Madden Launches DartCF
Dean Madden, Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology and Director of the COBRE Institute for Biomolecular Targeting, has received a new NIH program project award to establish the Dartmouth Cystic Fibrosis Research Center (DartCF). This collaborative effort supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases will […] Read More (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)
Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School - August 17, 2018 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Heather Smith Tags: News Source Type: news
A novel synthetic antibody enables conditional 'protein knockdown' in vertebrates
(Technische Universit ä t Dresden) The research groups led by Dr. J ö rg Mansfeld of the Biotechnology Center of the TU Dresden (BIOTEC) and Dr. Caren Norden of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) have developed a novel synthetic antibody that paves the way for an improved functional analysis of proteins. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 17, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
A molecular mechanism for Wnt ligand-specific signaling
Wnt signaling is key to many developmental, physiological, and disease processes in which cells seem able to discriminate between multiple Wnt ligands. This selective Wnt recognition or "decoding" capacity has remained enigmatic because Wnt/Frizzled interactions are largely incompatible with monospecific recognition. Gpr124 and Reck enable brain endothelial cells to selectively respond to Wnt7. We show that Reck binds with low micromolar affinity to the intrinsically disordered linker region of Wnt7. Availability of Reck-bound Wnt7 for Frizzled signaling relies on the interaction between Gpr124 and Dishevelled. T...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Eubelen, M., Bostaille, N., Cabochette, P., Gauquier, A., Tebabi, P., Dumitru, A. C., Koehler, M., Gut, P., Alsteens, D., Stainier, D. Y. R., Garcia-Pino, A., Vanhollebeke, B. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Moving Toward an Earlier Diagnosis of Mesothelioma
This study provided proof of concept for the presence of ctDNA in blood of treatment-naive MPM [malignant pleural mesothelioma] patients by the detection of somatic variants that were identified by analysis of a tumor sample,” the authors wrote. “This opens perspective towards its use in MPM.” The post Moving Toward an Earlier Diagnosis of Mesothelioma appeared first on Mesothelioma Center - Vital Services for Cancer Patients & Families. (Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News)
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - August 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news
Apoptosis propagates through the cytoplasm as trigger waves
Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved form of programmed cell death critical for development and tissue homeostasis in animals. The apoptotic control network includes several positive feedback loops that may allow apoptosis to spread through the cytoplasm in self-regenerating trigger waves. We tested this possibility in cell-free Xenopus laevis egg extracts and observed apoptotic trigger waves with speeds of ~30 micrometers per minute. Fractionation and inhibitor studies implicated multiple feedback loops in generating the waves. Apoptotic oocytes and eggs exhibited surface waves with speeds of ~30 micrometers per minut...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 9, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Cheng, X., Ferrell, J. E. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
A liquid phase of synapsin and lipid vesicles
Neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles (SVs) form tight clusters at synapses. These clusters act as a reservoir from which SVs are drawn for exocytosis during sustained activity. Several components associated with SVs that are likely to help form such clusters have been reported, including synapsin. Here we found that synapsin can form a distinct liquid phase in an aqueous environment. Other scaffolding proteins could coassemble into this condensate but were not necessary for its formation. Importantly, the synapsin phase could capture small lipid vesicles. The synapsin phase rapidly disassembled upon phosphorylatio...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 9, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Milovanovic, D., Wu, Y., Bian, X., De Camilli, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
Lacteal junction zippering protects against diet-induced obesity
Excess dietary lipid uptake causes obesity, a major global health problem. Enterocyte-absorbed lipids are packaged into chylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream through intestinal lymphatic vessels called lacteals. Here, we show that preventing lacteal chylomicron uptake by inducible endothelial genetic deletion of Neuropilin1 (Nrp1) and Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (Vegfr1; also known as Flt1) renders mice resistant to diet-induced obesity. Absence of NRP1 and FLT1 receptors increased VEGF-A bioavailability and signaling through VEGFR2, inducing lacteal junction zippering and chylomicron malabsorption. R...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 9, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhang, F., Zarkada, G., Han, J., Li, J., Dubrac, A., Ola, R., Genet, G., Boye, K., Michon, P., Künzel, S. E., Camporez, J. P., Singh, A. K., Fong, G.-H., Simons, M., Tso, P., Fernandez-Hernando, C., Shulman, G. I., Sessa, W. C., Eichmann, A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
Tighter lymphatic junctions prevent obesity
Source: ScienceNOW - August 9, 2018 Category: Science Authors: McDonald, D. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases perspective Source Type: news
Phase changes in neurotransmission
Source: ScienceNOW - August 9, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Boczek, E. E., Alberti, S. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience perspective Source Type: news
Multiplexed protein maps link subcellular organization to cellular states
