Toxoplasma gondii: CD8 T Cells Cry for CD4 Help
Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total eradication of parasites and the pathogen persists in a chronic state (Bhadra et al., 2011c). Studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that during chronic toxoplasmosis CD8 T cells exhibit increased expression of inhibitory receptors, especially PD-1 that leads to their dysfunction/exhaustion (Bhadra et al., 2011c). In more recent studies, we have demonstrated that CD8 T cell dysfunction is a sequelae of CD4 T cell dysfunction mediated by increased expression of the transcription factor BLIMP-1 (Hwang et al., 2016) In very recent and studies from our laboratory, we observed an increased expression of microRNA146a by antigen-specific CD4 T cells from T. gondii (Figure 1), infected animals at the time point at which elevated BLIMP-1 expression in these cells is noted. It will be very interesting and important to determine if there is a BLIMP-1/miR146a a...
The rate at which suicide and mental health challenges are plaguing our society tells me it ’s time for business leaders to reinvest in rebuilding our human infrastructure, writes Kevin McCain.
ConclusionThere is no association between early initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy and post-operative complications including wound healing. Early initiation of chemotherapy ( ≤ 7 days) is feasible in unilateral WT or high-risk neuroblastoma patients who are otherwise doing well without resulting in a preponderance of wound healing complications.
ConclusionThe national birth prevalence for omphalocele in Sweden is 1/10,000 newborn, with high termination rates. Over half of the pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed omphalocele will be terminated. Among those who continue the pregnancy, 1-year survival rates are high.Type of studyNational register studyLevel of evidenceIII.
Sad case here: Suicide [Naturopathic "Doctor"] Young woman with suicidal thoughts. Takes her husband's gun, holds it to her head. Tells family, they try to help her but she is resistant to hospitalization. Sees a naturopathic doctor, apparently there was no screening for suicidality. Dies by suicide several weeks later. Husband sues multiple providers (psychiatrist who had seen her months before, social worker, naturopathic doctor). Everyone eventually ends up settling.
A new"rapid expert consultation" has identified"actionable guidance" that state and local decision-makers can use to communicate with the public.Medscape Medical News
At Legacy, fewer than 500 employees are not vaccinated.
Puerto Rico's rate tops all states and territories. One expert thinks it may in large part be due to not tying vaccine beliefs to politics.Medscape Medical News
As the COVID-19 vaccine heads toward approval for children under age 12 years, the number of older children receiving it dropped for the 10th consecutive week.Medscape Medical News
We present a case of an otherwise healthy 34-year-old male who developed end-stage pulmonary fibrosis following COVID-19 infection. He achieved haemodynamic stability with mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but did not show any sign of weaning off ECMO; however, he successfully underwent bilateral lung transplantation.
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