The National Academy of Sciences admits IPK scientist Nicolaus von Wir é n as member
(Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research) Great honour for Prof. Dr Nicolaus von Wir é n: The National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina has accepted the Head of the Department of Physiology and Cell Biology at the IPK Leibniz Institute as a new member. For Nicolaus von Wir é n, this is already the second award within a few months. Only recently he was recognised by the Web of Science as an influential researcher. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - July 23, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Sensing " junk " RNA after chemotherapy enhances blood regeneration
(Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics) Scientists from the MPI-IE reveal that during hematopoietic regeneration, RNA expressed from a part of the genome considered " junk DNA " is used by hematopoietic stem cells to get activated and proliferate. The study published in the scientific journal Nature Cell Biology shows that these so-called transposable elements make RNA after chemotherapy and activate an immune receptor which induces inflammatory signals enhancing hematopoietic stem cell cycling and thus participating in the regeneration of the hematopoietic system. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - July 12, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Thomas Rando named director of UCLA Broad Stem Cell Research Center
Dr. Thomas Rando, a renowned neurologist and stem cell biologist, has been named director of the  Eli and Edythe Broad Center of  Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA.Rando, who was chosen after an international search, is currently a professor of neurology and neurological sciences at the medical school at Stanford University, where he also serves as director of the Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging and deputy director of the Stanford Center on Longevity. In addition, he is chief of neurology at the  Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System.His appointment is effective Oct. 1.&ldquo...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - July 7, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

What Problems are Ciliopathies Associated With?
Discussion Nephronophthisis (NPHP) one cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurring before age 30 years. NPHP is a non-motile ciliopathy affecting cellular sensing in the renal tubular epithelium. See To Learn More below. The incidence varies according to location with 1:1 million in the US but 1:50,000 in Finland. There are 3 subtypes: Infantile Occurs usually within 1 year of life Enlarged kidneys and severe hypertension In utero can have oligohydramnios problems such as pulmonary hypoplasia, facial dysmorphisms, limb contractures Extra-renal problems include congenital heart disease, liver fibrosis, recur...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - July 5, 2021 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Researchers discover how the intestinal epithelium folds and moves by measuring forces
(Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC)) An international team led by Xavier Trepat at IBEC, with support from " La Caixa Foundation, measures the cellular forces in mini-intestines grown in the laboratory, deciphering how the inner wall of this vital organ folds and moves. The study, published in Nature Cell Biology, opens the doors to a better understanding of the bases of diseases such as celiac disease or cancer, and to the ability to find solutions for gut diseases through the development of new therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - June 21, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Main gland in hormonal system ages due to process that can potentially be slowed down
(KU Leuven) Stem cell biologist Hugo Vankelecom (KU Leuven) and his colleagues have discovered that the pituitary gland in mice ages as the result of an age-related form of chronic inflammation. It may be possible to slow down this process or even partially repair it. The researchers have published their findings in PNAS. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - June 15, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Rockefeller University Press journals release policy on author name change after publication
(Rockefeller University Press) Journal of Cell Biology, Journal of Experimental Medicine, and Journal of General Physiology announce an editorial policy allowing swift and confidential updates to author names at any time and for any reason including changes to gender identity, marriage, divorce, religion, or other personal circumstances. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - June 10, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Updated Amivantamab and Lazertinib Combination Data Demonstrate Durable Responses and Clinical Activity for Osimertinib-Relapsed Patients with EGFR-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
May 19, 2021 (RARITAN, N.J.) – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson today announced updated data from the Phase 1 CHRYSALIS study showing treatment with amivantamab in combination with lazertinib led to a median duration of response (DOR) of 9.6 months in chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion or L858R mutations whose disease had progressed after treatment with osimertinib.[1] These data, which will be presented in an oral presentation at the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual ...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - May 19, 2021 Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news

Thyroid Scintigraphy in the Era of FNA Cytology Thyroid Scintigraphy in the Era of FNA Cytology
Should thyroid scintigraphy be considered for patients referred for fine-needle aspiration cytology?Clinical Endocrinology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - May 13, 2021 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology Journal Article Source Type: news

