Oncolytic Viruses: Immunotherapy Drugs for Gastrointestinal Malignant Tumors
Oncolytic virus therapy has advanced rapidly in recent years. Natural or transgenic viruses can target tumor cells and inhibit tumor growth and metastasis in various ways without interfering with normal cell and tissue function. Oncolytic viruses have a high level of specificity and are relatively safe. Malignant tumors in the digestive system continue to have a high incidence and mortality rate. Although existing treatment methods have achieved some curative effects, they still require further improvement due to side effects and a lack of specificity. Many studies have shown that oncolytic viruses can kill various tumor c...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Large-Scale Analysis of Fitness Cost of tet(X4)-Positive Plasmids in Escherichia coli
In this study, we performed a large-scale analysis of fitness cost of tet(X4)-positive plasmids origin from clinical isolates. These plasmids were successfully electroporated into a reference strain Escherichia coli TOP10, and a series of transformants carrying the tet(X) gene were obtained. The effects of tet(X4)-positive plasmids on the growth rate, plasmid stability, relative fitness, biofilm formation, and virulence in a Galleria mellonella model were evaluated. Consequently, we found that these plasmids resulted in varying degrees of fitness cost on TOP10, including delayed bacterial growth and attenuated virulence. O...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Iron Deprivation Modulates the Exoproteome in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are the etiological agents of the systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis and, when in the host, they find a challenging environment that is scarce in nutrients and micronutrients, such as Fe, which is indispensable for the survival of the pathogen. Previous studies have shown that fungi of this genus, in response to Fe deprivation, are able to synthesize and capture siderophores (Fe3+ chelators), use Fe-containing host proteins as a source of the metal, and use a non-canonical reductive pathway for Fe3+ assimilation. Despite all of these findings, there are still gaps that need to be fi...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles From Fasciola hepatica Hatching Eggs and Juveniles in Culture
The identification of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in Fasciola hepatica has provided a new way to understand parasite-host communication. Most of the studies on EVs have focused on the adult stage of F. hepatica, but recently, the presence of EVs from different developmental stages has been reported. To better understand the potential role of EVs in the biology of the parasite and in the infection process, the protein cargo of EVs from embryonated eggs and newly-excysted juvenile (NEJs) flukes cultured up to 28 days, has been analyzed. EVs were isolated by size exclusion chromatography and evaluated by nanoparticle trackin...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 3, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Drosophila melanogaster as a Versatile Model for Studying Medically Important Insect Vector-Borne Parasites
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Roles of Toll-Like Receptors in Radiotherapy- and Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Concise Review
Radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (RIOM/CIOM) is a common complication in cancer patients, leading to negative clinical manifestations, reduced quality of life, and impacting compliance with anticancer treatment. The composition and metabolic function of the oral microbiome, as well as the innate immune response of the oral mucosa are severely altered during chemotherapy or radiotherapy, promoting the expression of inflammatory mediators by direct and indirect mechanisms. Commensal oral bacteria-mediated innate immune signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) ambiguously shapes radiotherapy- and/or che...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Novel Role of Metabolism-Associated Molecular Patterns in Sepsis
Sepsis, a life-threatening organ dysfunction, is not caused by direct damage of pathogens and their toxins but by the host’s severe immune and metabolic dysfunction caused by the damage when the host confronts infection. Previous views focused on the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including metabolic proinflammatory factors in sepsis. Recently, new concepts have been proposed to group free fatty acids (FFAs), glucose, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), cholesterol, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), ceramides, and uric acid int...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fenofibrate Ameliorated Systemic and Retinal Inflammation and Modulated Gut Microbiota in High-Fat Diet-Induced Mice
In conclusion, our results confirmed fenofibrate could attenuate HFD-induced systemic and retinal inflammation, accompanying with restoration of intestinal barrier damage and modulation of gut microbiota/metabolites. This work provided an explanation for the ameliorative effects of fenofibrate on HFD-induced systemic and retinal inflammation might be partially related with the modulation of gut microbiota and its metabolites. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Altered Gut Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids After Vonoprazan-Amoxicillin Dual Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication
The combination of vonoprazan (VPZ) and amoxicillin (VA therapy) has been shown to achieve acceptable eradication rates for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Herein, our aim was to explore the short-term effect of VA therapy on the gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using human fecal samples. A total of 119 H. pylori-positive patients were randomized into low- or high-dose VA therapy (i.e., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d. or t.i.d. and VPZ 20 mg b.i.d.) for 7 or 10 days. Thirteen H. pylori-negative patients served as controls. Fecal samples were collected from H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. The g...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapid, Simple, and Highly Specific Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae With Visualized Recombinase Polymerase Amplification
In this study, we investigated a new nucleic acid amplification technique, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which amplifies DNA at 37°C under isothermal conditions with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity. Using the autolysin gene lytA as the molecular diagnostic target, an RPA primer-probe combination was designed and optimized for the detection of S. pneumoniae. This RPA reaction produced amplification products labeled with specific chemical markers, to be detected with gold-nanoparticle-based lateral flow strips (LFS), reducing the reliance on equipment and trained personnel. The high speci...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Uncovering a Cryptic Site of Malaria Pathogenesis: Models to Study Interactions Between Plasmodium and the Bone Marrow
The bone marrow is a critical site of host-pathogen interactions in malaria infection. The discovery of Plasmodium asexual and transmission stages in the bone marrow has renewed interest in the tissue as a niche for cellular development of both host and parasite. Despite its importance, bone marrow in malaria infection remains largely unexplored due to the challenge of modeling the complex hematopoietic environment in vitro. Advancements in modeling human erythropoiesis ex-vivo from primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells provide a foothold to study the host-parasite interactions occurring in this understudie...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Validation of Serological Methods for COVID-19 and Retrospective Screening of Health Employees and Visitors to the S ão Paulo University Hospital, Brazil
Reliable serological tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among infected or vaccinated individuals are important for epidemiological and clinical studies. Low-cost approaches easily adaptable to high throughput screenings, such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) or electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), can be readily validated using different SARS-CoV-2 antigens. A total of 1,119 serum samples collected between March and July of 2020 from health employees and visitors to the University Hospital at the University of São Paulo were screened with the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay (Elecs...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Homology Modeling, de Novo Design of Ligands, and Molecular Docking Identify Potential Inhibitors of Leishmania donovani 24-Sterol Methyltransferase
The therapeutic challenges pertaining to leishmaniasis due to reported chemoresistance and toxicity necessitate the need to explore novel pathways to identify plausible inhibitory molecules. Leishmania donovani 24-sterol methyltransferase (LdSMT) is vital for the synthesis of ergosterols, the main constituents of Leishmania cellular membranes. So far, mammals have not been shown to possess SMT or ergosterols, making the pathway a prime candidate for drug discovery. The structural model of LdSMT was elucidated using homology modeling to identify potential novel 24-SMT inhibitors via virtual screening, scaffold hopping, and ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of Liver and Plasma microRNAs in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus infection
ConclusionsLimited overlap between plasma and liver miRNAs was found, indicating that plasma miRNAs could be useful as biomarkers for treatment outcome or viral activity during treatment. Whereas liver miRNAs are more likely to be regulated by HBV and could be potential therapeutic targets to control viral activity in liver. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 2, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Co-Infection and Consequences in Cystic Fibrosis
(Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 1, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research