Opioid vending machine opens in Vancouver
MySafe scheme for addicts aims to help reduce overdose deaths in Canadian cityA vending machine for powerful opioids has opened in Canada as part of a project to help fight the Canadian city ’s overdose crisis.The MySafe project, which resembles a cash machine, gives addicts access to a prescribed amount of medical quality hydromorphone, a drug about twice as powerful as heroin.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 17, 2020 Category: Science Authors: William Turvill in Vancouver Tags: Drugs Opioids Canada Americas World news Science Society Drugs trade Source Type: news

'I lost my left ear to my tanning addiction'
Anthea Smith tells the BBC's Laura Mcmullan, who also had skin cancer, that she used sunbeds for years. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition - February 17, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Lsd overdoses: three case reports - Haden M, Woods B.
OBJECTIVE: In academic settings around the world, there is a resurgence of interest in using psychedelic substances for the treatment of addictions, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and other diagnoses. This case series describes the med... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 15, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

How Juul gets kids addicted to vaping: it's even worse than you think | Nancy Jo Sales
Massachusetts is suing the e-cigarette company for its predatory ads to children. Hopefully other states will follow suitWhen youread the lawsuit brought yesterday by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts against Juul Labs, claiming the e-cigarette company aggressively marketed its product to children and teens, you wonder if anyone at Juul ever thought to ask: “Gee, do you think anybody will find this marketing strategy unseemly?” Or even: “Do you think we could go to hell for this?”Related:Lungs damaged by smoking can heal – studyContinue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 14, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Nancy Jo Sales Tags: E-cigarettes Health Smoking Society Science US news World news Source Type: news

Portland addiction treatment startup ready to go national with Blue Cross partnership
Boulder Care is taking buprenorphine to underserved areas, with ambitious growth plans. (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - February 13, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: news

Portland addiction treatment startup ready to go national with Blue Cross partnership
Boulder Care is taking buprenorphine to underserved areas, with ambitious growth plans. (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - February 13, 2020 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: news

More than half of US opioid prescriptions for dental procedures exceeded 3-day supply recommendations from CDC 2016 guidelines
New largescale study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine found overprescription of opioids by dentists common, particularly to patients at high risk for substance abuse, and that almost 1/3 of patients received more powerful drugs than neededElsevierIMAGE: In this cross-sectional analysis of 542,958 dental visits by adult patients, between 1 in 4 and 1 in 2 opioid prescriptions exceeded the recommended morphine equivalents and days'supply for...viewmore Credit: Michelle S. Woods Ann Arbor, February 4, 2020 - Dentists are among top prescribers of opioids in the US, however, whether their opioid prescrib...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - February 13, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: news

Indivior shares plunge as it warns of loss this year
US charges over opioid addiction treatment could have ‘material impact’ while generics take share (Source: FT.com - Drugs and Healthcare)
Source: FT.com - Drugs and Healthcare - February 13, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news

Attachment style, early childhood trauma, alexithymia, and dissociation among persons addicted to alcohol: structural equation model of dependencies - Zdankiewicz- Ścigała E, Scigała DK.
AIM: Attachment theory is a broadly used paradigm for understanding human affective development. It is recognized that alexithymia is a key factor responsible for the non-adaptive strategies of regulating emotions in people addicted to alcohol. In addition... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news

To thine own self, be true: Examining change in self-reported alcohol measures over time as related to socially desirable responding bias among people with unhealthy alcohol use - Schell C, Godinho A, Cunningham JA.
Background: Due to a conscious or unconscious desire to be perceived favorably by others, some participants may under or overexaggerate when reporting sensitive behaviors or attitudes, including those related to addictions. This socially desirable r... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 13, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

From Alcohol to Opioids, Can Doctors Successfully Treat Addiction? From Alcohol to Opioids, Can Doctors Successfully Treat Addiction?
Drug overdoses, especially those involving opioid analgesics, are on the rise. Psychiatrist Lloyd Sederer talks to Medscape about which addiction treatment strategies work.Columbia University Psychiatry (Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines)
Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines - February 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Expert Interview Source Type: news

Bright idea in dentist's office leads to innovative smoking cessation project
Results from this study recently published online in Addiction found primary care physicians providing smokers with a free, two week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increased quit attempts While sitting in the dentist's office, Hollings Cancer Center researcher Matthew Carpenter, Ph.D., of the Medical University of South Carolina, had a bright idea. As he received his goody bag with dental hygiene products, he wondered why not conduct a study and have primary care providers do the same thing for their patients who use tobacco. The bags would contain educational material, free lozenges and tobacco cessati...
Source: Dental Technology Blog - February 12, 2020 Category: Dentistry Source Type: news

