NIH funds research into differences in glioblastoma between males and females
(Cleveland Clinic) A team led by researchers from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute has secured $10.4 million over five years from the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute to explore at the molecular level the differences in glioblastoma between males and females. The researchers will delve into the genetics, epigenetics and cell biology of glioblastoma - the most common and deadliest brain tumor in adults - to better understand the physiologic processes which may lead to more personalized therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - September 17, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Roche receives FDA approval for expanded use of the CINtec PLUS Cytology test to aid clinicians in preventing cervical cancer
Basel, 16 September 2020 — Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the expanded use of CINtec®PLUS Cytology, the first triage test based on biomarker technology for women whose cervical cancer screening results are positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Additional information from this test supports clinical decisions about which women will benefit most from immediate follow-up. Laboratories can now use CINtecPLUS Cytology to triage positive results from the cobas ® HPV Test run on the fully integrated, automated and high-thr...
Source: Roche Media News - September 16, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Roche receives FDA approval for expanded use of the CINtec PLUS Cytology test to aid clinicians in preventing cervical cancer
Basel, 16 September 2020 — Roche (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY) today announced U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the expanded use of CINtec®PLUS Cytology, the first triage test based on biomarker technology for women whose cervical cancer screening results are positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Additional information from this test supports clinical decisions about which women will benefit most from immediate follow-up. Laboratories can now use CINtecPLUS Cytology to triage positive results from the cobas ® HPV Test run on the fully integrated, automated and high-thr...
Source: Roche Investor Update - September 16, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Narrow path charted for editing genes of human embryos
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 10, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cohen, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Scientific Community In Depth Source Type: news

Reconstituting autophagosome nucleation
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - September 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Reconstitution of autophagosome nucleation defines Atg9 vesicles as seeds for membrane formation
In this study, we reconstituted autophagosome nucleation using recombinant components from yeast. We found that Atg9 proteoliposomes first recruited the phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase complex, followed by Atg21, the Atg2-Atg18 lipid transfer complex, and the E3-like Atg12–Atg5-Atg16 complex, which promoted Atg8 lipidation. Furthermore, we found that Atg2 could transfer lipids for Atg8 lipidation. In selective autophagy, these reactions could potentially be coupled to the cargo via the Atg19-Atg11-Atg9 interactions. We thus propose that Atg9 vesicles form seeds that establish membrane contact sites to initiat...
Source: ScienceNOW - September 3, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sawa-Makarska, J., Baumann, V., Coudevylle, N., von Bülow, S., Nogellova, V., Abert, C., Schuschnig, M., Graef, M., Hummer, G., Martens, S. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Researchers identify RNA molecule that helps lung cancer cells evade immune system
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in Spain have identified a non-coding RNA molecule that helps lung cancer cells proliferate and avoid being killed by the body's immune cells. The study, which will be published August 27 in the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB), suggests that targeting this RNA molecule could boost the effectiveness of immunotherapies that are currently only successful in ~20% of lung cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - August 27, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Seeing around corners: Cells solve mazes and respond at a distance using attractant breakdown
We describe how self-generated gradients, created by cells locally degrading attractant, allow single cells to navigate long, tortuous paths and make accurate choices between live channels and dead ends. This allows cells to solve complex mazes efficiently. Cells’ accuracy at finding live channels was determined by attractant diffusivity, cell speed, and path complexity. Manipulating these parameters directed cells in mathematically predictable ways; specific combinations can even actively misdirect them. We propose that the length and complexity of many long-range migratory processes, including inflammation and germ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Tweedy, L., Thomason, P. A., Paschke, P. I., Martin, K., Machesky, L. M., Zagnoni, M., Insall, R. H. Tags: Cell Biology, Computers, Mathematics, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

You can find your own way
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 27, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Computers, Mathematics twis Source Type: news