Molecular analysis identifies key differences in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients
A team of researchers from UCLA, Cedars-Sinai and the Cystic FibrosisFoundation has developed a first-of-its-kind molecular catalog of cells in healthy lungs and the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis.The catalog,described today in the journal Nature Medicine, reveals new subtypes of cells and illustrates how the disease changes the cellular makeup of the airways. The findings could help scientists in their search for specific cell types that represent prime targets for genetic and cell therapies for cystic fibrosis.“This new research has provided us with valuable insights into the cellular makeup of both heal...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - May 7, 2021 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

Probing protein's role in cell biology to understand how it might fight cancer
(Lehigh University) Funded by a $1.6 million Project Research Grant from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, researchers from Lehigh University, the University of Virginia, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology are working to unlock the mysteries of a protein that plays a crucial regulatory role in human health and disease. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Geisel Professor Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
Ta-Yuan (T.Y.) Chang, PhD, a professor of biochemistry and cell biology at Dartmouth’s Geisel School of Medicine, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), considered to be one of the country’s premier scientific societies. (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)
Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School - April 29, 2021 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Timothy Dean Tags: News Press Release Chang Laboratory National Academy of Sciences Source Type: news

Regeneration without scarring
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Preventing Engrailed-1 activation in fibroblasts yields wound regeneration without scarring
Skin scarring, the end result of adult wound healing, is detrimental to tissue form and function. Engrailed-1 lineage–positive fibroblasts (EPFs) are known to function in scarring, but Engrailed-1 lineage–negative fibroblasts (ENFs) remain poorly characterized. Using cell transplantation and transgenic mouse models, we identified a dermal ENF subpopulation that gives rise to postnatally derived EPFs by activating Engrailed-1 expression during adult wound healing. By studying ENF responses to substrate mechanics, we found that mechanical tension drives Engrailed-1 activation via canonical mechanotransduction sig...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 22, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Mascharak, S., desJardins-Park, H. E., Davitt, M. F., Griffin, M., Borrelli, M. R., Moore, A. L., Chen, K., Duoto, B., Chinta, M., Foster, D. S., Shen, A. H., Januszyk, M., Kwon, S. H., Wernig, G., Wan, D. C., Lorenz, H. P., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Circuit design for control of metabolism
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering twis Source Type: news

Goblet cell diversity
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ash, C. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Decoupling transcription factor expression and activity enables dimmer switch gene regulation
Gene-regulatory networks achieve complex mappings of inputs to outputs through mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in the galactose-responsive pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the decision to activate the transcription of genes encoding pathway components is controlled independently from the expression level, resulting in behavior resembling that of a mechanical dimmer switch. This was not a direct result of chromatin regulation or combinatorial control at galactose-responsive promoters; rather, this behavior was achieved by hierarchical regulation of the expression and activity of a single transcripti...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ricci-Tam, C., Ben-Zion, I., Wang, J., Palme, J., Li, A., Savir, Y., Springer, M. Tags: Cell Biology, Engineering reports Source Type: news

An intercrypt subpopulation of goblet cells is essential for colonic mucus barrier function
In this study, however, we delineated their specific gene and protein expression profiles and identified several distinct goblet cell populations that form two differentiation trajectories. One distinct subtype, the intercrypt goblet cells (icGCs), located at the colonic luminal surface, produced mucus with properties that differed from the mucus secreted by crypt-residing goblet cells. Mice with defective icGCs had increased sensitivity to chemically induced colitis and manifested spontaneous colitis with age. Furthermore, alterations in mucus and reduced numbers of icGCs were observed in patients with both active and rem...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Nyström, E. E. L., Martinez-Abad, B., Arike, L., Birchenough, G. M. H., Nonnecke, E. B., Castillo, P. A., Svensson, F., Bevins, C. L., Hansson, G. C., Johansson, M. E. V. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Lockdown for genome parasites
(IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences) Researchers at GMI - Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences - uncover an ingenious mechanism by which Arabidopsis safeguards the integrity of its genome. The paper is published in the journal Nature Cell Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 8, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Pollen PCP-B peptides unlock a stigma peptide-receptor kinase gating mechanism for pollination
Sexual reproduction in angiosperms relies on precise communications between the pollen and pistil. The molecular mechanisms underlying these communications remain elusive. We established that in Arabidopsis, a stigmatic gatekeeper, the ANJEA–FERONIA (ANJ–FER) receptor kinase complex, perceives the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR peptides RALF23 and RALF33 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the stigma papillae, whereas pollination reduces stigmatic ROS, allowing pollen hydration. Upon pollination, the POLLEN COAT PROTEIN B-class peptides (PCP-Bs) compete with RALF23/33 for binding to the ANJ&ndash...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 8, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Liu, C., Shen, L., Xiao, Y., Vyshedsky, D., Peng, C., Sun, X., Liu, Z., Cheng, L., Zhang, H., Han, Z., Chai, J., Wu, H.-M., Cheung, A. Y., Li, C. Tags: Botany, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