Obtaining highly multiplexed protein measurements across multiple length scales has enormous potential for biomedicine. Here, we measured, by iterative indirect immunofluorescence imaging (4i), 40-plex protein readouts from biological samples at high-throughput from the millimeter to the nanometer scale. This approach simultaneously captures properties apparent at the population, cellular, and subcellular levels, including microenvironment, cell shape, and cell cycle state. It also captures the detailed morphology of organelles, cytoskeletal structures, nuclear subcompartments, and the fate of signaling receptors in thousa...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 2, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Gut, G., Herrmann, M. D., Pelkmans, L. Tags: Cell Biology, Techniques r-articles Source Type: news
Here, there, and everywhere: The importance of ER membrane contact sites
Our textbook image of organelles has changed. Instead of revealing isolated cellular compartments, the picture now emerging shows organelles as largely interdependent structures that can communicate through membrane contact sites (MCSs). MCSs are sites where opposing organelles are tethered but do not fuse. MCSs provide a hybrid location where the tool kits of two different organelles can work together to perform vital cellular functions, such as lipid and ion transfer, signaling, and organelle division. Here, we focus on MCSs involving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle forming an extensive network of cisternae ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 2, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wu, H., Carvalho, P., Voeltz, G. K. Tags: Cell Biology review Source Type: news
UMass Amherst biophysicist, cell biologist team up to explore mechanics of cell division
(University of Massachusetts at Amherst) Ross says they received this grant because they are offering two different ways of thinking, combining our understanding of biology by applying physics concepts to the problem of mechanisms of spindle physical arrangement and microtubules. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 30, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Coactivator condensation at super-enhancers links phase separation and gene control
Super-enhancers (SEs) are clusters of enhancers that cooperatively assemble a high density of the transcriptional apparatus to drive robust expression of genes with prominent roles in cell identity. Here we demonstrate that the SE-enriched transcriptional coactivators BRD4 and MED1 form nuclear puncta at SEs that exhibit properties of liquid-like condensates and are disrupted by chemicals that perturb condensates. The intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of BRD4 and MED1 can form phase-separated droplets, and MED1-IDR droplets can compartmentalize and concentrate the transcription apparatus from nuclear extracts. These ...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sabari, B. R., DallAgnese, A., Boija, A., Klein, I. A., Coffey, E. L., Shrinivas, K., Abraham, B. J., Hannett, N. M., Zamudio, A. V., Manteiga, J. C., Li, C. H., Guo, Y. E., Day, D. S., Schuijers, J., Vasile, E., Malik, S., Hnisz, D., Lee, T. I., Cisse, I Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Mediator and RNA polymerase II clusters associate in transcription-dependent condensates
Models of gene control have emerged from genetic and biochemical studies, with limited consideration of the spatial organization and dynamics of key components in living cells. We used live-cell superresolution and light-sheet imaging to study the organization and dynamics of the Mediator coactivator and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) directly. Mediator and Pol II each form small transient and large stable clusters in living embryonic stem cells. Mediator and Pol II are colocalized in the stable clusters, which associate with chromatin, have properties of phase-separated condensates, and are sensitive to transcriptional inhibi...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 26, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Cho, W.-K., Spille, J.-H., Hecht, M., Lee, C., Li, C., Grube, V., Cisse, I. I. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
No Link Between Size of Thyroid Nodule and Cancer Risk No Link Between Size of Thyroid Nodule and Cancer Risk
In thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology, a larger size is not associated with heightened cancer risk, suggesting larger nodules may be safely diagnosed with an initial thyroid lobectomy.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 25, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
University of Edinburgh Demands Retraction of Researcher's Papers
Cell biologist Irina Stancheva was dismissed in June 2017 after a scientific misconduct investigation. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - July 23, 2018 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
University of Edinburgh Demands Retraction of Researcher & rsquo;s Papers
Cell biologist Irina Stancheva was dismissed in June 2017 after a scientific misconduct investigation. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - July 23, 2018 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news
Propofol, Breast Cancer Cells, the Immune System, and Outcome Propofol, Breast Cancer Cells, the Immune System, and Outcome
This study reviews the effects of propofol on breast cancer cell biology, the immune system, and post-op pain.BMC Anesthesiology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - July 23, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Anesthesiology Journal Article Source Type: news
Exploring cytoskeletal diversity in neurons
Source: ScienceNOW - July 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tas, R. P., Kapitein, L. C. Tags: Cell Biology perspective Source Type: news
VHL substrate transcription factor ZHX2 as an oncogenic driver in clear cell renal cell carcinoma
Inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) E3 ubiquitin ligase protein is a hallmark of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Identifying how pathways affected by VHL loss contribute to ccRCC remains challenging. We used a genome-wide in vitro expression strategy to identify proteins that bind VHL when hydroxylated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) was found as a VHL target, and its hydroxylation allowed VHL to regulate its protein stability. Tumor cells from ccRCC patients with VHL loss-of-function mutations usually had increased abundance and nuclear localization of ZHX2. Functionally, depletion of ZHX2 inhibited...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 19, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhang, J., Wu, T., Simon, J., Takada, M., Saito, R., Fan, C., Liu, X.-D., Jonasch, E., Xie, L., Chen, X., Yao, X., Teh, B. T., Tan, P., Zheng, X., Li, M., Lawrence, C., Fan, J., Geng, J., Liu, X., Hu, L., Wang, J., Liao, C., Hong, K., Zurlo, G., Parker, J Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news