Neutrophil extracellular traps target senescent vasculature for tissue remodeling in retinopathy
In developed countries, the leading causes of blindness such as diabetic retinopathy are characterized by disorganized vasculature that can become fibrotic. Although many such pathological vessels often naturally regress and spare sight-threatening complications, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used orthogonal approaches in human patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and a mouse model of ischemic retinopathies to identify an unconventional role for neutrophils in vascular remodeling during late-stage sterile inflammation. Senescent vasculature released a secretome that attracted neutrophils an...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Binet, F., Cagnone, G., Crespo-Garcia, S., Hata, M., Neault, M., Dejda, A., Wilson, A. M., Buscarlet, M., Mawambo, G. T., Howard, J. P., Diaz-Marin, R., Parinot, C., Guber, V., Pilon, F., Juneau, R., Laflamme, R., Sawchyn, C., Boulay, K., Leclerc, S., Abu Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Remodeling senescent blood vessels
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

New Geisel Faculty Member Receives National Award for Excellence in Cell Biology
Prachee Avasthi, PhD, an associate professor of biochemistry and cell biology at Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine and one of the medical school’s newest faculty members, has received the 2020 Women in Cell Biology Junior Award for Excellence in Research from the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB). (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)
Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School - August 18, 2020 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Timothy Dean Tags: Education News ASCB award cell biology faculty Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dynamics and cell fate
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience twis Source Type: news

A loose BAF puts its foot on the cGAS
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Scanlon, S. T. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology twis Source Type: news

BAF restricts cGAS on nuclear DNA to prevent innate immune activation
The appearance of DNA in the cytosol is perceived as a danger signal that stimulates potent immune responses through cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS). How cells regulate the activity of cGAS toward self-DNA and guard against potentially damaging autoinflammatory responses is a fundamental biological question. Here, we identify barrier-to-autointegration factor 1 (BAF) as a natural opponent of cGAS activity on genomic self-DNA. We show that BAF dynamically outcompetes cGAS for DNA binding, hence prohibiting the formation of DNA-cGAS complexes that are essential for enzymatic activ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guey, B., Wischnewski, M., Decout, A., Makasheva, K., Kaynak, M., Sakar, M. S., Fierz, B., Ablasser, A. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology reports Source Type: news

Mitochondrial dynamics in postmitotic cells regulate neurogenesis
We examined and manipulated mitochondrial dynamics during mouse and human cortical neurogenesis. We reveal that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew undergo mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retain high levels of mitochondria fission become neurons. Increased mitochondria fission promotes neuronal fate, whereas induction of mitochondria fusion after mitosis redirects daughter cells toward self-renewal. This occurs during a restricted time window that is doubled in human cells, in line with their increased self-renewal capacity. Our data reveal a postmitotic period of ...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 13, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Iwata, R., Casimir, P., Vanderhaeghen, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience reports Source Type: news

The proteasome controls ESCRT-III-mediated cell division in an archaeon
Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is the closest experimentally tractable archaeal relative of eukaryotes and, despite lacking obvious cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclin homologs, has an ordered eukaryote-like cell cycle with distinct phases of DNA replication and division. Here, in exploring the mechanism of cell division in S. acidocaldarius, we identify a role for the archaeal proteasome in regulating the transition from the end of one cell cycle to the beginning of the next. Further, we identify the archaeal ESCRT-III homolog, CdvB, as a key target of the proteasome and show that its degradation triggers division by allowing c...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Tarrason Risa, G., Hurtig, F., Bray, S., Hafner, A. E., Harker-Kirschneck, L., Faull, P., Davis, C., Papatziamou, D., Mutavchiev, D. R., Fan, C., Meneguello, L., Arashiro Pulschen, A., Dey, G., Culley, S., Kilkenny, M., Souza, D. P., Pellegrini, L., de Br Tags: Cell Biology, Evolution, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Proteasomal control of division in Archaea
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 6, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Evolution twis Source Type: news

HPV Test Is Preferred Method for Cervical Cancer Screening: ACS HPV Test Is Preferred Method for Cervical Cancer Screening: ACS
New guidelines recommend human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as the preferred screening method, but cotesting and cytology alone are still acceptable options.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines - August 4, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news