QSER1 protects DNA methylation valleys from de novo methylation
DNA methylation is essential to mammalian development, and dysregulation can cause serious pathological conditions. Key enzymes responsible for deposition and removal of DNA methylation are known, but how they cooperate to regulate the methylation landscape remains a central question. Using a knockin DNA methylation reporter, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen in human embryonic stem cells to discover DNA methylation regulators. The top screen hit was an uncharacterized gene, QSER1, which proved to be a key guardian of bivalent promoters and poised enhancers of developmental genes, especially those residing in D...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 8, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Dixon, G., Pan, H., Yang, D., Rosen, B. P., Jashari, T., Verma, N., Pulecio, J., Caspi, I., Lee, K., Stransky, S., Glezer, A., Liu, C., Rivas, M., Kumar, R., Lan, Y., Torregroza, I., He, C., Sidoli, S., Evans, T., Elemento, O., Huangfu, D. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Structure and dynamics of the CGRP receptor in apo and peptide-bound forms
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of information transmission between cells and organs. Despite this, we have only a limited understanding of the behavior of GPCRs in the apo state and the conformational changes upon agonist binding that lead to G protein recruitment and activation. We expressed and purified unmodified apo and peptide-bound calcitonin gene–related peptide (CGRP) receptors from insect cells to determine their cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures, and we complemented these with analysis of protein conformational dynamics using hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass s...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 8, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Josephs, T. M., Belousoff, M. J., Liang, Y.-L., Piper, S. J., Cao, J., Garama, D. J., Leach, K., Gregory, K. J., Christopoulos, A., Hay, D. L., Danev, R., Wootten, D., Sexton, P. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Targeting microRNAs could unmask hidden vulnerability in breast cancer stem cells
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in Italy have identified a pair of microRNA molecules that help maintain a population of cancerous stem cells that drive the growth of breast cancers and initiate tumor relapse after treatment. The study, which will be published April 2 in the Journal of Cell Biology (JCB), reveals that targeting these microRNAs makes cancer stem cells more susceptible to some chemotherapies and could potentially improve the prognosis of patients with aggressive forms of breast cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 2, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

USC Stem Cell study identifies molecular 'switch' that turns precursors into kidney cells
(Keck School of Medicine of USC) Kidney development is a balancing act between the self-renewal of stem and progenitor cells to maintain and expand their numbers, and the differentiation of these cells into more specialized cell types. In a new study from the Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, a team of scientists demonstrates the importance of a molecule calledβ-catenin in striking this balance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Optogenetics: Light regulates an enzyme
(University of W ü rzburg) New tool for cell biology: W ü rzburg researchers have developed a light sensor with an enzyme function that can be switched on and off with different light colours. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 29, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Cell cycle regulation
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hines, P. J. Tags: Botany, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

WAVE-ing T cell activation off
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Scanlon, S. T. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology twis Source Type: news

Laser-controlled receptor clustering
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Molecular mechanism of cytokinin-activated cell division in Arabidopsis
Mitogens trigger cell division in animals. In plants, cytokinins, a group of phytohormones derived from adenine, stimulate cell proliferation. Cytokinin signaling is initiated by membrane-associated histidine kinase receptors and transduced through a phosphorelay system. We show that in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM), cytokinin regulates cell division by promoting nuclear shuttling of Myb-domain protein 3R4 (MYB3R4), a transcription factor that activates mitotic gene expression. Newly synthesized MYB3R4 protein resides predominantly in the cytoplasm. At the G2-to-M transition, rapid nuclear accumulation of MYB...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yang, W., Cortijo, S., Korsbo, N., Roszak, P., Schiessl, K., Gurzadyan, A., Wightman, R., Jönsson, H., Meyerowitz, E. Tags: Botany, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news

