Anaplasma marginale Infection of Dermacentor andersoni Primary Midgut Cell Culture Is Dependent on Fucosylated Glycans
Tick midgut is the primary infection site required by tick-borne pathogens to initiate their development for transmission. Despite the biological significance of this organ, cell cultures derived exclusively from tick midgut tissues are unavailable and protocols for generating primary midgut cell cultures have not been described. To study the mechanism of Anaplasma marginale-tick cell interactions, we successfully developed an in vitro Dermacentor andersoni primary midgut cell culture system. Midgut cells were maintained for up to 120 days. We demonstrated the infection of in vitro midgut cells by using an A. marginale omp...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 31, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota and Antidiabetic Drugs: Perspectives of Personalized Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Alterations in the composition and function of the gut microbiota have been reported in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Emerging studies show that prescribed antidiabetic drugs distort the gut microbiota signature associated with T2DM. Even more importantly, accumulated evidence provides support for the notion that gut microbiota, in turn, mediates the efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drugs. In this review, we highlight the current state-of-the-art knowledge on the crosstalk and interactions between gut microbiota and antidiabetic drugs, including metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors, glucagon-like peptid...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 31, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biophysical Tools and Concepts Enable Understanding of Asexual Blood Stage Malaria
Forces and mechanical properties of cells and tissues set constraints on biological functions, and are key determinants of human physiology. Changes in cell mechanics may arise from disease, or directly contribute to pathogenesis. Malaria gives many striking examples. Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, are single-celled organisms that cannot survive outside their hosts; thus, thost-pathogen interactions are fundamental for parasite’s biological success and to the host response to infection. These interactions are often combinations of biochemical and mechanical factors, but most research focuses on th...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 31, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Recognition of Cell Wall Mannosylated Components as a Conserved Feature for Fungal Entrance, Adaptation and Survival Within Trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Murine Macrophages
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) is a species of free-living amoebae (FLAs) that has been widely applied as a model for the study of host-parasite interactions and characterization of environmental symbionts. The sharing of niches between Ac and potential pathogens, such as fungi, favors associations between these organisms. Through predatory behavior, Ac enhances fungal survival, dissemination, and virulence in their intracellular milieu, training these pathogens and granting subsequent success in events of infections to more evolved hosts. In recent studies, our group characterized the amoeboid mannose binding proteins (MBP...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 31, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Role of Probiotics in Alleviating Postweaning Diarrhea in Piglets From the Perspective of Intestinal Barriers
Early weaning of piglets is an important strategy for improving the production efficiency of sows in modern intensive farming systems. However, due to multiple stressors such as physiological, environmental and social challenges, postweaning syndrome in piglets often occurs during early weaning period, and postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is a serious threat to piglet health, resulting in high mortality. Early weaning disrupts the intestinal barrier function of piglets, disturbs the homeostasis of gut microbiota, and destroys the intestinal chemical, mechanical and immunological barriers, which is one of the main causes of PWD i...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 30, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Platelet-Rich Plasma-Derived Biologic Clears Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms While Mitigating Cartilage Degeneration and Joint Inflammation in a Clinically Relevant Large Animal Infectious Arthritis Model
The leading cause of treatment failure in Staphylococcus aureus infections is the development of biofilms. Biofilms are highly tolerant to conventional antibiotics which were developed against planktonic cells. Consequently, there is a lack of antibiofilm agents in the antibiotic development pipeline. To address this problem, we developed a platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-derived biologic, termed BIO-PLY (for the BIOactive fraction of Platelet-rich plasma LYsate) which has potent in vitro bactericidal activity against S. aureus synovial fluid free-floating biofilm aggregates. Additional in vitro studies using equine synoviocyte...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 30, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Malaria Parasite Cross Reveals Genetic Determinants of Plasmodium falciparum Growth in Different Culture Media
What genes determine in vitro growth and nutrient utilization in asexual blood-stage malaria parasites? Competition experiments between NF54, clone 3D7, a lab-adapted African parasite, and a recently isolated Asian parasite (NHP4026) reveal contrasting outcomes in different media: 3D7 outcompetes NHP4026 in media containing human serum, while NHP4026 outcompetes 3D7 in media containing AlbuMAX, a commercial lipid-rich bovine serum formulation. To determine the basis for this polymorphism, we conducted parasite genetic crosses using humanized mice and compared genome-wide allele frequency changes in three independent progen...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 30, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Interactions of Salmonella Enteritidis With a Lytic Phage for 21 Days in High Nutrients Media