Revealing family differences
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Structural insights into differences in G protein activation by family A and family B GPCRs
Family B heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in carbohydrate metabolism. Recent structures of family B GPCR-Gs protein complexes reveal a disruption in the α-helix of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) not observed in family A GPCRs. To investigate the functional impact of this structural difference, we compared the structure and function of the glucagon receptor (GCGR; family B) with the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR; family A). We determined the structure of the GCGR-Gs complex by means of cryo–electron microscopy at 3.1-...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 30, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hilger, D., Kumar, K. K., Hu, H., Pedersen, M. F., OBrien, E. S., Giehm, L., Jennings, C., Eskici, G., Inoue, A., Lerch, M., Mathiesen, J. M., Skiniotis, G., Kobilka, B. K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Britta Will, Ph.D., Wins Pershing Square Sohn Prize for Cancer Research
July 29, 2020—(BRONX, NY)—Britta Will, Ph.D., assistant professor of medicine and of cell biology atAlbert Einstein College of Medicine, has won a2020 Pershing Square Sohn Prize for Young Investigators in Cancer Research. Dr. Will is one of seven New York City area-based scientists to receive the prestigious award, which provides $600,000 over three years for innovative basic science cancer research. (Source: Einstein News)
Source: Einstein News - July 29, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Britta Will, Ph.D., wins Pershing Square Sohn Prize for cancer research
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine) Britta Will, Ph.D., assistant professor of medicine and of cell biology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, has won a 2020 Pershing Square Sohn Prize for Young Investigators in Cancer Research. Dr. Will is one of seven New York City area-based scientists to receive the prestigious award, which provides $600,000 over three years for innovative basic science cancer research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 29, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

How airway cells work together in regeneration and aging
Researchers at theEli and Edythe Broad Center of  Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have identified the process by which stem cells in the airways of the lungs switch between two distinct phases — creating more of themselves and producing mature airway cells — to regenerate lung tissue after an injury.The study, published in Cell Stem Cell, also sheds light on how aging can cause lung regeneration to go awry, which can lead to lung cancer and other diseases.  “There currently are few therapies that target the biology of lung diseases,” said Dr. Brigitte Gomperts,a profes...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 27, 2020 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Thompson Street Capital sells a testing lab it has been building since 2015
The company sold offers comprehensive testing solutions in the molecular cell biology and virology testing, antimicrobial, pharmaceutical, medical device, biotech and health care industries. (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - July 27, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Greg Edwards Source Type: news

Cell growth dilutes the cell cycle inhibitor Rb to trigger cell division
Cell size is fundamental to cell physiology. For example, cell size determines the spatial scale of organelles and intracellular transport and thereby affects biosynthesis. Although some genes that affect mammalian cell size have been identified, the molecular mechanisms through which cell growth drives cell division have remained elusive. We show that cell growth during the G1 phase of the cell division cycle dilutes the cell cycle inhibitor Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) to trigger division in human cells. RB overexpression increased cell size and G1 duration, whereas RB deletion decreased cell size and removed the inverse ...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 23, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zatulovskiy, E., Zhang, S., Berenson, D. F., Topacio, B. R., Skotheim, J. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering reports Source Type: news

Chaperone-mediated autophagy regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells
Embryonic stem cells can propagate indefinitely in a pluripotent state, able to differentiate into all types of specialized cells when restored to the embryo. What sustains their pluripotency during propagation remains unclear. Here, we show that core pluripotency factors OCT4 and SOX2 suppress chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective form of autophagy, until the initiation of differentiation. Low CMA activity promotes embryonic stem cell self-renewal, whereas its up-regulation enhances differentiation. CMA degrades isocitrate dehydrogenases IDH1 and IDH2 and reduces levels of intracellular α-ketoglutarate, an...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 23, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xu, Y., Zhang, Y., Garcia-Canaveras, J. C., Guo, L., Kan, M., Yu, S., Blair, I. A., Rabinowitz, J. D., Yang, X. Tags: Cell Biology, Development r-articles Source Type: news

Autophagy regulates stemness
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 23, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Development twis Source Type: news

A cell size sensor
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 23, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering twis Source Type: news