The real problem with your Netflix addiction? The carbon emissions | Arwa Mahdawi
Streaming services are responsible for massive energy consumption. We must all pay more attention to our digital footprintBinge-watching Netflix doesn ’t just fry your brain; it may also be frying the planet. The streaming service’s global energy consumption increased by 84% in 2019 to a total of 451,000 megawatt hours – enough to power 40,000 average US homes for a year.Netflix disclosed these figures in its inauguralenvironmental,social andgovernancereport, noting it matched 100% of its 2019 non-renewable power use “with renewable energy certificates and carbon offsets”. While these may help...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 12, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Arwa Mahdawi Tags: Music streaming Netflix Media Climate change Science Environment TV streaming Source Type: news

"Soupman" feeding the homeless one meal at a time
After Peter Kelleher's son died, homeless and addicted to opioids, he decided to give back. He started marking soup for the homeless, before expanding his outreach. Norah O'Donnell shares his story. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - February 12, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

New Hampshire families battle opioid epidemic
The opioid epidemic plaguing the country is hitting New Hampshire especially hard as one of the top five states most affected. The issue has become a top priority for Democratic primary candidates visiting rehab clinics across the state, though for many families, the damage is already done. Major Garrett speaks to members of the Wilson family, who dealt with several generations of drug addiction for the CBS News series Every State Has A Story. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - February 12, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Inside one New Hampshire family's battle with opioid addiction
The Wilson family has been struggling with drug abuse spanning generations, and according to 64-year-old Paula Wilson, "the cycle of addiction is strong." (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - February 11, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Musical instrument program gives people second chance after addiction
A program in Kentucky is teaching people who have struggled with addiction how to make musical instruments. It's helping them on their road to recovery. Don Dahler explains. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - February 11, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

The Marketing of Stimulants for Children With A.D.H.D.
Doctors must balance patients ’ needs, parents’ concerns, pressure from pharmaceutical representatives and challenges from insurance companies. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 10, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Perri Klass, M.D. Tags: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) Children and Childhood Addiction (Psychology) Advertising and Marketing Doctors Insurance Source Type: news

Why small changes to the language around addiction are so enormously important
Language has a lot of power, and labelling people as 'addicts' lowers self-esteem, adds to social isolation, and can prevent people from getting needed care, writes Dr. Laura MacKinnon. (Source: CBC | Health)
Source: CBC | Health - February 9, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: News/Opinion Source Type: news

Addiction and suicide: a review - Yuodelis-Flores C, Ries RK.
(Reprinted with permission from The American Journal on Addictions 24: 98-104, 2015).Copyright © 2019 by the American Psychiatric Association. Background: Addiction specialists frequently find themselves faced with suicidal behavior i... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 8, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

Prescription drugs and the US workforce: results from a National Safety Council survey - Abd-Elsayed A, Fischer M, Dimbert J, Fiala KJ.
BACKGROUND: The cost of chronic pain in the United States is extremely high. Opioids are one of the most common medications prescribed for the treatment of chronic pain, and their misuse and addiction have been of concern. It has been found that opioids ar... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

Bright idea in dentist's office leads to innovative smoking cessation project
(Medical University of South Carolina) Results from this study, recently published online in Addiction, found providing smokers with a free, two week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) increased quit attempts, use of stop smoking medications, and smoking abstinence as compared with standard care in a primary care setting. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - February 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

Neurobiological mechanisms involved in the loss of control in a study in mice revealed
(Universitat Pompeu Fabra - Barcelona) The study conducted in rodents reveals a specific mechanism in this crucial cortical circuit for food addiction that involves a loss of control over intake. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science - February 7, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Improved Access to Opioid Addiction Treatment Bypasses Some Communities Improved Access to Opioid Addiction Treatment Bypasses Some Communities
Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - February 6, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Psychiatry News Source Type: news

Nonprofit begins construction on family advocacy center in Kettering
Ohio's first newborn recovery center began construction this week on an expansion project in Kettering. Brigid's Path is launching a new family advocacy center to expand services and offerings for families impacted by addiction. The center, which is being constructed by Troy-based Brackett Builders, will occupy space in one of four original nurseries at the facility. The new center will provide on- site laundry machines, showers and a full kitchen for moms and families to use while their infants… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - February 6, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: John Bush Source Type: news

‘It’s Insidious’: How Juul Pitched E-Cigs to Native American Tribes
New Congressional documents reveal that e-cigarette maker Juul Labs pitched its products to at least eight Native American tribes, in a move tribal health advocates say is as disturbing as it is expected. “I always suspected that the targeting of tribes was more pervasive than we knew,” says Rae O’Leary, a public health analyst who founded the anti-tobacco Canli Coalition of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe (CRST) and in July testified before Congress about Juul’s outreach to the CRST. “It’s saddening. The tobacco industry and the e-cigarette industry see us as a vulnerable population, one...
Source: TIME: Health - February 6, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Jamie Ducharme Tags: Uncategorized E-Cigarettes public health Source Type: news

