Role of AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump in drug-resistance acquisition by plasmid transfer
Drug-resistance dissemination by horizontal gene transfer remains poorly understood at the cellular scale. Using live-cell microscopy, we reveal the dynamics of resistance acquisition by transfer of the Escherichia coli fertility factor–conjugation plasmid encoding the tetracycline-efflux pump TetA. The entry of the single-stranded DNA plasmid into the recipient cell is rapidly followed by complementary-strand synthesis, plasmid-gene expression, and production of TetA. In the presence of translation-inhibiting antibiotics, resistance acquisition depends on the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, because it reduces tetr...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 23, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nolivos, S., Cayron, J., Dedieu, A., Page, A., Delolme, F., Lesterlin, C. Tags: Cell Biology, Microbiology reports Source Type: news
Identification of a regeneration-organizing cell in the Xenopus tail
Unlike mammals, Xenopus laevis tadpoles have a high regenerative potential. To characterize this regenerative response, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing after tail amputation. By comparing naturally occurring regeneration-competent and -incompetent tadpoles, we identified a previously unrecognized cell type, which we term the regeneration-organizing cell (ROC). ROCs are present in the epidermis during normal tail development and specifically relocalize to the amputation plane of regeneration-competent tadpoles, forming the wound epidermis. Genetic ablation or manual removal of ROCs blocks regeneration, whereas trans...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 16, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Aztekin, C., Hiscock, T. W., Marioni, J. C., Gurdon, J. B., Simons, B. D., Jullien, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Development r-articles Source Type: news
Local protein synthesis is a ubiquitous feature of neuronal pre- and postsynaptic compartments
There is ample evidence for localization of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and protein synthesis in neuronal dendrites; however, demonstrations of these processes in presynaptic terminals are limited. We used expansion microscopy to resolve pre- and postsynaptic compartments in rodent neurons. Most presynaptic terminals in the hippocampus and forebrain contained mRNA and ribosomes. We sorted fluorescently labeled mouse brain synaptosomes and then sequenced hundreds of mRNA species present within excitatory boutons. After brief metabolic labeling,>30% of all presynaptic terminals exhibited a signal, providing evidence for ongoin...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 16, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hafner, A.-S., Donlin-Asp, P. G., Leitch, B., Herzog, E., Schuman, E. M. Tags: Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Researchers identify new therapeutic target for metastatic prostate cancer
(Rockefeller University Press) Researchers in New York have found that treating human prostate cancer cells with a drug that targets a protein called PHLPP2 may prevent the cancer cells from spreading to other organs in the body. The study, which will be published May 15 in the Journal of Cell Biology, reveals that inhibiting PHLPP2 lowered the levels of MYC, an oncogenic protein that causes many different types of cancer that cannot be targeted by conventional drug therapies. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - May 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Some Cervical Cancer Screening Strategies More Cost-Effective
TUESDAY, May 14, 2019 -- A cervical cancer screening strategy that involves cytologic testing every three years from ages 21 to 29 years and then continuing cytologic testing or switching to low-cost high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - May 14, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
Rice blast fungus study sheds new light on virulence mechanisms of plant pathogenic fungi
(American Phytopathological Society) A group of scientists at Nanjing Agricultural University and Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center examined the fungal cell biology of rice blast fungus pathogenesis and recently published the first systematic and comprehensive report on the molecular mechanism of the actin-binding protein (MoAbp1) that plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity of the fungus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Structures of the M1 and M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor/G-protein complexes
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G protein–coupled receptors that respond to acetylcholine and play important signaling roles in the nervous system. There are five muscarinic receptor subtypes (M1R to M5R), which, despite sharing a high degree of sequence identity in the transmembrane region, couple to different heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) to transmit signals. M1R, M3R, and M5R couple to the Gq/11 family, whereas M2R and M4R couple to the Gi/o family. Here, we present and compare the cryo–electron microscopy structures of M1R in complex with G11 and M2R in complex with GoA. The M1R-G1...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 9, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Maeda, S., Qu, Q., Robertson, M. J., Skiniotis, G., Kobilka, B. K. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news
New disease discovered by CU Anschutz researchers
(University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus) A new immunodeficiency disease caused by a novel genetic mutation has been identified by researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus providing unique insights into cell biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - May 6, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news
A compact synthetic pathway rewires cancer signaling to therapeutic effector release
An important goal in synthetic biology is to engineer biochemical pathways to address unsolved biomedical problems. One long-standing problem in molecular medicine is the specific identification and ablation of cancer cells. Here, we describe a method, named Rewiring of Aberrant Signaling to Effector Release (RASER), in which oncogenic ErbB receptor activity, instead of being targeted for inhibition as in existing treatments, is co-opted to trigger therapeutic programs. RASER integrates ErbB activity to specifically link oncogenic states to the execution of desired outputs. A complete mathematical model of RASER and modula...