Tumor-initiating cells establish an IL-33-TGF-{beta} niche signaling loop to promote cancer progression
Targeting the cross-talk between tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and the niche microenvironment is an attractive avenue for cancer therapy. We show here, using a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma, that TICs play a crucial role in creating a niche microenvironment that is required for tumor progression and drug resistance. Antioxidant activity in TICs, mediated by the transcription factor NRF2, facilitates the release of a nuclear cytokine, interleukin-33 (IL-33). This cytokine promotes differentiation of macrophages that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor FcRIα and are in close proximity to TICs. ...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Taniguchi, S., Elhance, A., Van Duzer, A., Kumar, S., Leitenberger, J. J., Oshimori, N. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Cancer cells deploy lipocalin-2 to collect limiting iron in leptomeningeal metastasis
The tumor microenvironment plays a critical regulatory role in cancer progression, especially in central nervous system metastases. Cancer cells within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)–filled leptomeninges face substantial microenvironmental challenges, including inflammation and sparse micronutrients. To investigate the mechanism by which cancer cells in these leptomeningeal metastases (LM) overcome these constraints, we subjected CSF from five patients with LM to single-cell RNA sequencing. We found that cancer cells, but not macrophages, within the CSF express the iron-binding protein lipocalin-2 (LCN2) and its recep...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chi, Y., Remsik, J., Kiseliovas, V., Derderian, C., Sener, U., Alghader, M., Saadeh, F., Nikishina, K., Bale, T., Iacobuzio-Donahue, C., Thomas, T., Peer, D., Mazutis, L., Boire, A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases r-articles Source Type: news

Ironing out a survival strategy
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kiberstis, P. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Deconstructing a perilous loop
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 16, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kiberstis, P. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Pap/HPV Cotesting Better for Cervical Cancer Screening in Over 30s
TUESDAY, July 14, 2020 -- Liquid-based cytology (LBC) and human papillomavirus (HPV) cotesting enhances screening for cervical cancer (CxCa) and precancer among women aged 30 years and older, according to a study published online July 8 in the... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - July 14, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Peace and Cell Biology
See profilee Eva Harris explain her early learning environment and how she sees the cell as a metaphor for human society in this HHMI biography. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - July 13, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Videos Source Type: news

Cotesting With Pap, HPV Tests More Likely to Detect Cervical Cancer, Precancer Cotesting With Pap, HPV Tests More Likely to Detect Cervical Cancer, Precancer
HPV or Papanicolaou test by liquid-based cytology alone are less likely to detect cervical cancer or precancer than combining both tests for the same specimen.Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - July 9, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Hematology-Oncology News Source Type: news

Breast cancer cells turn killer immune cells into allies
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have discovered that breast cancer cells can alter the function of immune cells known as Natural killer (NK) cells so that instead of killing the cancer cells, they facilitate their spread to other parts of the body. The study, which will be published July 9 in the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB), suggests that preventing this reprogramming might stop breast cancer from metastasizing to other tissues, a major cause of death in breast cancer patients. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 9, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Fluorescent peptide nanoparticles, in every color of the rainbow
(American Chemical Society) The discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is made by a jellyfish, transformed cell biology. It allowed scientists to stitch the GFP sequence to proteins from other organisms to trace their movements and interactions in living cells. Now, researchers reporting inACS Applied Materials& Interfaces have designed peptide nanoparticles that can each glow in a variety of colors, opening the door for many new biomedical applications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 8, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Intestinal organoids as an infection model
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - July 2, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Microbiology twis Source Type: news

SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission through the respiratory route. However, clinical evidence suggests that the intestine may present another viral target organ. Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed on differentiated enterocytes. In human small intestinal organoids (hSIOs), enterocytes were readily infected by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy. Enterocytes produced inf...
Source: ScienceNOW - July 2, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lamers, M. M., Beumer, J., van der Vaart, J., Knoops, K., Puschhof, J., Breugem, T. I., Ravelli, R. B. G., Paul van Schayck, J., Mykytyn, A. Z., Duimel, H. Q., van Donselaar, E., Riesebosch, S., Kuijpers, H. J. H., Schipper, D., van de Wetering, W. J., de Tags: Cell Biology, Microbiology r-articles Source Type: news