WAVE2 suppresses mTOR activation to maintain T cell homeostasis and prevent autoimmunity
Cytoskeletal regulatory protein dysfunction has been etiologically linked to inherited diseases associated with immunodeficiency and autoimmunity, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Here, we show that conditional Wave2 ablation in T cells causes severe autoimmunity associated with increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and metabolic reprogramming that engender spontaneous activation and accelerated differentiation of peripheral T cells. These mice also manifest diminished antigen-specific T cell responses associated with increased inhibitory receptor expression, dysregulated mitocho...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Liu, M., Zhang, J., Pinder, B. D., Liu, Q., Wang, D., Yao, H., Gao, Y., Toker, A., Gao, J., Peterson, A., Qu, J., Siminovitch, K. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Immunology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Photoinduced receptor confinement drives ligand-independent GPCR signaling
Cell-cell communication relies on the assembly of receptor-ligand complexes at the plasma membrane. The spatiotemporal receptor organization has a pivotal role in evoking cellular responses. We studied the clustering of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) and established a photoinstructive matrix with ultrasmall lock-and-key interaction pairs to control lateral membrane organization of hormone neuropeptide Y2 receptors in living cells by light. Within seconds, receptor clustering was modulated in size, location, and density. After in situ confinement, changes ...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Sanchez, M. F., Els-Heindl, S., Beck-Sickinger, A. G., Wieneke, R., Tampe, R. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Key human embryo stage mimicked in the lab
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Leslie, M. Tags: Cell Biology, Development In Depth Source Type: news

Biologists revel in pinpointing active genes in tissue samples
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Pennisi, E. Tags: Cell Biology In Depth Source Type: news

The ISSCR launches new digital scientific series on computational stem cell biology
(International Society for Stem Cell Research) The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) is launching a new three-part digital series on Computational Stem Cell Biology starting 15 March, 2021. This series is part of the Society's growing portfolio of topic-specific digital scientific programming for members - also offered to non-members for fee. All ISSCR Digital programs are available live and on-demand. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - March 12, 2021 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Another way for GPCRs to signal
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 11, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ray, L. B. Tags: Cell Biology twis Source Type: news

Transitioning lung for postnatal life
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 11, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Development twis Source Type: news

Noncanonical scaffolding of G{alpha}i and {beta}-arrestin by G protein-coupled receptors
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are common drug targets and canonically couple to specific Gα protein subtypes and β-arrestin adaptor proteins. G protein–mediated signaling and β-arrestin–mediated signaling have been considered separable. We show here that GPCRs promote a direct interaction between Gαi protein subtype family members and β-arrestins regardless of their canonical Gα protein subtype coupling. Gαi:β-arrestin complexes bound extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK), and their disr...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 11, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Smith, J. S., Pack, T. F., Inoue, A., Lee, C., Zheng, K., Choi, I., Eiger, D. S., Warman, A., Xiong, X., Ma, Z., Viswanathan, G., Levitan, I. M., Rochelle, L. K., Staus, D. P., Snyder, J. C., Kahsai, A. W., Caron, M. G., Rajagopal, S. Tags: Cell Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Genomic, epigenomic, and biophysical cues controlling the emergence of the lung alveolus
The lung alveolus is the functional unit of the respiratory system required for gas exchange. During the transition to air breathing at birth, biophysical forces are thought to shape the emerging tissue niche. However, the intercellular signaling that drives these processes remains poorly understood. Applying a multimodal approach, we identified alveolar type 1 (AT1) epithelial cells as a distinct signaling hub. Lineage tracing demonstrates that AT1 progenitors align with receptive, force-exerting myofibroblasts in a spatial and temporal manner. Through single-cell chromatin accessibility and pathway expression (SCAPE) ana...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 11, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Zepp, J. A., Morley, M. P., Loebel, C., Kremp, M. M., Chaudhry, F. N., Basil, M. C., Leach, J. P., Liberti, D. C., Niethamer, T. K., Ying, Y., Jayachandran, S., Babu, A., Zhou, S., Frank, D. B., Burdick, J. A., Morrisey, E. E. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Tour the Applewhite Lab
Cell biologist Derek Applewhite gives a peek inside his laboratory at Reed College. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 9, 2021 Category: Science Tags: Videos Source Type: news

Forming the early heart
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 4, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Purnell, B. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Development twis Source Type: news

Characterization of a common progenitor pool of the epicardium and myocardium
This study provides detailed insights into the formation of early cardiac cell types, with particular relevance to the development of cell-based cardiac regenerative therapies. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - March 4, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Tyser, R. C. V., Ibarra-Soria, X., McDole, K., Arcot Jayaram, S., Godwin, J., van den Brand, T. A. H., Miranda, A. M. A., Scialdone, A., Keller, P. J., Marioni, J. C., Srinivas, S. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