Source: ScienceNOW - May 2, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Chung, H. K., Zou, X., Bajar, B. T., Brand, V. R., Huo, Y., Alcudia, J. F., Ferrell, J. E., Lin, M. Z. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Ana Maria Cuervo, M.D., Ph.D., Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
May 1, 2019—(BRONX, NY)—Ana Maria Cuervo, M.D., Ph.D., cell biologist and internationally recognized expert on the cellular process autophagy, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Dr. Cuervo is professor of developmental and molecular biology, of anatomy and structural biology, and of medicine, co-director of the Institute for Aging Research, and holds the Robert and Renée Belfer Chair for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases at Einstein. (Source: Einstein News)
Source: Einstein News - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Ana Maria Cuervo, M.D., Ph.D., elected to the National Academy of Sciences
(Albert Einstein College of Medicine) Ana Maria Cuervo, M.D., Ph.D., cell biologist and internationally recognized expert on the cellular process autophagy, has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Dr. Cuervo is professor of developmental and molecular biology, of anatomy and structural biology, and of medicine, co-director of the Institute for Aging Research, and holds the Robert and Ren é e Belfer Chair for the Study of Neurodegenerative Diseases at Einstein. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - May 1, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
UCLA microbiologist Patricia J. Johnson elected to National Academy of Sciences
Patricia J. Johnson, UCLA professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of her “distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.”Membership in the academy is one of the highest honors that a U.S. scientist can receive. Its members have included Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, Orville Wright and Alexander Graham Bell. The academy today announced the election of 100 new members and 25 foreign associates.“I am very honored to be include among the ranks of such distinguished scientists,” said Johnson, who has a...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - May 1, 2019 Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Added Convenience of Classifying Nodules With ThyroSeq Test? Added Convenience of Classifying Nodules With ThyroSeq Test?
