Neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the giant Australian stinging tree - Gilding EK, Jami S, Deuis JR, Israel MR, Harvey PJ, Poth AG, Rehm FBH, Stow JL, Robinson SD, Yap K, Brown DL, Hamilton BR, Andersson D, Craik DJ, Vetter I, Durek T.
Stinging trees from Australasia produce remarkably persistent and painful stings upon contact of their stiff epidermal hairs, called trichomes, with mammalian skin. Dendrocnide-induced acute pain typically lasts for several hours, and intermittent painful ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - September 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Home and Consumer Product Safety Source Type: news

Comparison of clinical manifestations, treatments, and outcomes between Vespidae sting and Formicidae sting patients in the emergency department in taiwan - Lin YY, Chiu CC, Chang HA, Kao YH, Hsiao PJ, Chuu CP.
BACKGROUND: Hymenopteran stings are the most common animal insult injury encountered in the emergency department. With increasing global spread of imported fire ants in recent decades, the rate of Formicidae assault has become a serious problem in many cou... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - August 31, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Non-Human Animals and Insects Source Type: news

A Strange Rash Had Doctors Stumped. Was It an Insect Bite?
After what felt like a sting, a red blotch grew and darkened on his shin. And then a twin rash somehow showed up on the other leg. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - August 27, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Lisa Sanders, M.D. Tags: Antibiotics Skin Insects Source Type: news

Envenomation by Trachinus draco and pain management - Gulen M, Sari S.
We report a case of a 42-y-old female patient who sustained a sting to the neck from a Trachinus draco fish. She subsequently developed complications including arytenoid membrane edema secondary to either the local anesthetic agent administered to the woun... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - August 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Non-Human Animals and Insects Source Type: news

Unleashing the immune system's 'STING' against cancer
(Scripps Research Institute) Scientists at Scripps Research have discovered a molecule that can activate a natural immune-boosting protein called STING. The findings mark a key advance in the field of oncology, as the STING protein is known for its strong antitumor properties. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - August 20, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Immunotherapy with a sting
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gajewski, T. F., Higgs, E. F. Tags: perspective Source Type: news

Targeting STING for cancer therapy
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kelly, P. N. Tags: Medicine, Diseases twis Source Type: news

Antitumor activity of a systemic STING-activating non-nucleotide cGAMP mimetic
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) links innate immunity to biological processes ranging from antitumor immunity to microbiome homeostasis. Mechanistic understanding of the anticancer potential for STING receptor activation is currently limited by metabolic instability of the natural cyclic dinucleotide (CDN) ligands. From a pathway-targeted cell-based screen, we identified a non-nucleotide, small-molecule STING agonist, termed SR-717, that demonstrates broad interspecies and interallelic specificity. A 1.8-angstrom cocrystal structure revealed that SR-717 functions as a direct cyclic guanosine monophosphate–aden...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Chin, E. N., Yu, C., Vartabedian, V. F., Jia, Y., Kumar, M., Gamo, A. M., Vernier, W., Ali, S. H., Kissai, M., Lazar, D. C., Nguyen, N., Pereira, L. E., Benish, B., Woods, A. K., Joseph, S. B., Chu, A., Johnson, K. A., Sander, P. N., Martinez-Pena, F., Ha Tags: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases reports Source Type: news

An orally available non-nucleotide STING agonist with antitumor activity
Pharmacological activation of the STING (stimulator of interferon genes)–controlled innate immune pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Here we report the identification of MSA-2, an orally available non-nucleotide human STING agonist. In syngeneic mouse tumor models, subcutaneous and oral MSA-2 regimens were well tolerated and stimulated interferon-β secretion in tumors, induced tumor regression with durable antitumor immunity, and synergized with anti–PD-1 therapy. Experimental and theoretical analyses showed that MSA-2 exists as interconverting monomers and dimers in solution, but only...
Source: ScienceNOW - August 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Pan, B.-S., Perera, S. A., Piesvaux, J. A., Presland, J. P., Schroeder, G. K., Cumming, J. N., Trotter, B. W., Altman, M. D., Buevich, A. V., Cash, B., Cemerski, S., Chang, W., Chen, Y., Dandliker, P. J., Feng, G., Haidle, A., Henderson, T., Jewell, J., K Tags: Medicine, Diseases, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

