Researchers uncover new target to stop cancer growth
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered that a protein called Munc13-4 helps cancer cells secrete large numbers of exosomes -- tiny, membrane-bound packages containing proteins and RNAs that stimulate tumor progression. The study, which will be published June 21 in the Journal of Cell Biology, could lead to new therapies that stop tumor growth and metastasis by halting exosome production. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
In vivo brain GPCR signaling elucidated by phosphoproteomics
A systems view of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in its native environment is central to the development of GPCR therapeutics with fewer side effects. Using the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as a model, we employed high-throughput phosphoproteomics to investigate signaling induced by structurally diverse agonists in five mouse brain regions. Quantification of 50,000 different phosphosites provided a systems view of KOR in vivo signaling, revealing novel mechanisms of drug action. Thus, we discovered enrichment of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by U-50,488H, an agonist causing aversion, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 21, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Liu, J. J., Sharma, K., Zangrandi, L., Chen, C., Humphrey, S. J., Chiu, Y.-T., Spetea, M., Liu-Chen, L.-Y., Schwarzer, C., Mann, M. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Breast cancer could be prevented by targeting epigenetic proteins, study suggests
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto have discovered that epigenetic proteins promote the proliferation of mammary gland stem cells in response to the sex hormone progesterone. The study, which will be published June 19 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that inhibiting these proteins with drugs could prevent the development of breast cancer in women at high risk of the disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Cells can trap viruses in protein cage to stop their spread, study reveals
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at The Francis Crick Institute in London have discovered that cells can trap viruses in a protein cage to stop them from spreading to neighboring cells. The study, which will be published June 19 in the Journal of Cell Biology, reveals that the vaccinia virus can escape this trap by recruiting additional proteins to dismantle the cage and propel the virus out of the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Study suggests well-known growth suppressor actually fuels lethal brain cancers
(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) Scientists report finding a potentially promising treatment target for aggressive and deadly high-grade brain cancers like glioblastoma. Publishing online June 18 in Nature Cell Biology, the study also reports the current lack of a drug that hits the molecular target keeps it from being advanced for testing as a therapeutic strategy for patients with few treatment options. The researchers point to a protein that helps regulate cell metabolism called AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Ghost imaging is a technique used to produce an object’s image without using a spatially resolving detector. Here we develop a technique we term "ghost cytometry," an image-free ultrafast fluorescence "imaging" cytometry based on a single-pixel detector. Spatial information obtained from the motion of cells relative to a static randomly patterned optical structure is compressively converted into signals that arrive sequentially at a single-pixel detector. Combinatorial use of the temporal waveform with the intensity distribution of the random pattern allows us to computationally reconstruct cell m...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 14, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ota, S., Horisaki, R., Kawamura, Y., Ugawa, M., Sato, I., Hashimoto, K., Kamesawa, R., Setoyama, K., Yamaguchi, S., Fujiu, K., Waki, K., Noji, H. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Sponsored Collection | 90 Years of Scientific Advances at the Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS
Source: ScienceNOW - June 7, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Botany, Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Neuroscience, Pharmacology, Toxicology opms-sups Source Type: news
ASCB awards seven 'Science Sandbox' public engagement grants
(American Society for Cell Biology) The American Society for Cell Biology's (ASCB) new Public Engagement Grants, supported by Science Sandbox, an initiative of the Simons Foundation, has selected seven finalists for the 2018 awards cycle. The grantees will receive from $10,000 to $35,000 to realize their bold ideas, with the mission of engaging their local communities in the process of science and increasing public scientific literacy. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 1, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
The dynamics of gene expression in vertebrate embryogenesis at single-cell resolution
Time series of single-cell transcriptome measurements can reveal dynamic features of cell differentiation pathways. From measurements of whole frog embryos spanning zygotic genome activation through early organogenesis, we derived a detailed catalog of cell states in vertebrate development and a map of differentiation across all lineages over time. The inferred map recapitulates most if not all developmental relationships and associates new regulators and marker genes with each cell state. We find that many embryonic cell states appear earlier than previously appreciated. We also assess conflicting models of neural crest d...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 31, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Briggs, J. A., Weinreb, C., Wagner, D. E., Megason, S., Peshkin, L., Kirschner, M. W., Klein, A. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Goodbye 'stress granules': Study expands possibilities for treating neurological diseases
(Tokyo Institute of Technology) Cell biologists have deepened understanding of proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. The findings could open up new treatment approaches for disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 30, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