Nearly equivalent thyroid nodule classifier test success seen when molecular testing performed on cytology smears, compared with samples collected into preserved solution, although results take longer.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines - April 28, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
Structure and degradation of circular RNAs regulate PKR activation in innate immunity
(Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters) In a study published in Cell, a team led by Dr. CHEN Lingling at the Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Dr. YANG Li at the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology discovered that most examined circRNAs tend to form 16-26 bp intramolecularly imperfect RNA duplexes. In addition, circRNAs preferentially bind to dsRNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) which is related to innate immunity and act as PKR inhibitors. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 25, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
The structure of a membrane adenylyl cyclase bound to an activated stimulatory G protein
Membrane-integral adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are key enzymes in mammalian heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)–dependent signal transduction, which is important in many cellular processes. Signals received by the G protein–coupled receptors are conveyed to ACs through G proteins to modulate the levels of cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Here, we describe the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the bovine membrane AC9 bound to an activated G protein αs subunit at 3.4-angstrom resolution. The structure reveals the organization of the membrane domain and helical domain that span...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Qi, C., Sorrentino, S., Medalia, O., Korkhov, V. M. Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
PAC, an evolutionarily conserved membrane protein, is a proton-activated chloride channel
Severe local acidosis causes tissue damage and pain, and is one of the hallmarks of many diseases including ischemia, cancer, and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms of the cellular response to acid are not fully understood. We performed an unbiased RNA interference screen and identified PAC (TMEM206) as being essential for the widely observed proton-activated Cl– (PAC) currents (ICl,H). Overexpression of human PAC in PAC knockout cells generated ICl,H with the same characteristics as the endogenous ones. Zebrafish PAC encodes a PAC channel with distinct properties. Knockout of mouse Pac abolished ICl,H i...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Yang, J., Chen, J., del Carmen Vitery, M., Osei-Owusu, J., Chu, J., Yu, H., Sun, S., Qiu, Z. Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Long-term functional maintenance of primary human hepatocytes in vitro
The maintenance of terminally differentiated cells, especially hepatocytes, in vitro has proven challenging. Here we demonstrated the long-term in vitro maintenance of primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) by modulating cell signaling pathways with a combination of five chemicals (5C). 5C-cultured PHHs showed global gene expression profiles and hepatocyte-specific functions resembling those of freshly isolated counterparts. Furthermore, these cells efficiently recapitulated the entire course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection over 4 weeks with the production of infectious viral particles and formation of HBV covalently closed...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xiang, C., Du, Y., Meng, G., Soon Yi, L., Sun, S., Song, N., Zhang, X., Xiao, Y., Wang, J., Yi, Z., Liu, Y., Xie, B., Wu, M., Shu, J., Sun, D., Jia, J., Liang, Z., Sun, D., Huang, Y., Shi, Y., Xu, J., Lu, F., Li, C., Xiang, K., Yuan, Z., Lu, S., Deng, H. Tags: Molecular Biology reports Source Type: news
Cell competition during reprogramming gives rise to dominant clones
The ability to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from differentiated cell types has enabled researchers to engineer cell states. Although studies have identified molecular networks that reprogram cells to pluripotency, the cellular dynamics of these processes remain poorly understood. Here, by combining cellular barcoding, mathematical modeling, and lineage tracing approaches, we demonstrate that reprogramming dynamics in heterogeneous populations are driven by dominant "elite" clones. Clones arise a priori from a population of poised mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Wnt1-expressing cells that may r...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shakiba, N., Fahmy, A., Jayakumaran, G., McGibbon, S., David, L., Trcka, D., Elbaz, J., Puri, M. C., Nagy, A., van der Kooy, D., Goyal, S., Wrana, J. L., Zandstra, P. W. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Identification of a mesenchymal progenitor cell hierarchy in adipose tissue
Metabolic health depends on the capacity of adipose tissue progenitor cells to undergo de novo adipogenesis. The cellular hierarchy and mechanisms governing adipocyte progenitor differentiation are incompletely understood. Through single-cell RNA sequence analyses, we show that the lineage hierarchy of adipocyte progenitors consists of distinct mesenchymal cell types that are present in both mouse and human adipose tissues. Cells marked by dipeptidyl peptidase–4 (DPP4)/CD26 expression are highly proliferative, multipotent progenitors. During the development of subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice, these progenitor cel...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 25, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Merrick, D., Sakers, A., Irgebay, Z., Okada, C., Calvert, C., Morley, M. P., Percec, I., Seale, P. Tags: Cell Biology, Development, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