In Memoriam: Richard Veech, M.D., Ph.D.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism sadly announces the death of Richard L. Veech, MD, DPhil, Chief of the NIAAA Laboratory of Metabolic Control. Dr. Veech joined NIH after earning his bachelor ’s and medical degrees at Harvard and his DPhil at Oxford under the tutelage of Hans Krebs. While in the process of completing his graduate work at Oxford and planning his start at NIH, he survived the crash of a commercial airliner wherein most passengers and crew were killed. (Source: NIAAA News)
Source: NIAAA News - February 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Katherine Source Type: news

In Memoriam: Dr. Richard Veech
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism sadly announces the death of Richard L. Veech, MD, DPhil, Chief of the NIAAA Laboratory of Metabolic Control. Dr. Veech joined NIH after earning his bachelor ’s and medical degrees at Harvard and his DPhil at Oxford under the tutelage of Hans Krebs. While in the process of completing his graduate work at Oxford and planning his start at NIH, he survived the crash of a commercial airliner wherein most passengers and crew were killed. (Source: NIAAA News)
Source: NIAAA News - February 6, 2020 Category: Addiction Authors: Katherine Source Type: news

A neuroeconomic investigation of
Background and objectives: Although approaches combining behavioral genetics and neuroeconomics have advanced models of addiction, no study has synthesized these methods to elucidate mechanisms of competing risk-approachand risk-avoidance in social ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news

Religious, moral beliefs may exacerbate concerns about porn addiction
(American Psychological Association) Moral or religious beliefs may lead some people to believe they are addicted to pornography even when their porn use is low or average, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 6, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Can Alexa, Other Virtual Assistants, Help With Addiction? Can Alexa, Other Virtual Assistants, Help With Addiction?
That smart device sitting in your den can play music and pull up recipes. But a team of California researchers says these virtual assistants also have the potential to help individuals fight addiction.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines)
Source: Medscape Psychiatry Headlines - February 5, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry News Source Type: news

Can Alexa, Other Virtual Assistants Help With Addiction? Can Alexa, Other Virtual Assistants Help With Addiction?
That smart device sitting in your den can play music and pull up recipes. But a team of California researchers says these virtual assistants also have the potential to help individuals fight addiction.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape FamilyMedicine Headlines)
Source: Medscape FamilyMedicine Headlines - February 5, 2020 Category: Primary Care Tags: Psychiatry News Source Type: news

A Fake Pharmacist, 745,000 Prescriptions and a $7.5 Million Settlement
For over a decade, Kim Thien Le handled hundreds of thousands of prescriptions without a license, including many for highly addictive opioids like oxycodone, prosecutors in California have said. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 5, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Mihir Zaveri Tags: Drugstores Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) Opioids and Opiates Labor and Jobs Suits and Litigation (Civil) Walgreen Co. California Consumer Protection Santa Clara County (Calif) San Francisco Bay Area (Calif) Le, Kim Thien Source Type: news

The analysis of self-mutilation in adolescence based on the theory of mentalization: from Sukhvinder in the novel 'Casual vacancy' - Oh MA, Park C, Lee YJ, Hong M, Han JH, Oh SH, Park JH, Bahn GH.
Objectives: Adolescence involves a number of developmental processes, as well as unique psychological characteristics and behaviors. An increased rate of internet and game addictions, school violence, and suicide may either represent aspects of adolescenc... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news

Addiction is a brain disease, and it doesn't matter: prior choice in drug use blocks leniency in criminal punishment - Sinclair-House N, Child JJ, Crombag HS.
Our aim was to explore how (neuro)scientific understanding of addiction as a brain-disease impacts criminal sentencing decisions in courts in England and Wales, where legal rules concerning intoxication, prior-fault and mental disease conflict, and sentenc... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

Re-engineered plant compound treats opioid addiction in mice
(American Chemical Society) The abuse of prescription and illegal opioids, such as morphine and heroin, is a major problem in the US, with devastating public health, economic and social consequences. That's why scientists are searching for new medicines to help break the cycle of addiction. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Medicinal Chemistry have re-engineered the structure of vincamine, a plant-derived compound, so that it reduces morphine-seeking behaviors in mice.   (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 5, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Drug approval bodies must tighten rules on conflicts of interest
Speakers ’ conflict of interest raised likelihood of them giving positive testimony about a new drug Related items fromOnMedica Philip Morris knew nicotine is just one part of smoking addiction BMJ report questions swine flu jab transparency Clinicians need better options if we are to stop over-medication ‘Patent to patient’ time is too long and rising for cancer meds Hunt announces Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Source: OnMedica Latest News - February 5, 2020 Category: UK Health Source Type: news