The burden of bites and stings management: experience of an academic hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Khan A, Al-Kathiri WH, Balkhi B, Samrkandi O, Al-Khalifa MS, Asiri Y.
PURPOSE: The main aim of this study is to estimate the economic burden and prevalence of bites and stings injuries in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC) for all bites... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - August 17, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

Bed bug bites: The peculiar pattern on your skin that could signal you have an infestation
BED BUG bites can be hard to distinguish from other insect bites but there are some specific features. If a particular pattern has formed on your skin, you may have been bitten. (Source: Daily Express - Health)
Source: Daily Express - Health - July 22, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

👉 This dump stings the nostrils via
(Source: Reuters: Health)
Source: Reuters: Health - July 22, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Virus cases up sharply in Africa, India as inequality stings
South Africa’s confirmed coronavirus cases have doubled in two weeks to a quarter-million, and India has seen its biggest daily spike as its total passed 800,000 (Source: ABC News: Health)
Source: ABC News: Health - July 11, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news

Host cell fusion in bacteria infection alarms immune system, causing host cell destruction
(National University of Singapore, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine) NUS Medicine researchers have identified a new trigger for our immune system--abnormal fusion of host cells to form giant cells after infection by pathogens such as the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cell fusion triggered the cGAS-STING pathway, activating a type 1 interferon response which kills pathogens. In extensive cell fusion, cGAS-STING caused the giant cells to self-destruct instead. Since the DNA in the giant cells was damaged, self-destruction likely prevents these cells from becoming cancerous. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - July 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Clustering the envenoming of snakebite in India: the district level analysis using Health Management Information System data - Salve PS, Vatavati S, Hallad J.
Aim The study aims to estimate the prevalence of snakebite and deaths due to animal bites and stings in India. Methods The study used Health Management Information System data of years 2017-18 and 2018-19. Results Results estimated that 2,00,492... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - June 30, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

Kenya: Kenyans Turn to Mobile Loans as COVID Stings Domestic Budgets
[Nation] Kenyans have turned to digital loans to offset home budgets as the coronavirus scourge approaches its fourth month, a new report says. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - June 24, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: news

What Causes Pyogenic Granulomas?
Discussion Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign, vascular lesion of the skin. PGs are red, small, often pedunculated nodules that can rapidly increase in size (up to 1-2 cm). They also can often ulcerate and bleed. They frequently occur on the head and neck, with back and chest being the next most common locations but can occur in other locations. They usually are solitary and do not regress. They are seen in children (mean age 6.7 years), young adults and pregnant women (5%). Treatment is electrocautery or excision. Learning Point PG’s cause is not fully understood. A gene has recently been identified with PG sugge...
Source: - June 15, 2020 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

Arthropod assault: a case report of brown recluse envenomation in a training environment - Merrill DR, Long B.
Spider bites are a common emergency department complaint, accounting for ~21% of noncanine bites, injuries, and stings. Military service members, more so than most civilian personnel, are exposed to conditions that place them at increased risk for envenoma... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - June 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Non-Human Animals and Insects Source Type: news

Ronald Reagan ’s Secret Cancer Cure
There’s no faster way to purify your body of viruses, bacteria and fungi — and at the same time ramp up your immune system — than a 125-year-old “cure” banned by the FDA. I’m talking about ozone therapy — and it’s not just good for cleansing your body. You see, ozone — a special “energized” kind of oxygen — can help heal almost any condition. Despite being banned by the FDA back in the 1940s, after more than 60 years of successful use, ozone therapy has saved millions of lives in countries where it has become a commonplace medical treatment. In count...
Source: Al Sears, MD Natural Remedies - May 12, 2020 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Dr.A.Sears Tags: Health Source Type: news