2019 BioLegend William E. Paul Award for Excellence in Cytokine Research
(International Cytokine& Interferon Society) The ICIS has chosen Chen Dong, PhD as the recipient of the 2019 BioLegend William E Paul Award for Excellence in Cytokine Research in recognition of his transformative research in immunology, including ground-breaking discoveries in the field of T cell biology and IL-17 family cytokines. Dr. Dong's research focuses on molecular mechanisms whereby immune and inflammatory responses are normally regulated, applying this to the understanding and treatment of autoimmunity, allergy disorders and cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Overlooked molecular machine in cell nucleus may hold key to treating aggressive leukemia
(Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center) Many people fighting a very aggressive form of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) don't survive more than five years. These very sick patients are often unable to receive the only cure -- a bone marrow transplant. Now, an international team of scientists report in Nature Cell Biology on a long-overlooked part of a leukemic cell's internal machinery, where they may have found a key to treating the aggressive blood cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - April 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Comment on "Ghost cytometry"
Ota et al. (Reports, 15 June 2018, p. 1246) report using pseudo-random optical masks and a spatial-temporal transformation to perform blur-free, high–frame rate imaging of cells in flow with a high signal-to-noise ratio. They also claim sorting at rates of 3000 cells per second, based on imaging data. The experiments conducted and results reported in their study are insufficient to support these conclusions. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 18, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Di Carlo, D., Arai, F., Goda, K., Huang, T. J., Lo, Y.-H., Nitta, N., Ozeki, Y., Tsia, K., Uemura, S., Wong, K. K. Y. Tags: Cell Biology t-comment Source Type: news
Response to Comment on "Ghost cytometry"
Di Carlo et al. comment that our original results were insufficient to prove that the ghost cytometry technique is performing a morphologic analysis of cells in flow. We emphasize that the technique is primarily intended to acquire and classify morphological information of cells in a computationally efficient manner without reconstructing images. We provide additional supporting information, including images reconstructed from the compressive waveforms and a discussion of current and future throughput potentials. (Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - April 18, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Ota, S., Horisaki, R., Kawamura, Y., Ugawa, M., Sato, I., Adachi, H., Yamaguchi, S., Fujiu, K., Waki, K., Noji, H. Tags: Cell Biology t-comment Source Type: news
Princeton scientists discover an interaction that helps cancers spread to bone
(Princeton University) A Princeton-led team of researchers have discovered a factor that promotes the spread of cancers to bone, opening the way toward treatments that could mitigate cancer's ability to colonize bone. The study by Mark Esposito, Yibin Kang and colleagues appears in the April 15 issue of Nature Cell Biology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - April 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Deubiquitinase USP10 regulates Notch signaling in the endothelium
Notch signaling is a core patterning module for vascular morphogenesis that codetermines the sprouting behavior of endothelial cells (ECs). Tight quantitative and temporal control of Notch activity is essential for vascular development, yet the details of Notch regulation in ECs are incompletely understood. We found that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) interacted with the NOTCH1 intracellular domain (NICD1) to slow the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of this short-lived form of the activated NOTCH1 receptor. Accordingly, inactivation of USP10 reduced NICD1 abundance and stability and diminished Notch-induced target ge...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lim, R., Sugino, T., Nolte, H., Andrade, J., Zimmermann, B., Shi, C., Doddaballapur, A., Ong, Y. T., Wilhelm, K., Fasse, J. W. D., Ernst, A., Kaulich, M., Husnjak, K., Boettger, T., Guenther, S., Braun, T., Krüger, M., Benedito, R., Dikic, I., Pot Tags: Cell Biology reports Source Type: news
Structure and dynamics of the active human parathyroid hormone receptor-1
The parathyroid hormone receptor-1 (PTH1R) is a class B G protein–coupled receptor central to calcium homeostasis and a therapeutic target for osteoporosis and hypoparathyroidism. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of human PTH1R bound to a long-acting PTH analog and the stimulatory G protein. The bound peptide adopts an extended helix with its amino terminus inserted deeply into the receptor transmembrane domain (TMD), which leads to partial unwinding of the carboxyl terminus of transmembrane helix 6 and induces a sharp kink at the middle of this helix to allow the receptor to couple with G ...