New research will enhance corona safety during cruises
(Abo Akademi University) Researchers within Cell Biology and Industrial Management at Å bo Akademi University have developed models aimed at ensuring corona safety during cruises. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - March 1, 2021 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Ciliary motors locked closed by Shulin
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hurtley, S. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology twis Source Type: news

Following cancer through the body
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Zahn, L. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Shulin packages axonemal outer dynein arms for ciliary targeting
The main force generators in eukaryotic cilia and flagella are axonemal outer dynein arms (ODAs). During ciliogenesis, these ~1.8-megadalton complexes are assembled in the cytoplasm and targeted to cilia by an unknown mechanism. Here, we used the ciliate Tetrahymena to identify two factors (Q22YU3 and Q22MS1) that bind ODAs in the cytoplasm and are required for ODA delivery to cilia. Q22YU3, which we named Shulin, locked the ODA motor domains into a closed conformation and inhibited motor activity. Cryo–electron microscopy revealed how Shulin stabilized this compact form of ODAs by binding to the dynein tails. Our fi...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Mali, G. R., Ali, F. A., Lau, C. K., Begum, F., Boulanger, J., Howe, J. D., Chen, Z. A., Rappsilber, J., Skehel, M., Carter, A. P. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology r-articles Source Type: news

Liver homeostasis is maintained by midlobular zone 2 hepatocytes
The liver is organized into zones in which hepatocytes express different metabolic enzymes. The cells most responsible for liver repopulation and regeneration remain undefined, because fate mapping has only been performed on a few hepatocyte subsets. Here, 14 murine fate-mapping strains were used to systematically compare distinct subsets of hepatocytes. During homeostasis, cells from both periportal zone 1 and pericentral zone 3 contracted in number, whereas cells from midlobular zone 2 expanded in number. Cells within zone 2, which are sheltered from common injuries, also contributed to regeneration after pericentral and...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Wei, Y., Wang, Y. G., Jia, Y., Li, L., Yoon, J., Zhang, S., Wang, Z., Zhang, Y., Zhu, M., Sharma, T., Lin, Y.-H., Hsieh, M.-H., Albrecht, J. H., Le, P. T., Rosen, C. J., Wang, T., Zhu, H. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Single-cell lineages reveal the rates, routes, and drivers of metastasis in cancer xenografts
We report deeply resolved phylogenies for tens of thousands of cancer cells traced over months of growth and dissemination. This revealed stark heterogeneity in metastatic capacity, arising from preexisting and heritable differences in gene expression. We demonstrate that these identified genes can drive invasiveness and uncovered an unanticipated suppressive role for KRT17. We also show that metastases disseminated via multidirectional tissue routes and complex seeding topologies. Overall, we demonstrate the power of tracing cancer progression at subclonal resolution and vast scale. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Quinn, J. J., Jones, M. G., Okimoto, R. A., Nanjo, S., Chan, M. M., Yosef, N., Bivona, T. G., Weissman, J. S. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Tissue regeneration: Reserve or reverse?
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shivdasani, R. A., Clevers, H., de Sauvage, F. J. Tags: Cell Biology perspective Source Type: news

Organoids regenerate human bile ducts
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Kelly, P. N. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Cholangiocyte organoids can repair bile ducts after transplantation in the human liver
Organoid technology holds great promise for regenerative medicine but has not yet been applied to humans. We address this challenge using cholangiocyte organoids in the context of cholangiopathies, which represent a key reason for liver transplantation. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that primary human cholangiocytes display transcriptional diversity that is lost in organoid culture. However, cholangiocyte organoids remain plastic and resume their in vivo signatures when transplanted back in the biliary tree. We then utilize a model of cell engraftment in human livers undergoing ex vivo normothermic perfusion to...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Sampaziotis, F., Muraro, D., Tysoe, O. C., Sawiak, S., Beach, T. E., Godfrey, E. M., Upponi, S. S., Brevini, T., Wesley, B. T., Garcia-Bernardo, J., Mahbubani, K., Canu, G., Gieseck, R., Berntsen, N. L., Mulcahy, V. L., Crick, K., Fear, C., Robinson, S., Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news