Walgreens Will Pay $7.5 Million to Settle Unlicensed-Pharmacist Claims
For over a decade, Kim Thien Le handled hundreds of thousands of prescriptions without a license, including many for highly addictive opioids like oxycodone, prosecutors in California have said. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - February 4, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Mihir Zaveri Tags: Drugstores Drugs (Pharmaceuticals) Opioids and Opiates Labor and Jobs Suits and Litigation (Civil) Walgreen Co. California Kim Thien Le Consumer Protection Santa Clara County (Calif) San Francisco Bay Area (Calif) Source Type: news

Siri and Alexa Probably Can't Help Beat Addiction
In response to 70 different help-seeking queries, the virtual assistants offered "actionable responses" only four times. The most common response was confusion, the investigators found. (Source: WebMD Health)
Source: WebMD Health - February 4, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Continuum beliefs are associated with higher problem recognition than binary beliefs among harmful drinkers without addiction experience - Morris J, Albery IP, Heather N, Moss AC.
Low problem recognition may be an important barrier to opportunities for self-change or help-seeking in harmful drinkers. Little is known about how the beliefs harmful drinkers hold about the nature and causes of alcohol problems affect problem recognition... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

Can Siri or Alexa Help You Beat Addiction? Don't Count on It
TUESDAY, Feb. 4, 2020 -- Virtual assistants like Alexa and Siri are little help for people seeking information about how to quit drinking, smoking, vaping or taking opioids, a new study finds. " Alexa can already fart on demand, why can't it and... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - February 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

South Africa: How a Town Called George Is Tackling Alcohol, Tobacco and Substance Abuse
[Daily Maverick] Something remarkable is happening. About five hours drive from Cape Town, in a town called George; alcohol, tobacco and drug addicts are coming together as activists to stop the damages caused by substances in their communities. This network of activists, social workers and healthcare practitioners have a multifaceted plan that could be the game-changer in the fight against substance use.... (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: news

South Africa: Many Countries Regulate E-Cigarettes. South Africa Should Too
[The Conversation Africa] Opinions differ on how to regulate electronic cigarettes. But dozens of countries are taking action. In Africa, Kenya already taxes these products, and South Africa is preparing to follow. E-cigarettes don't contain tobacco, which has harmful health effects. But they often contain highly addictive nicotine and have their own negative health risks. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - February 4, 2020 Category: African Health Source Type: news

Study identifies interaction site for serotonin type 3A and RIC-3 chaperone
(Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center) Serotonin type 3A is a member of the protein superfamily known as pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. When these channels don't function properly, these proteins have been linked to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia, alcohol addiction and myasthenia gravis. Michaela Jansen, Pharm.D., Ph.D., from the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center recently completed a study that provides novel insights into a protein-protein interaction that could lead to more effective treatments for these disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 4, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Eating Disorders, Exercise Addiction Go Hand in Hand: Study
MONDAY, Feb. 3, 2020 -- People with an eating disorder are much more likely to have exercise addiction than those with normal eating habits, British researchers say. They analyzed data from more than 2,100 people who took part in nine studies in... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - February 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: news

Changing delay discounting and impulsive choice: implications for addictions, prevention, and human health - Rung JM, Peck S, Hinnenkamp JE, Preston E, Madden GJ.
Delay discounting describes the tendency to devalue delayed consequences or future prospects. The degree to which an individual discounts delayed events appears trait-like in that it is stable over time and across functionally similar situations. Steeply d... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 2, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Alcohol and Other Drugs Source Type: news

Problematic social media use is associated with increased risk-aversion after negative outcomes in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task - Meshi D, Ulusoy E, Özdem-Mertens C, Grady SM, Freestone DM, Eden A, Ellithorpe ME.
Around the world, people display maladaptive, problematic use of online social networking sites (SNSs), like Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram. The symptoms of this problematic SNS use are similar to symptoms of substance use and behavioral addictive disor... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 1, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news

Teen who received double lung transplant shares warning
A Michigan teenager who received what ’s believed to be the first double lung transplant shares a warning for people addicted to vaping, including his own brother. 17-year-old Daniel Ament tells Dean Reynolds why he feels lucky to be alive. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Source: Health News: CBSNews.com - February 1, 2020 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

New Tool Empowers Local Leaders to Take Action Against Rural Drug Addiction
The Office of National Drug Control Policy announced the release of the Community Assessment tool to assist rural communities in taking action against drug addiction in rural America. Includes information on the Rural Community Action Guide, which complements the tool and provides additional resources. (Source: News stories via the Rural Assistance Center)
Source: News stories via the Rural Assistance Center - January 31, 2020 Category: Rural Health Source Type: news

If You Need Help With Addiction, Don ’t Count On Alexa Or Siri
With addiction still resulting in countless deaths in the U.S., can an intelligent virtual assistant (IVA) such as Alexa or Siri provide effective help to reach critical resources to assist you? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - January 31, 2020 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Robert Glatter, MD, Contributor Source Type: news