Variability in Susceptibility to Type I Interferon Response and Subgenomic RNA Accumulation Between Clinical Isolates of Dengue and Zika Virus From Oaxaca Mexico Correlate With Replication Efficiency in Human Cells and Disease Severity
Dengue and Zika viruses cocirculate annually in endemic areas of Mexico, causing outbreaks of different magnitude and severity every year, suggesting a continuous selection of Flavivirus variants with variable phenotypes of transmissibility and virulence. To evaluate if Flavivirus variants with different phenotypes cocirculate during outbreaks, we isolated dengue and Zika viruses from blood samples of febrile patients from Oaxaca City during the 2016 and 2019 epidemic years. We compared their replication kinetics in human cells, susceptibility to type I interferon antiviral response, and the accumulation of subgenomic RNA ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 21, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification and Characterization of Three Spore Wall Proteins of Enterocytozoon Bieneusi
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian pathogen in farm animals and humans. Although several spore wall proteins (SWPs) of other human-pathogenic microsporidia have been identified, SWPs of E. bieneusi remain poorly characterized. In the present study, we identified the sequences of three E. bieneusi SWPs from whole genome sequence data, expressed them in Escherichia coli, generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against one of them (EbSWP1), and used the mAb in direct immunofluorescence detection of E. bieneusi spores in fecal samples. The amino acid sequence of EbSWP1 shares some identity to EbSWP2 with a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CT295 Is Chlamydia trachomatis ’ Phosphoglucomutase and a Type 3 Secretion Substrate
In conclusion, we established that the conversion of Glc1P into Glc6P was accomplished by a bacterial PGM, through the acquisition of a T3S signal in a “housekeeping” protein. Acquisition of this signal likely contributed to shaping glycogen metabolism within Chlamydiaceae. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Towards the Antiviral Agents and Nanotechnology-Enabled Approaches Against Parvovirus B19
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) as a human pathogenic virus, would cause a wide range of clinical manifestations. Besides the supportive and symptomatic treatments, the only FDA-approved antiviral drug for the treatment of B19V is intravenous immunoglobulins, which however, have limited efficacy and high cost. By far, there are still no virus-specific therapeutics clinically available to treat B19V infection. Therefore, exploiting the potential targets with a deep understanding of the life cycle of B19V, are pivotal to the development of B19V-tailored effective antiviral approaches. This review will introduce antiviral agents via bl...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predictors of Occurrence and 30-Day Mortality for Co-Infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
ConclusionsInvasive operations and antibiotics exposure can lead to CRKP and CRAB co-infection. Combined neutrophil with C-reactive protein could predict 30-day mortality. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota (Microbiome) in Cardiovascular Disease and Its Therapeutic Regulation
In the last two decades, considerable interest has been shown in understanding the development of the gut microbiota and its internal and external effects on the intestine, as well as the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as metabolic syndrome. The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health and disease. Recent studies revealed that the gut microbiota can affect the host body. CVDs are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and patients favor death over chronic kidney disease. For the function of gut microbiota in the host, molecules have to penetrate the intestinal epithelium or the ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Immune Memory After Respiratory Infection With Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Revealed by in vitro Stimulation of Murine Splenocytes With Inactivated Pneumococcal Whole Cells: Evidence of Early Recall Responses by Transcriptomic Analysis
The in vitro stimulation of immune system cells with live or killed bacteria is essential for understanding the host response to pathogens. In the present study, we propose a model combining transcriptomic and cytokine assays on murine splenocytes to describe the immune recall in the days following pneumococcal lung infection. Mice were sacrificed at days 1, 2, 4, and 7 after Streptococcus pneumoniae (TIGR4 serotype 4) intranasal infection and splenocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of the same inactivated bacterial strain to access the transcriptomic and cytokine profiles. The stimulation of splenocytes from ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic and Evolutionary Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky Sequence Type 198 Isolated From Livestock In East Africa
