Pathogenicity and Growth Conditions Modulate Fonsecaea Extracellular Vesicles ’ Ability to Interact With Macrophages
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis caused by black, dimorphic, and filamentous fungi of the Herpothrichiellaceae family, such as species of the genus Fonsecaea. These fungi can switch between the saprophytic forms (conidia and hyphae) and the pathogenic form, the muriform cells (MCs), which is considered an essential mechanism for fungal virulence. Nearly all types of cells can produce membranous structures formed by a lipid bilayer that communicate extracellularly with other cells, known as “extracellular vesicles” (EVs), which may act as virulence factors, as observed for severa...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Treating ‘Septic’ With Enhanced Antibiotics and ‘Arthritis’ by Mitigation of Excessive Inflammation
Bacterial infection within the synovial joint, commonly known as septic arthritis, remains a clinical challenge as it presents two concurrent therapeutic goals of reducing bacterial burden and preservation of articular cartilage from destructive host inflammation. We hypothesized that mitigation of MRSA-induced inflammatory signaling could diminish destruction of articular cartilage in the setting of septic arthritis when used in conjunction with antibiotics. Herein, we provide evidence which supports a new therapeutic notion that concurrent antimicrobial therapy to address the ‘septic’ component of the disease with in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential and Safety of the Cinnamomum zeylanicum Methanolic Extract Against Chronic Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Mice
ConclusionThe findings confirmed the promising therapeutic effects of CZME on chronic toxoplasmosis in mice. Nevertheless, further investigations must confirm these results, elucidate its precise mechanisms, and examine its effectiveness in human volunteers. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Coxiella burnetii Affects HIF1 α Accumulation and HIF1α Target Gene Expression
HIF1α is an important transcription factor regulating not only cellular responses to hypoxia, but also anti-infective defense responses. We recently showed that HIF1α hampers replication of the obligate intracellular pathogen Coxiella burnetii which causes the zoonotic disease Q fever. Prior to development of chronic Q fever, it is assumed that the bacteria enter a persistent state. As HIF1α and/or hypoxia might be involved in the induction of C. burnetii persistence, we analyzed the role of HIF1α and hypoxia in the interaction of macrophages with C. burnetii to understand how the bacteria manipulate HIF1α stability a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 9, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Infections and Pregnancy: Effects on Maternal and Child Health
Pregnancy causes physiological and immunological adaptations that allow the mother and fetus to communicate with precision in order to promote a healthy pregnancy. At the same time, these adaptations may make pregnant women more susceptible to infections, resulting in a variety of pregnancy complications; those pathogens may also be vertically transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Even though the placenta has developed a robust microbial defense to restrict vertical microbial transmission, certain microbial pathogens have evolved mechanisms to avoid the placental barrier and cause congenital di...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 8, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Unveiling the Pathogenic Bacteria Causing Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis
In this study, we found that the species richness of the DNM group was higher than that of the MI group, and the species diversity of the DNM group was higher than that of the MI group, with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). LefSE analysis revealed that the main species differing between groups were Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcaceae, and Streptococcus (S. constellatus and S. anginosus). In addition, the PLS-DA analysis revealed that the dominant groups in the DNM group at the species level were S. constellatus, S. anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Prevotella oris, Mogibacter...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 8, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: “The Host-Microbiome Interplay in Colorectal Cancer”
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 8, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insight Into the Properties and Immunoregulatory Effect of Extracellular Vesicles Produced by Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis Biofilms
Currently, non-albicans Candida species, including C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, are becoming an increasing epidemiological threat, predominantly due to the distinct collection of virulence mechanisms, as well as emerging resistance to antifungal drugs typically used in the treatment of candidiasis. They can produce biofilms that release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are nanometric spherical structures surrounded by a lipid bilayer, transporting diversified biologically active cargo, that may be involved in intercellular communication, biofilm matrix production, and interaction with the host. In th...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Application Value of Metagenomic and Whole-Genome Capture Next-Generation Sequencing in the Diagnosis and Epidemiological Analysis of Psittacosis
ConclusionSignificant advantages of mNGS with normal datasets were demonstrated in early diagnosing psittacosis. It is the first study to use whole-genome capture to analyze C. psittaci epidemiological information. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

High Dose Intramuscular Vitamin D3 Supplementation Impacts the Gut Microbiota of Patients With Clostridioides Difficile Infection
ConclusionOur study confirmed that the increase in the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacteriaceae, and Christensenellaceae were prominently evident during recovery after administration of a high dose of cholecalciferol. These findings indicate that vitamin D administration may be useful in patients with CDI, and further studies with larger sample sizes are required. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antiviral Effects and Underlying Mechanisms of Probiotics as Promising Antivirals
Probiotics exert a variety of beneficial effects, including maintaining homeostasis and the balance of intestinal microorganisms, activating the immune system, and regulating immune responses. Due to the beneficial effects of probiotics, a wide range of probiotics have been developed as probiotic agents for animal and human health. Viral diseases cause serious economic losses to the livestock every year and remain a great challenge for animals. Moreover, strategies for the prevention and control of viral diseases are limited. Viruses enter the host through the skin and mucosal surface, in which are colonized by hundreds of...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Paving the Way: Contributions of Big Data to Apicomplexan and Kinetoplastid Research
In the age of big data an important question is how to ensure we make the most out of the resources we generate. In this review, we discuss the major methods used in Apicomplexan and Kinetoplastid research to produce big datasets and advance our understanding of Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania biology. We debate the benefits and limitations of the current technologies, and propose future advancements that may be key to improving our use of these techniques. Finally, we consider the difficulties the field faces when trying to make the most of the abundance of data that has already been, a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pathophysiological Role of Nucleic Acid-Sensing Pattern Recognition Receptors in Inflammatory Diseases
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play critical roles in recognizing pathogen-derived nucleic acids and inducing innate immune responses, such as inflammation and type I interferon production. PRRs that recognize nucleic acids include members of endosomal Toll-like receptors, cytosolic retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors, cyclic GMP–AMP synthase, absent in melanoma 2-like receptors, and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptors. Aberrant recognition of self-derived nucleic acids by these PRRs or unexpected activation of downstream signaling pathways results in the constitutive production of ty...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Host SUMOylation Pathway Negatively Regulates Protective Immune Responses and Promotes Leishmania donovani Survival
SUMOylation is one of the post-translational modifications that have recently been described as a key regulator of various cellular, nuclear, metabolic, and immunological processes. The process of SUMOylation involves the modification of one or more lysine residues of target proteins by conjugation of a ubiquitin-like, small polypeptide known as SUMO for their degradation, stability, transcriptional regulation, cellular localization, and transport. Herein, for the first time, we report the involvement of the host SUMOylation pathway in the process of infection of Leishmania donovani, a causative agent of visceral leishmani...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 6, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology of COVID-19: Critical Role of Hemostasis
The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, had its first cases identified in late 2019 and was considered a clinical pandemic in March 2020. In March 2022, more than 500 million people were infected and 6,2 million died as a result of this disease, increasingly associated with changes in human hemostasis, such as hypercoagulation. Numerous factors contribute to the hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction is the main one, since the activation of these cells can strongly activate platelets and the coagulation system. In addition, there is a dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system due to the SARS-CoV-2 take...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research