Insect Experts Say People Should Calm Down About the Threat of ‘Murder Hornets’
Insect experts say people should calm down about the big bug with the nickname “murder hornet” — unless you are a beekeeper or a honeybee. The Asian giant hornets found in Washington state that grabbed headlines this week aren’t big killers of humans, although it does happen on rare occasions. But the world’s largest hornets do decapitate entire hives of honeybees, and that crucial food pollinator is already in big trouble. Numerous bug experts told The Associated Press that what they call hornet “hype” reminds them of the 1970s public scare when Africanized honeybees, nicknamed &l...
Source: TIME: Science - May 7, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Seth Borenstein / AP Tags: Uncategorized Environment News Desk wire Source Type: news

National estimates of noncanine bite and sting injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments, 2011-2015 - Hareza D, Langley R, Haskell MG, King K.
This study quantifies and updates nonfatal bite and sting injuries by noncanine sources using the most recent data available (2011-2015) from the National Ele... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - May 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

First aid tips for parents: What to do when children get skin wounds
  With their fearless curiosity, your kids are bound to encounter tumbles, scrapes and other accidents on a relatively frequent basis. The resultant skin wounds are usually easy to treat at home, but occasionally a severe injury requires a trip to the doctor’s office or emergency room. As a parent, you’re the all-knowing superhero in your kids’ eyes. Keep these wound care tips in your back pocket so you know how to react when your little ones look to you for help. It’s all fun and games until they fall and get hurt. Parents should know how to care for common skin wounds. For cuts an...
Source: Advanced Tissue - May 5, 2020 Category: Dermatology Authors: AdvancedTissue Tags: Wound Care wound care products wound supplies wound care treatment healing wounds Source Type: news

Retained eyelid bee stinger: a case of secondary corneal abrasion - Davidorf OA, Ng AE, Davidorf JM.
PURPOSE: Bee sting injuries to the eye and surrounding tissue are an infrequent occurrence. Here we present an interesting Case of a 64 year old bee keeper who was stung in the left upper eyelid. OBSERVATIONS: After the injury, she developed pain and infla... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - May 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

Looks Like The U.S. Might Have 'Murder Hornets' Now
Asian giant hornets can kill people with their stings and are devastating to honey bee populations. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - May 2, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: news

The Hero Care Network Never Sleeps
This blog post was originally published on the Red Cross Central California blog. During this pandemic, military families are really feeling the sting. A lot of service members and their ... The... {This is a content summary only. Click the blog post title to continue reading this post, share your comments, browse the blog and more!} (Source: Red Cross Chat)
Source: Red Cross Chat - April 16, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: American Red Cross Tags: Military Support coronavirus COVID 19 Hero Care Network military families pandemic service members veterans Source Type: news

All Your Coronavirus Questions, Answered
One of the worst symptoms of any plague is uncertainty—who it will strike, when it will end, why it began. Merely understanding a pandemic does not stop it, but an informed public can help curb its impact and slow its spread. It can also provide a certain ease of mind in a decidedly uneasy time. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about the COVID-19 pandemic from TIME’s readers, along with the best and most current answers science can provide. A note about our sourcing: While there are many, many studies underway investigating COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-19, the novel coronavirus that causes the illn...
Source: TIME: Health - April 14, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: TIME Staff Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer Source Type: news

Explaining the emergence of entrapment in post-9/11 terrorism investigations - Norris JJ.
A growing number of studies have examined post-9/11 terrorism sting operations, typically concluding that entrapment is frequent in these cases. Yet no research has documented the full array of mechanisms driving these preemptive prosecutions. Based on in-... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 11, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news