This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile and the genotypic relatedness of Salmonella Kentucky isolated from animal sources in Ethiopia and Kenya (n=19). We also investigated population evolutionary dynamics through phylogenetic and pangenome analyses with additional publicly available Salmonella Kentucky ST198 genomes (n=229). All the 19 sequenced Salmonella Kentucky isolates were identified as ST198. Among these isolates, the predominant genotypic antimicrobial resistance profile observed in ten (59.7%) isolates included the aac(3)-Id, aadA7, strA-strB, blaTEM-1B, sul1, and tet(A) genes, which ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Trypanosomatid Richness Among Rats, Opossums, and Dogs in the Caatinga Biome, Northeast Brazil, a Former Endemic Area of Chagas Disease
Parasites are important components of the immense n-dimensional trophic network that connects all living beings because they, among others, forge biodiversity and deeply influence ecological evolution and host behavior. In this sense, the influence of Trypanosomatidae remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine trypanosomatid infection and richness in rats, opossums, and dogs in the semiarid Caatinga biome. We submitted DNA samples from trypanosomatids obtained through axenic cultures of the blood of these mammals to mini exon multiplex-PCR, Sanger, and next-generation sequencing targeting the 18S rDNA gene. Ph...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 20, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An Update of Mobile Colistin Resistance in Non-Fermentative Gram-Negative Bacilli
Colistin, the last resort for multidrug and extensively drug-resistant bacterial infection treatment, was reintroduced after being avoided in clinical settings from the 1970s to the 1990s because of its high toxicity. Colistin is considered a crucial treatment option for Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are listed as critical priority pathogens for new antibiotics by the World Health Organization. The resistance mechanisms of colistin are considered to be chromosomally encoded, and no horizontal transfer has been reported. Nevertheless, in November 2015, a transmissible resistance mechanism of coli...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Crosstalk Between the Gut and Brain: Importance of the Fecal Microbiota in Patient With Brain Tumors
ConclusionsOur study revealed that brain tumor patients may possess divergent host-microbe interactions from those of healthy controls, especially in malignant brain tumor patients. In addition, the intestinal flora may be involved in immune responses and metabolism in the microenvironment of brain tumors. All evidence, including the biomarker panel, suggests that the intestinal flora may be a useful diagnostic and predictive tool and an important preventive target for brain tumors. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Abnormal Blood Bacteriome, Gut Dysbiosis, and Progression to Severe Dengue Disease
Despite a well-known association between gut barrier defect (leaky gut) and several diseases, data on translocation of pathogen molecules, including bacterial DNA (blood bacteriome), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG), from the gut to the blood circulation (gut translocation) in dengue are still less studied. Perhaps, dengue infection might induce gut translocation of several pathogenic molecules that affect the disease severity. At the enrollment, there were 31 dengue cases in febrile and critical phases at 4.1 ± 0.3 days and 6.4 ± 1.1 days of illness, respectively, with the leaky gut as indica...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Analysis of Gut Microbiota and Fecal Bile Acid Profiles in Children With Biliary Atresia
ConclusionBA patients are characterized by different compositions of gut microbiota and bile acids, and their interaction is involved in the process of liver damage in BA, which may be closely related to the occurrence of postoperative cholangitis and jaundice clearance. (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacteriophage Therapy for Staphylococcus Aureus Infections: A Review of Animal Models, Treatments, and Clinical Trials
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common and virulent human pathogen causing several serious illnesses including skin abscesses, wound infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and toxic shock syndrome. Antibiotics were first introduced in the 1940s, leading to the belief that bacterial illnesses would be eradicated. However, microorganisms, including S. aureus, began to develop antibiotic resistance from the increased use and abuse of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is now one of the most serious threats to global public health. Bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remain a ma...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Long Chain Fatty Acids and Virulence Repression in Intestinal Bacterial Pathogens
When bacterial pathogens enter the gut, they encounter a complex milieu of signaling molecules and metabolites produced by host and microbial cells or derived from external sources such as the diet. This metabolomic landscape varies throughout the gut, thus establishing a biogeographical gradient of signals that may be sensed by pathogens and resident bacteria alike. Enteric bacterial pathogens have evolved elaborate mechanisms to appropriately regulate their virulence programs, which involves sensing and responding to many of these gut metabolites to facilitate successful gut colonization. Long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) r...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - June 17, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research