toward Leishmania alone or in combination with LRV1 as well as the role that type I IFNs may play during infection is fundamental to oversee new therapeutic strategies. To diss...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 4, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nasal carriage of CTX-M-55-producing Escherichia coli ST8369 in a healthy cohort in the city of Yangzhou, China
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy individuals in a community and to elucidate their dissemination mechanism. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were isolated from 95 samples of healthy persons from one community in Yangzhou, China, and were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents. The isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing by Illumina Hiseq or PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing. A total of 30 cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained, carrying blaCTX-...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The interactions between oral-gut axis microbiota and Helicobacter pylori
In the human body, each microbial habitat exhibits a different microbial population pattern, and these distinctive microflorae are highly related to the development of diseases. The microbial interactions from host different niches are becoming crucial regulators to shape the microbiota and their physiological or pathological functions. The oral cavity and gut are the most complex and interdependent microbial habitats. Helicobacter pylori is one of the most important pathogens from digestive tract, especially the stomach, due to its direct relationships with many gastric diseases including gastric cancer. H. pylori infecti...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring direct and indirect targets of current antileishmanial drugs using a novel thermal proteomics profiling approach
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused by Leishmania infantum, is an oft-fatal neglected tropical disease. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the control of leishmaniasis relies exclusively on chemotherapy. Due to the lack of established molecular/genetic markers denoting parasite resistance, clinical treatment failure is often used as an indicator. Antimony-based drugs have been the standard antileishmanial treatment for more than seven decades, leading to major drug resistance in certain regions. Likewise, drug resistance to miltefosine and amphotericin B continues to spread at alarming rates. In consequence, innovativ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Specific quantitative detection of Streptococcus suis and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in co-infection and mixed biofilms
Respiratory infections seriously affect the swine industry worldwide. Co-infections of two vital pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus suis (S. suis) and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae), colonizing the respiratory tract often occurs in veterinary clinical practice. Moreover, our previous research found that S. suis and A. pleuropneumoniae can form biofilm in vitro. The formation of a mixed biofilm not only causes persistent infections, but also increases the multiple drug resistance of bacteria, which brings difficulties to disease prevention and control. However, the methods for detecting S. suis and A. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Early immune surveillance to predict cytomegalovirus outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
ConclusionsHCMV IgG, absolute lymphocyte count, and HCMV-specific IFN-γ secreting cells represent the humoral and cellular immune response. Early monitoring of these immune markers could enable prediction of HCMV outcomes posttransplant and assessment of the severity of HCMV DNAemia. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Metagenomic next-generation sequencing: A promising tool for diagnosis and treatment of suspected pneumonia in rheumatic patients with acute respiratory failure: Retrospective cohort study
ConclusionsmNGS has an excellent accuracy in etiological diagnosis and pathogen detection of suspected pneumonia in critically rheumatic patients, which has potential significance for clinical decision-making. Its superiority to different types of pathogens depends on the comprehensiveness of CMTs. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of gut microbiota in male MAFLD patients with varying liver stiffness
Conclusion. The composition and function of the gut microbiota in patients with increased liver stiffness are significantly altered. This observation may provide new avenues to better understand the mechanism of liver fibrosis. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation, characterization, and functional study of extracellular vesicles derived from Leishmania tarentolae
In conclusion, we report for the first time that L. tarentolae can release EVs and provide evidence that tEVs are able to control the infection in human macrophages, making them a great potential platform for drug delivery, at least for parasitic infections. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Breakthroughs in immunotherapies and precision treatment against infectious diseases
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nasal colonization of CTX-M-55-producing Escherichia coli ST8369 from healthy humans in a community
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from healthy individuals in a community and to elucidate their dissemination mechanism. Cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were isolated from 95 samples of healthy persons from one community in Yangzhou, China, and were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents. The isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing by Illumina Hiseq or PacBio single-molecule real-time sequencing. A total of 30 cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained, carrying blaCTX-...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The role of tryptophan in Chlamydia trachomatis persistence
Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common etiological agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and a worldwide public health issue. The natural course with C. trachomatis infection varies widely between individuals. Some infections clear spontaneously, others can last for several months or some individuals can become reinfected, leading to severe pathological damage. Importantly, the underlying mechanisms of C. trachomatis infection are not fully understood. C. trachomatis has the ability to adapt to immune response and persist within host epithelial cells. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Occurrence and human health risk assessment of antibiotics in cultured fish from 19 provinces in China
The occurrence of antibiotics and potential health risk of 300 cultured fish samples from 19 provinces in China were investigated. The levels of 28 antibiotics (15 fluoroquinolones, 4 tetracyclines, 8 macrolides and rifampin) in 8 fish species were measured through liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. As a result, 10 antibiotics were detected with an overall detection frequency of 24.3%, and the individual detection frequency of antibiotics ranged from 0.33 to 16.7%. The extremely high concentrations (above 100 µg/kg) of doxycycline and erythromycin were found in the samples. Antibiotics with high ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - August 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research