AI dual-stain approach improved accuracy, efficiency of cervical cancer screening
(NIH/National Cancer Institute) In a new study, a computer algorithm improved the accuracy and efficiency of cervical cancer screening compared with cytology (Pap test), the current standard for follow-up of women who test positive with primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening. The algorithm was developed and the study conducted by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with researchers from several other institutions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - June 25, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Dr. Steven R. Goodman releases new edition of textbook
(University of Tennessee Health Science Center) Vice Chancellor for Research at University of Tennessee Health Science Center releases fourth edition of book on medical cell biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 24, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Partitioning of cancer therapeutics in nuclear condensates
The nucleus contains diverse phase-separated condensates that compartmentalize and concentrate biomolecules with distinct physicochemical properties. Here, we investigated whether condensates concentrate small-molecule cancer therapeutics such that their pharmacodynamic properties are altered. We found that antineoplastic drugs become concentrated in specific protein condensates in vitro and that this occurs through physicochemical properties independent of the drug target. This behavior was also observed in tumor cells, where drug partitioning influenced drug activity. Altering the properties of the condensate was found t...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Klein, I. A., Boija, A., Afeyan, L. K., Hawken, S. W., Fan, M., Dall'Agnese, A., Oksuz, O., Henninger, J. E., Shrinivas, K., Sabari, B. R., Sagi, I., Clark, V. E., Platt, J. M., Kar, M., McCall, P. M., Zamudio, A. V., Manteiga, J. C., Coffey, E. L., Li, C Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news

Drug partitioning in nuclear condensates
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 18, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vinson, V. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

How cells monitor mitogen availability
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering twis Source Type: news

Actin cortex controls cell migration
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Membrane-proximal F-actin restricts local membrane protrusions and directs cell migration
Cell migration is driven by local membrane protrusion through directed polymerization of F-actin at the front. However, F-actin next to the plasma membrane also tethers the membrane and thus resists outgoing protrusions. Here, we developed a fluorescent reporter to monitor changes in the density of membrane-proximal F-actin (MPA) during membrane protrusion and cell migration. Unlike the total F-actin concentration, which was high in the front of migrating cells, MPA density was low in the front and high in the back. Back-to-front MPA density gradients were controlled by higher cofilin-mediated turnover of F-actin in the fr...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Bisaria, A., Hayer, A., Garbett, D., Cohen, D., Meyer, T. Tags: Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Temporal integration of mitogen history in mother cells controls proliferation of daughter cells
Multicellular organisms use mitogens to regulate cell proliferation, but how fluctuating mitogenic signals are converted into proliferation-quiescence decisions is poorly understood. In this work, we combined live-cell imaging with temporally controlled perturbations to determine the time scale and mechanisms underlying this system in human cells. Contrary to the textbook model that cells sense mitogen availability only in the G1 cell cycle phase, we find that mitogenic signaling is temporally integrated throughout the entire mother cell cycle and that even a 1-hour lapse in mitogen signaling can influence cell proliferati...
Source: ScienceNOW - June 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Min, M., Rong, Y., Tian, C., Spencer, S. L. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering reports Source Type: news

Less than 10% of people in Britain are immune to coronavirus. There's no room for mistakes | Rupert Beale
Covid-19 is is still a threat to most in Britain. If we allow it to spread now, a deadly second wave in winter could be the resultDr Rupert Beale heads the cell biology of infection laboratory at the Francis Crick Institute in LondonCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageThe lockdown approach to combating Covid-19 has been undeniably effective. The surge in cases was stopped, the NHS was not overwhelmed, and many deaths were prevented. At the Francis Crick Institute, we could see the dramatic effect on cases, as we ’ve been testing for Sars-CoV-2 to support our local hospitals. When we ran ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - June 5, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rupert Beale Tags: Coronavirus outbreak Infectious diseases Science UK news World news Medical research Microbiology Source Type: news

Granzyme A from cytotoxic lymphocytes cleaves GSDMB to trigger pyroptosis in target cells
This study establishes gasdermin-mediated pyroptosis as a cytotoxic lymphocyte–killing mechanism, which may enhance antitumor immunity. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - May 28, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Zhou, Z., He, H., Wang, K., Shi, X., Wang, Y., Su, Y., Wang, Y., Li, D., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Shen, L., Han, W., Shen, L., Ding, J., Shao, F. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news