VTCRI scientists identify novel cellular mechanism that can lead to cancer metastasis
(Virginia Tech) Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute have added a new dimension to the understanding of how cells alter their communication with one another during development, wound healing, and the spread of cancer. The researchers published their results in Molecular Biology of the Cell, a journal published by the American Society for Cell Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 29, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
RNA buffers the phase separation behavior of prion-like RNA binding proteins
We report here that RNA critically regulates the phase behavior of prion-like RBPs. Low RNA/protein ratios promote phase separation into liquid droplets, whereas high ratios prevent droplet formation in vitro. Reduction of nuclear RNA levels or genetic ablation of RNA binding causes excessive phase separation and the formation of cytotoxic solid-like assemblies in cells. We propose that the nucleus is a buffered system in which high RNA concentrations keep RBPs soluble. Changes in RNA levels or RNA binding abilities of RBPs cause aberrant phase transitions. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Maharana, S., Wang, J., Papadopoulos, D. K., Richter, D., Pozniakovsky, A., Poser, I., Bickle, M., Rizk, S., Guillen-Boixet, J., Franzmann, T. M., Jahnel, M., Marrone, L., Chang, Y.-T., Sterneckert, J., Tomancak, P., Hyman, A. A., Alberti, S. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
mRNA structure determines specificity of a polyQ-driven phase separation
RNA promotes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) to build membraneless compartments in cells. How distinct molecular compositions are established and maintained in these liquid compartments is unknown. Here, we report that secondary structure allows messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to self-associate and determines whether an mRNA is recruited to or excluded from liquid compartments. The polyQ-protein Whi3 induces conformational changes in RNA structure and generates distinct molecular fluctuations depending on the RNA sequence. These data support a model in which structure-based, RNA-RNA interactions promote assembly of distinct d...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Langdon, E. M., Qiu, Y., Ghanbari Niaki, A., McLaughlin, G. A., Weidmann, C. A., Gerbich, T. M., Smith, J. A., Crutchley, J. M., Termini, C. M., Weeks, K. M., Myong, S., Gladfelter, A. S. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Increased Rate of ASCUS Diagnosis With HPV Reflex Testing Increased Rate of ASCUS Diagnosis With HPV Reflex Testing
Does concomitantly requested high-risk human papillomavirus reflex testing bias the cytologic interpretation of Pap tests?American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - May 22, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pathology & Lab Medicine Journal Article Source Type: news
UM researcher: Big data, networks identify cell signaling pathways in lung cancer
(The University of Montana) A team of scientists led by University of Montana cell biologist Mark Grimes has identified networks inside lung cancer cells that will help understand this cancer and fight it with drug treatments. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Trilobites: The Thing Inside Your Cells That Might Determine How Long You Live
You may have forgotten about the nucleolus since you took biology class, but scientists think this structure inside every cell in your body may play an important role in aging. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - May 20, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: JOANNA KLEIN Tags: Biology and Biochemistry Longevity Proteins Antebi, Adam Trends in Cell Biology (Journal) Source Type: news
Single-cell transcriptomics of the mouse kidney reveals potential cellular targets of kidney disease
Our understanding of kidney disease pathogenesis is limited by an incomplete molecular characterization of the cell types responsible for the organ’s multiple homeostatic functions. To help fill this knowledge gap, we characterized 57,979 cells from healthy mouse kidneys by using unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing. On the basis of gene expression patterns, we infer that inherited kidney diseases that arise from distinct genetic mutations but share the same phenotypic manifestation originate from the same differentiated cell type. We also found that the collecting duct in kidneys of adult mice generates a spectrum of...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Park, J., Shrestha, R., Qiu, C., Kondo, A., Huang, S., Werth, M., Li, M., Barasch, J., Susztak, K. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases r-articles Source Type: news
NUFIP1 is a ribosome receptor for starvation-induced ribophagy
The lysosome degrades and recycles macromolecules, signals to the master growth regulator mTORC1 [mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1], and is associated with human disease. We performed quantitative proteomic analyses of rapidly isolated lysosomes and found that nutrient levels and mTOR dynamically modulate the lysosomal proteome. Upon mTORC1 inhibition, NUFIP1 (nuclear fragile X mental retardation–interacting protein 1) redistributes from the nucleus to autophagosomes and lysosomes. Upon these conditions, NUFIP1 interacts with ribosomes and delivers them to autophagosomes by directly binding to microtu...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 17, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wyant, G. A., Abu-Remaileh, M., Frenkel, E. M., Laqtom, N. N., Dharamdasani, V., Lewis, C. A., Chan, S. H., Heinze, I., Ori, A., Sabatini, D. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news
UCLA biologists ‘transfer’ a memory
UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. This research could lead to new ways to lessen the trauma of painful memories with RNA and to restore lost memories.“I think in the not-too-distant future, we could potentially use RNA to ameliorate the effects of Alzheimer’s disease or post-traumatic stress disorder,” said David Glanzman, senior author of the study and a UCLA professor of integrative biology and physiology and of neurobiology. The team’sresearch is published May 14 in eNeuro, t...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Key protein in sperm tail assembly identified
(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) A study, published in the Journal of Cell Biology, focuses on the development of the sperm tail, the structure that enables sperm cells to swim and is therefore critical for male fertility. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - May 11, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Metabolic regulation of transcription through compartmentalized NAD+ biosynthesis
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized state) is an essential molecule for a variety of physiological processes. It is synthesized in distinct subcellular compartments by three different synthases (NMNAT-1, -2, and -3). We found that compartmentalized NAD+ synthesis by NMNATs integrates glucose metabolism and adipogenic transcription during adipocyte differentiation. Adipogenic signaling rapidly induces cytoplasmic NMNAT-2, which competes with nuclear NMNAT-1 for the common substrate, nicotinamide mononucleotide, leading to a precipitous reduction in nuclear NAD+ levels. This inhibits the catalytic activit...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ryu, K. W., Nandu, T., Kim, J., Challa, S., DeBerardinis, R. J., Kraus, W. L. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
A new cancer immunotherapy suffers a setback
Source: ScienceNOW - May 10, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Garber, K. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases In Depth Source Type: news
Amplification of key cellular organizer may initiate cancer, study suggests
(Rockefeller University Press) Cells begin to accumulate centrosomes -- organelles that play a vital role during cell division -- before they transform into cancer cells, according to a new study of patients with Barrett's esophagus condition, which is associated with esophageal cancer. The research, which will be published May 8 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that similar cases of centrosome amplification may contribute to the initiation and progression of a variety of human cancers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 8, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Structure of the DASH/Dam1 complex shows its role at the yeast kinetochore-microtubule interface
We report the cryo–electron microscopy structure (at ~4.5-angstrom resolution) of a DASH/Dam1c ring and a molecular model of its ordered components, validated by evolutionary direct-coupling analysis. Integrating this structure with that of the Ndc80 complex and with published interaction data yields a molecular picture of kinetochore-microtubule attachment, including how flexible, C-terminal extensions of DASH/Dam1c subunits project and contact widely separated sites on the Ndc80 complex rod and how phosphorylation at previously identified sites might regulate kinetochore assembly. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 3, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jenni, S., Harrison, S. C. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Irish Cancer Screening Scandal Erupts, Is Tied to US Lab Irish Cancer Screening Scandal Erupts, Is Tied to US Lab
More than 200 women received false negative cytology results when they actually had cervical cancer. The scandal involves outsourcing of testing to the United States and withholding information from patients.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Pathology Headlines - May 2, 2018 Category: Pathology Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news
Asymmetric distribution and spatial switching of dynein activity generates ciliary motility
Motile cilia and flagella are essential, highly conserved organelles, and their motility is driven by the coordinated activities of multiple dynein isoforms. The prevailing "switch-point" hypothesis posits that dyneins are asymmetrically activated to drive flagellar bending. To test this model, we applied cryo–electron tomography to visualize activity states of individual dyneins relative to their locations along beating flagella of sea urchin sperm cells. As predicted, bending was generated by the asymmetric distribution of dynein activity on opposite sides of the flagellum. However, contrary to prediction...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Lin, J., Nicastro, D. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Chronicling embryos, cell by cell, gene by gene
Source: ScienceNOW - April 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Cell Biology, Development In Depth Source Type: news
UCLA research may explain some causes of infertility and miscarriage
A new study in the journal Nature Cell Biology has uncovered information about a key stage that human embryonic cells must pass through just before an embryo implants. The research, led by UCLA biologist Amander Clark, could help explain certain causes of infertility and spontaneous miscarriage.Infertility affects around 10 percent of the U.S. population, and roughly 15 to 20 percent of all pregnancies in the U.S. end in miscarriage. In many cases, the causes of infertility and miscarriage are unknown.A team led by Clark, a UCLA professor of molecular cell and developmental biology and member of the Eli and Edythe Br...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - April 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Hologic wins FDA PMA for ThinPrep automated Pap test imager
Hologic (NSDQ:HOLX) said today it won FDA premarket approval for its ThinPrep integrated imager designed for the automated imaging of Pap tests. The Marlborough, Mass.-based company’s ThinPrep imager is designed to aid cytology technicians in identifying abnormal cells, and combines an imaging station and review scope into a single unit. The system takes approximately 90 seconds to analyze samples, the company said. “Approval of the ThinPrep Integrated Imager brings the benefits of ThinPrep automated Pap imaging to small- and mid-sized laboratories in the United States, and of course to their patients...