How our cells build different antennae to sense the world around us
This study, now published in Nature Cell Biology, will help physicians better understand diseases called ciliopathies (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 16, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Dual-spindle formation in zygotes keeps parental genomes apart in early mammalian embryos
At the beginning of mammalian life, the genetic material from each parent meets when the fertilized egg divides. It was previously thought that a single microtubule spindle is responsible for spatially combining the two genomes and then segregating them to create the two-cell embryo. We used light-sheet microscopy to show that two bipolar spindles form in the zygote and then independently congress the maternal and paternal genomes. These two spindles aligned their poles before anaphase but kept the parental genomes apart during the first cleavage. This spindle assembly mechanism provides a potential rationale for erroneous...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Reichmann, J., Nijmeijer, B., Hossain, M. J., Eguren, M., Schneider, I., Politi, A. Z., Roberti, M. J., Hufnagel, L., Hiiragi, T., Ellenberg, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Development reports Source Type: news
Programming self-organizing multicellular structures with synthetic cell-cell signaling
A common theme in the self-organization of multicellular tissues is the use of cell-cell signaling networks to induce morphological changes. We used the modular synNotch juxtacrine signaling platform to engineer artificial genetic programs in which specific cell-cell contacts induced changes in cadherin cell adhesion. Despite their simplicity, these minimal intercellular programs were sufficient to yield assemblies with hallmarks of natural developmental systems: robust self-organization into multidomain structures, well-choreographed sequential assembly, cell type divergence, symmetry breaking, and the capacity for regene...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 12, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Toda, S., Blauch, L. R., Tang, S. K. Y., Morsut, L., Lim, W. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news
Breast cancer growth signals are enhanced by a protein outside cells
(Rockefeller University Press) New research uncovers how a sticky protein called fibronectin promotes the activity of estrogen in breast cancer cells. The study, 'Fibronectin rescues estrogen receptorα from lysosomal degradation in breast cancer cells,' will be published July 6 in the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB). (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Regulation of feeding by somatostatin neurons in the tuberal nucleus
The tuberal nucleus (TN) is a surprisingly understudied brain region. We found that somatostatin (SST) neurons in the TN, which is known to exhibit pathological or cytological changes in human neurodegenerative diseases, play a crucial role in regulating feeding in mice. GABAergic tuberal SST (TNSST) neurons were activated by hunger and by the hunger hormone, ghrelin. Activation of TNSST neurons promoted feeding, whereas inhibition reduced it via projections to the paraventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Ablation of TNSST neurons reduced body weight gain and food intake. These findings reveal a pre...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 5, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Luo, S. X., Huang, J., Li, Q., Mohammad, H., Lee, C.-Y., Krishna, K., Kok, A. M.-Y., Tan, Y. L., Lim, J. Y., Li, H., Yeow, L. Y., Sun, J., He, M., Grandjean, J., Sajikumar, S., Han, W., Fu, Y. Tags: Neuroscience reports Source Type: news
Primary HPV Testing: Fewer Cases of Cervical Precancer vs Pap Test
(MedPage Today) -- Lower rates of CIN3+ by 48 months vs cytology (Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology)
Source: MedPage Today Hematology/Oncology - July 3, 2018 Category: Hematology Source Type: news
HPV Cervical CA Screening Cuts Odds of Later CIN3 & #43; Diagnosis
TUESDAY, July 3, 2018 -- The use of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing versus cytology results in reduced likelihood of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) at 48 months, according to a study published in the... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - July 3, 2018 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Finding suggest HPV testing detects cervical pre-cancer earlier, more accurately than Pap smear
(JAMA Network) Nearly all cervical cancers are associated with persistent cervical infection from cancer-related human papillomavirus (HPV) strains. Testing for HPV alone, or combined with a Pap smear (cytology) for cervical screening, has been associated with increased detection of precancerous lesions compared with Pap smears alone. Some organizations have recommended primary HPV-based cervical cancer screening, while others have called for clinical trials of primary HPV testing alone. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 3, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Neuromics' Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) Strikes Again
Potent FBS at Pricing You'll LikeNeuromics started providingFBS to researchers in early 2017. Our goal was to provide thorough tested and 9-CFR compliant FBS with the lowest pricing anywhere.In order to ensure our initial claims are trustworthy, we follow up with all our users and ask that they providefeedback. Here's the latest review-Ordered Fetal bovine serum. Best price and quality" - Juwen D, Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Product: Heat-inactivated FBS, cat no. FBS001-HI.We are now starting to see the use of our FBS reference in publications: Am élie Robert, Peirun Tian, Stephen A. Ada...