Aloe vera, honey and more: 10 Home remedies for itchy bug bites
(Natural News) Insect bites often trigger a mildly painful and itchy skin reaction. While insect bites typically do not cause anything more than minor discomfort, they may cause severe inflammation and redness if they trigger an allergic reaction. Still, most insect bites can easily be treated at home. The following are 10 natural remedies that... (Source:
Source: - April 10, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Study redefines exi'STING' dogma of inflammatory mechanism
(Monash University) Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) researchers led by Dr. Dominic De Nardo have discovered the mechanism behind one of two signalling arms involved in the cGAS-STING pathway. Their findings, published in Cell Reports today are important for the field and have significant implications for therapeutic targeting of this pathway. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Hysteria 2020 April writing challenge with Eithne Cullen
April the first is not a joke in my household, instead it heralds the start of this year’s Hysteria Writing Competition. And this year our Writer in Residence is Eithne Cullen. Eithne has been given the challenge of coming up with a blog post each month that challenge you to get your thinking hats on and try something new out. Sometimes ideas come crashing into our heads and sometimes it’s hard to think of things to write about. When I’m stuck I turn to prompts. Each April NaPoRhiMoNet ( sends out daily prompts and starters. I tried the first one today. I must admit, I found it ha...
Source: The Hysterectomy Association - April 1, 2020 Category: OBGYN Authors: Linda Parkinson-Hardman Tags: Hysteria Writing hysteria 2020 writer in residence Source Type: news

Strip club pressured into coronavirus compliance shuts down
Bliss Showgirls, in Avocado Heights off Valley Boulevard, was closed Friday after an uncover sting showed the establishment flouting COVID-19 guidelines. (Source: L.A. Times - Health)
Source: L.A. Times - Health - March 28, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Andrew J. Campa, Richard Winton Source Type: news

FDA Bans Shock Device Used On Patients At Judge Rotenberg Center In Canton
WASHINGTON (AP) — Federal officials on Wednesday banned electrical shock devices used to discourage aggressive, self-harming behavior in patients with mental disabilities. The announcement from the Food and Drug Administration follows years of pressure from disability rights groups and mental health experts who have called the treatment outdated, ineffective and unethical. The agency first announced its intent to ban the devices in 2016. For years, the shock devices have been used by only one place in the U.S., the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center of Canton, Massachusetts, a residential school for people with autis...
Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - March 5, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Health – CBS Boston Tags: Boston News Health Canton News FDA Judge Rotenberg Center Source Type: news

Unlicensed injections recorded at undercover Botox party sting: Doctors college
B.C.'s College of Physicians and Surgeons claims an undercover sting at a Botox party has yielded evidence of unlicensed injections administered by a woman who has been a repeated target of the regulator. (Source: CBC | Health)
Source: CBC | Health - March 4, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Canada/British Columbia Source Type: news

Pulmonary surfactant-biomimetic nanoparticles potentiate heterosubtypic influenza immunity
Current influenza vaccines only confer protection against homologous viruses. We synthesized pulmonary surfactant (PS)–biomimetic liposomes encapsulating 2',3'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP), an agonist of the interferon gene inducer STING (stimulator of interferon genes). The adjuvant (PS-GAMP) vigorously augmented influenza vaccine–induced humoral and CD8+ T cell immune responses in mice by simulating the early phase of viral infection without concomitant excess inflammation. Two days after intranasal immunization with PS-GAMP–adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine, strong cross-p...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wang, J., Li, P., Yu, Y., Fu, Y., Jiang, H., Lu, M., Sun, Z., Jiang, S., Lu, L., Wu, M. X. Tags: Immunology, Microbiology, Online Only r-articles Source Type: news

Catfish Sting
Source: - February 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

'It's not worth the gamble': Wuhan coronavirus shifts Bay Area companies' plans in China
From lost wages to missed face-to-face time, Bay Area companies and their employees are feeling the sting of the outbreak of a deadly virus in China. (Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - January 30, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Brian Rinker Source Type: news

Novel DNA-Sensing Pathway Found in Human Cells, Absent in Mice
This previously unknown mechanism for spotting foreign genetic material in the cytoplasm launches antiviral defenses even when the well-known immune mediator STING is absent. (Source: The Scientist)
Source: The Scientist - January 24, 2020 Category: Science Tags: News & Opinion Source Type: news

Medical News Today: What to know about typhus
Typhus is a rare bacterial infection that people can acquire from insect bites. Discover its symptoms, risk factors, and the treatment options available. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - January 16, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Infectious Diseases / Bacteria / Viruses Source Type: news