In this study, experimental coevolution of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and a lytic phage was conducted in tryptic soy broth for 21 days. Transfer to fresh media was conducted daily and every 24 hours, 2 mL of the sample was collected to quantify Salmonella OD600 and phage titter. Additionally, time-shift experiments were conducted on 20 colonies selected on days 1, 12, and 21 to evaluate the evolution of resistance to past (day 1), present (day 12), and future (day 21) phage populations. The behavior of the dynamics was modeled and simulated with mathematical mass-action models. Bacteria and phage from days 1 a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 30, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Novel Adult Murine Model of Typical Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli Infection Reveals Microbiota Dysbiosis, Mucus Secretion, and AAF/II-Mediated Expression and Localization of β-Catenin and Expression of MUC1 in Ileum
This study aimed to develop a new tEAEC mouse model of infection, characterize the microbiota of infected mice, and evaluate in situ the expression of host adherence and surface molecules triggering EAEC infection and the role of the EAEC AAF-II in adherence. Six-week-old C57BL/6 mice, without previous antibiotic treatment, were orally challenged with EAEC 042 strain or EAEC 042 AAF-II mutant (ΔAAF/II) strain, or DAEC-MXR strain (diffusely adherent E. coli clinical isolate), and with saline solution (control group). Paraffin sections of the colon and ileum were stained with H&E and periodic acid-Schiff. ZO-1, β-caten...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 30, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Perspectives: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Convergent Evolution as a Guide to Explore Adaptive Advantage
Viruses rapidly co-evolve with their hosts. The 9 million sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes by March 2022 provide a detailed account of viral evolution, showing that all amino acids have been mutated many times. However, only a few became prominent in the viral population. Here, we investigated the emergence of the same mutations in unrelated parallel lineages and the extent of such convergent evolution on the molecular level in the spike (S) protein. We found that during the first phase of the pandemic (until mid 2021, before mass vaccination) 31 mutations evolved independently ≥3-times within separated lineages. These inclu...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Microbiota and It ’s Correlation With Metabolites in the Gut of Mice With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
In recent years, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common liver disease in the world. As an important model animal, the characteristics of gut microbiota alteration in mice with NAFLD have been studied but the changes in metabolite abundance in NAFLD mice and how the gut microbiota affects these intestinal metabolites remain unclear. In this experiment, a mouse model for NAFLD was established by a high-fat diet. The use of 16S rDNA technology showed that while there were no significant changes in the alpha diversity in the cecum of NAFLD mice, the beta diversity changed significantly. The abundan...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Distribution of Vaginal and Gut Microbiome in Advanced Maternal Age
The distribution of the microbiome in women with advanced maternal age (AMA) is poorly understood. To gain insight into this, the vaginal and gut microbiota of 62 women were sampled and sequenced using the 16S rRNA technique. These women were divided into three groups, namely, the AMA (age ≥ 35 years, n = 13) group, the non-advanced maternal age (NMA) (age < 35 years, n = 38) group, and the control group (non-pregnant healthy women, age >35 years, n = 11). We found that the alpha diversity of vaginal microbiota in the AMA group significantly increased. However, the beta diversity significantly decreased in the AMA ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in BK Polyomavirus-Infected Renal Transplant Recipients: A Case-Control Study
ConclusionsBK polyomavirus-infected patients had gut microbiota dysbiosis in which the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio increased in the course of the viral infection. Nine distinguishing bacterial taxa might be potential biomarkers of BK polyomavirus infection. The random forest model achieved an accuracy of 80.71% in predicting the BKV infectious status, with Romboutsia and Actinomyces included. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Elevated IP-10 at the Protein and Gene Level Associates With Pulmonary TB
There is an urgent need for accurate and sensitive diagnostic tools that can overcome the current challenge to distinguish individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from individuals with active tuberculosis (TB). Recent literature has suggested that a group of cytokines may serve as biomarkers of TB disease progression. Using a multiplex ELISA, we quantified 27 circulatory markers present within the unstimulated plasma of individuals in Durban, South Africa who were healthy (n=20), LTBI (n=13), or had active TB (n=30). RT-qPCR was performed to measure gene expression of the cytokines of interest, using RNA isol...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Sporotrichosis Caused by Non-Wild Type Sporothrix brasiliensis Strains
This study evaluated 100 Sporothrix spp. strains obtained from 1999 to 2018 from the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fiocruz, which were identified through a polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for species identification. Two-fold serial dilutions of stock solutions of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide were performed to obtain working concentrations of antifungal drugs ranging from 0.015 to 8.0 mg/L. The broth microdilution reference method was performed according the M38-A2 CLSI guideline. All strains were identifi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - May 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research