Source: Mass Device - April 25, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Fink Densford Tags: Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Imaging Pre-Market Approval (PMA) Women's Health Hologic Source Type: news
DOR protein deficiency favors the development of obesity
(Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona)) According to a recent study published by researchers at the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and CIBERDEM in Nature Cell Biology, deficiency in the protein DOR (also called TP53INP2) stimulates the generation of new adipose cells (which store fat) and leads to a less harmful kind of obesity. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 19, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
MFN2 agonists reverse mitochondrial defects in preclinical models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A
Mitofusins (MFNs) promote fusion-mediated mitochondrial content exchange and subcellular trafficking. Mutations in Mfn2 cause neurodegenerative Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). We showed that MFN2 activity can be determined by Met376 and His380 interactions with Asp725 and Leu727 and controlled by PINK1 kinase–mediated phosphorylation of adjacent MFN2 Ser378. Small-molecule mimics of the peptide-peptide interface of MFN2 disrupted this interaction, allosterically activating MFN2 and promoting mitochondrial fusion. These first-in-class mitofusin agonists overcame dominant mitochondrial defects provoked in ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Rocha, A. G., Franco, A., Krezel, A. M., Rumsey, J. M., Alberti, J. M., Knight, W. C., Biris, N., Zacharioudakis, E., Janetka, J. W., Baloh, R. H., Kitsis, R. N., Mochly-Rosen, D., Townsend, R. R., Gavathiotis, E., Dorn, G. W. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Observing the cell in its native state: Imaging subcellular dynamics in multicellular organisms
True physiological imaging of subcellular dynamics requires studying cells within their parent organisms, where all the environmental cues that drive gene expression, and hence the phenotypes that we actually observe, are present. A complete understanding also requires volumetric imaging of the cell and its surroundings at high spatiotemporal resolution, without inducing undue stress on either. We combined lattice light-sheet microscopy with adaptive optics to achieve, across large multicellular volumes, noninvasive aberration-free imaging of subcellular processes, including endocytosis, organelle remodeling during mitosis...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Liu, T.-L., Upadhyayula, S., Milkie, D. E., Singh, V., Wang, K., Swinburne, I. A., Mosaliganti, K. R., Collins, Z. M., Hiscock, T. W., Shea, J., Kohrman, A. Q., Medwig, T. N., Dambournet, D., Forster, R., Cunniff, B., Ruan, Y., Yashiro, H., Scholpp, S., M Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only, Physics r-articles Source Type: news
Google unveils prototype augmented-reality, AI-powered light microscope system
Google (NSDQ:GOOG) this week presented initial data from a prototype augmented reality microscope platform it’s developing for advanced cancer detection, according to a research blog post from the tech giant. The platform consists of a modified light microscope for real-time image analysis and presents analysis from a machine-learning algorithm directly into the users field of view, Google said. Google said the platform could be retrofitted into existing light microscopes generally used in hospitals and clinics using low-cost, readily-available components without the need for digital versions of the scopes. The ...
Source: Mass Device - April 18, 2018 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Fink Densford Tags: Imaging Research & Development google Source Type: news
Structural basis for coupling protein transport and N-glycosylation at the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum
Protein synthesis, transport, and N-glycosylation are coupled at the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum by complex formation of a ribosome, the Sec61 protein-conducting channel, and oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). Here we used different cryo–electron microscopy approaches to determine structures of native and solubilized ribosome-Sec61-OST complexes. A molecular model for the catalytic OST subunit STT3A (staurosporine and temperature sensitive 3A) revealed how it is integrated into the OST and how STT3-paralog specificity for translocon-associated OST is achieved. The OST subunit DC2 was placed at the interface between...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Braunger, K., Pfeffer, S., Shrimal, S., Gilmore, R., Berninghausen, O., Mandon, E. C., Becker, T., Förster, F., Beckmann, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news