Source: Neuromics - July 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: 3-D Cell based Assays cell biology Cell Cultures FBS Fetal Bovine Serum Source Type: news
Study: Intrapleural Air Flow Can Enhance Mesothelioma CT Scans
Researchers in Australia believe they have discovered a simple way to enhance the accuracy of CT scanning for pleural abnormalities, potentially leading to better diagnostics for mesothelioma cancer. A research team from the University of Western Australia in Perth has shown the sensitivity of CT scans — used in the diagnostic process — can be improved by creating intrapleural air flow. The discovery stems from their six test cases of malignancies, including four patients with pleural mesothelioma. Chest Journal, the official publication of the American College of Chest Physicians, published the study in June. ...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - June 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Matt Mauney Source Type: news
Is cancer a breakdown of multicellularity?
Source: ScienceNOW - June 28, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases Feature Source Type: news
Curing a deadly childhood disease, sharing her love of science, and a sleek ’68 Corvette drive this biochemist
Spend a brief amount of time with biochemist Rachelle Crosbie-Watson and you ’ll quickly realize that “drive” is one of her favorite words.With equal enthusiasm, she ’ll describe studying “the small molecules that drive life,” and her 1968 convertible Corvette being “a blast to drive.” The symmetry is hard to miss: Crosbie-Watson drives a classic muscle car to UCLA, where she studies the biochemical reactions that drive muscle cell functions. Her lab is hotly pursuing new drugs that one day may halt the progression of a deadly childhood muscle-wasting disease, allowing k...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - June 26, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Nutrition is the key to keeping your cells young: When cells don't get enough energy they breakdown, creating conditions for many age-related diseases
(Natural News) A study carried out by researchers at the University of Tübingen Interfaculty Institute for Cell Biology (IFIZ) in Germany has identified a new molecular signaling mechanism that regulates autophagy, a cellular recycling process where the cells continually break down and renew small parts of themselves by way of self-digestion. According to researchers, this process helps keep the cells... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - June 24, 2018 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Researchers uncover new target to stop cancer growth
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have discovered that a protein called Munc13-4 helps cancer cells secrete large numbers of exosomes -- tiny, membrane-bound packages containing proteins and RNAs that stimulate tumor progression. The study, which will be published June 21 in the Journal of Cell Biology, could lead to new therapies that stop tumor growth and metastasis by halting exosome production. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
In vivo brain GPCR signaling elucidated by phosphoproteomics
A systems view of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in its native environment is central to the development of GPCR therapeutics with fewer side effects. Using the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as a model, we employed high-throughput phosphoproteomics to investigate signaling induced by structurally diverse agonists in five mouse brain regions. Quantification of 50,000 different phosphosites provided a systems view of KOR in vivo signaling, revealing novel mechanisms of drug action. Thus, we discovered enrichment of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by U-50,488H, an agonist causing aversion, ...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 21, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Liu, J. J., Sharma, K., Zangrandi, L., Chen, C., Humphrey, S. J., Chiu, Y.-T., Spetea, M., Liu-Chen, L.-Y., Schwarzer, C., Mann, M. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Breast cancer could be prevented by targeting epigenetic proteins, study suggests
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre in Toronto have discovered that epigenetic proteins promote the proliferation of mammary gland stem cells in response to the sex hormone progesterone. The study, which will be published June 19 in the Journal of Cell Biology, suggests that inhibiting these proteins with drugs could prevent the development of breast cancer in women at high risk of the disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Cells can trap viruses in protein cage to stop their spread, study reveals
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at The Francis Crick Institute in London have discovered that cells can trap viruses in a protein cage to stop them from spreading to neighboring cells. The study, which will be published June 19 in the Journal of Cell Biology, reveals that the vaccinia virus can escape this trap by recruiting additional proteins to dismantle the cage and propel the virus out of the cell. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - June 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news