Immunogenicity of Tumor Initiating Stem Cells: Potential Applications in Novel Anticancer Therapy

Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development of vaccine based anti-cancer immunotherapy. Further investigation of TISCs and the immunosuppressive phenotype caused by the tumor microenvironment will provide opportunities to not only achieve a more comprehensive understanding of tumor biology but also develop specific medical therapies to target the weaknesses underlying tumor development and attack tumor cells in more effective ways. For example, various preclinical studies have clearly demonstrated that combination immunotherapies such as vaccines, Treg depletion, or immune checkpoint blockade, together with chemotherapy have more profound outcomes compared to conventional chemotherapy alone. Further, application of novel technologies and high-throughput platforms would be needed to identify TISC-associated neoantigens for future development of anti-cancer vaccine strategies. These TISC-associated stra...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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