Source: ScienceNOW - April 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Zhao, L.-H., Ma, S., Sutkeviciute, I., Shen, D.-D., Zhou, X. E., de Waal, P. W., Li, C.-Y., Kang, Y., Clark, L. J., Jean-Alphonse, F. G., White, A. D., Yang, D., Dai, A., Cai, X., Chen, J., Li, C., Jiang, Y., Watanabe, T., Gardella, T. J., Melcher, K., Wa Tags: Biochemistry, Cell Biology r-articles Source Type: news
PD-L1 IHC Expression in NSCLC Cytology Specimens PD-L1 IHC Expression in NSCLC Cytology Specimens
Are cytology specimens from patients with NSCLC adequate and reliable for PD-L1 immunohistochemical evaluation?American Journal of Clinical Pathology (Source: Medscape Critical Care Headlines)
Source: Medscape Critical Care Headlines - April 9, 2019 Category: Intensive Care Tags: Pathology & Lab Medicine Journal Article Source Type: news
AI-powered, cloud-based cervical cancer screening platform launched in China
China Maternal and Child Health Care Association and Wuhan University Landing AI Cytology Diagnostic Centre recently launched a cervical cancer screening AI cloud diagnostic platform. The platform can be accessed worldwide as of April 1, 2019 and women, especially those from countries along Belt and Road Initiative, will be able to benefit from a high-quality, low-cost cervical cancer screening services. What ’s it about (Source: mobihealthnews)
Source: mobihealthnews - April 5, 2019 Category: Information Technology Source Type: news
Lonza Establishes Custom Cell Biology Services to Offer Unique Manufacturing and Testing Capabilities
Lonza has introduced CellBio Services, a comprehensive portfolio of unique, custom solutions designed to meet specific, individual research application needs. Researchers across pharmaceutical and... (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Tags: The Scientist The Marketplace Source Type: news
Designer membraneless organelles enable codon reassignment of selected mRNAs in eukaryotes
Nature regulates interference between cellular processes—allowing more complexity of life—by confining specific functions to organelles. Inspired by this concept, we designed an artificial organelle dedicated to protein engineering. We generated a membraneless organelle to translate only one type of messenger RNA—by recruiting an RNA-targeting system, stop codon–suppression machinery, and ribosomes—by means of phase separation and spatial targeting. This enables site-specific protein engineering with a tailored noncanonical function in response to one specific codon in the entire genome only i...
Source: ScienceNOW - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Reinkemeier, C. D., Girona, G. E., Lemke, E. A. Tags: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news
Cancer immunotherapy may have a dark side
Source: ScienceNOW - March 28, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Kaiser, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Medicine, Diseases In Depth Source Type: news
Better Methods Needed to Diagnose Thyroid Neoplasm, NIFTP Better Methods Needed to Diagnose Thyroid Neoplasm, NIFTP
Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) cannot be accurately diagnosed presurgically with ﬁ ne-needle aspiration cytology, according to a new meta-analysis.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines)
Source: Medscape Hematology-Oncology Headlines - March 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Diabetes & Endocrinology News Source Type: news
Potentially Disruptive Medtech Company Wins FDA Nod for HF Therapy
One of the 16 promising medtech companies in the private sector, as named in a Canaccord Genuity analyst report, earlier this year, has just received approval for its heart failure therapy. Impulse Dynamics noted it nabbed a nod from FDA for the Optimizer Smart System. The Orangeburg, NY-based companyâs technology delivers Cardiac Contractility Modulation (CCM). Through CGM an electrical pulse is delivered during the absolute refractory period, which is just after heart contracts. In contrast to a pacemaker or defibrillator, CCM works by modulating the strength of the heart muscle contraction rather than ...
Source: MDDI - March 23, 2019 Category: Medical Devices Authors: Omar Ford Tags: Cardiovascular Source Type: news
Moratorium for germline editing splits biologists
Source: ScienceNOW - March 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Cohen, J. Tags: Cell Biology, Scientific Community In Depth Source Type: news