Gambia: Fish in the Market With Strange Taste
[Foroyaa] Report has been received of families finding it difficult to eat a particular brand of fried fish due to a strange taste which stings the tongue once a person starts chewing. They have been advised to stop eating the fish and bring samples to Foroyaa for onward transmission to the NEA and those responsible for food safety. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - January 13, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Jungle-loving tour guide is left with a ring-shaped scar on his bum from a spider bite
Jérémy Schalkwijk, from Barberton, South Africa, felt a sharp sting on his buttock when he was in bed with his fiancée and initially thought he had been stung by a wasp but it was really a spider bite. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Source: the Mail online | Health - December 17, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Delayed admission and management of pediatric acute kidney injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in children with multiple wasp stings: a case series - Ambarsari CG, Sindih RM, Saraswati M, Trihono PP.
Multiple wasp stings may cause fatal complications, such as anaphylactic reactions, intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury (AKI), increased levels of liver enzymes, clotting abnormalities, or even death. AKI-related mortality due to m... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - December 16, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Infants and Children Source Type: news

Medical News Today: Kissing bug bites: Symptoms, risks, and treatments
Sustaining a kissing bug bite may lead to Chagas disease or allergic reactions. In this article, learn about the symptoms, risks, and treatments associated with kissing bug bites. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - December 7, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Bites and Stings Source Type: news

How Is Hidradenitis Suppurativa Treated?
Discussion Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a recurrent, chronic inflammatory disease of the hair follicles particularly in the apocrine gland-bearing areas of the axilla, inguinal, perianal, mammary and inframammary areas. Onset is usually after puberty, in the early 20s. It is more common in females than males. Prevalence is estimated to be 0.05- 4.1%. It can be associated with premature adrenarche, metabolic syndrome and obesity. The lesions are often pruritic, painful, and with malodorous purulent drainage. It often begins with comedomes and tender nodules, and can easily progress to painful abscesses with purulent f...
Source: - November 25, 2019 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pediatric Education Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

As new rivals snag more patients, hospitals feel the sting
Few patients want to go to the hospital, and these days there are more alternatives: A variety of outpatient centers that can handle their twisted ankles and colonoscopies. But the trend is pressuring the finances of health providers. (Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - November 22, 2019 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Carrigan Miller Source Type: news

Biochemical characterization of the venom from the Mexican scorpion Centruroides ornatus, a dangerous species to humans - Garc ía-Guerrero IA, Cárcamo-Noriega E, Gómez-Lagunas F, González-Santillán E, Zamudio FZ, Gurrola GB, Possani LD.
Every year in Mexico, around 300,000 people suffer from accidents related to scorpion stings. Among the scorpion species dangerous to human is Centruroides ornatus, whose venom characterization is described here. From this venom, a total of 114 components ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - November 19, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Non-Human Animals and Insects Source Type: news

Medical News Today: How to identify fleabites and bed bug bites
People who experience unexplained bug bites may wonder if they have fleas or bed bugs in the home. In this article, learn how to identify flea and bed bug bites, and what to do after discovering them. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 5, 2019 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Bites and Stings Source Type: news

Risk factors for severe systemic sting reactions in wasp (
This study aims to investigate potential risk factors for severe sting reactions in wasp (Vespula spp.) and honeybee (Apis mellifer... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - October 26, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Non-Human Animals and Insects Source Type: news

If the shoo fits: cows painted with zebra stripes keep flies in line
Insect bites can be significantly cut using a cunning disguise, researchers findPainting a cow to look something like a zebra has been found to reduce fly bites by 50%.Researchers believe painting stripes on to cattle is a world-first and could become an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 11, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Naaman Zhou Tags: Animals Agriculture Science Australia news Japan CSIRO Insects Farming Animal welfare Environment World news Pesticides Source Type: news

Ethics and entrapment: understanding counterterrorism stings - Field A.
This article examines domestic counterterrorism sting operations in the USA. It considers why critics consider these operations unethical and illegitimate. In particular, it looks at claims that counterterrorism sting operations have entrapped innocent peo... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - October 5, 2019 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Jurisprudence, Laws, Legislation, Policies, Rules Source Type: news