Toxoplasma gondii: CD8 T Cells Cry for CD4 Help

Conclusions Toxoplasma gondii infection induces a strong innate and adaptive immune response. While the innate immunity is important for controlling the early stages of the infection (Yarovinsky, 2014), the adaptive immunity is critical for restricting the parasite replication during the later stages (Gazzinelli et al., 1992). Amongst the adaptive immune subsets, CD8 T cells are the primary effector cells while CD4 T cells play an essential helper role to maintain long-term immunity (Casciotti et al., 2002). Notwithstanding, a robust CD8 T cell immunity induced during acute phase of infection, does not result in the total eradication of parasites and the pathogen persists in a chronic state (Bhadra et al., 2011c). Studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that during chronic toxoplasmosis CD8 T cells exhibit increased expression of inhibitory receptors, especially PD-1 that leads to their dysfunction/exhaustion (Bhadra et al., 2011c). In more recent studies, we have demonstrated that CD8 T cell dysfunction is a sequelae of CD4 T cell dysfunction mediated by increased expression of the transcription factor BLIMP-1 (Hwang et al., 2016) In very recent and studies from our laboratory, we observed an increased expression of microRNA146a by antigen-specific CD4 T cells from T. gondii (Figure 1), infected animals at the time point at which elevated BLIMP-1 expression in these cells is noted. It will be very interesting and important to determine if there is a BLIMP-1/miR146a a...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Eduardo Fernandez-Rebollo, Julia Franzen, Roman Goetzke, Jonathan Hollmann, Alina Ostrowska, Matteo Oliverio, Torsten Sieben, Björn Rath, Jan-Wilhelm Kornfeld, Wolfgang WagnerSummaryLong-term culture of primary cells is characterized by functional and secretory changes, which ultimately result in replicative senescence. It is largely unclear how the metabolome of cells changes during replicative senescence and if such changes are consistent across different cell types. We have directly compared culture expansion of primary mesenchyma...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2020Source: Journal of the American Society of CytopathologyAuthor(s): Haiyan Lu, Tarik M. Elsheikh, Yaxia ZhangBackfroundPolyoma virus cytopathic effect (BK-CPE) is classified as “Negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC)” in the Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS). However, polyomaviruses have been historically associated with tumor development and recently reported as an independent risk factor for renourinary carcinoma in transplant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between polyomavirus infection in the ...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Hospitalization or death was not influenced by the type of RO, Al accumulation, or TMV classification. An elevated prevalence of osteoporosis and Al accumulation was detected. PMID: 31967202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: J Bras Nefrol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: There is a great variability of mutations associated with resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs that have been reported in Peru, and they are systematized in this report. These mutations must be taken into account for the development of diagnostic devices or selection of diagnostic tests to be applied in our country. PMID: 31967255 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: . According to ENDES 2017, Peru and none of its regions achieved 95.0% coverage for the first and booster doses. Growth and development monitoring in public sector facilities is associated with measles vaccination in terms of first and booster doses. PMID: 31967252 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS.: One out of two Venezuelan migrants in Peru presents NUHCF. Having SIS increases the likelihood of Venezuelan migrants in Peruvian territory seeking medical attention. Increasing public health insurance for this population, which is currently low, could increase the utilization of health services. PMID: 31967249 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista Peruana de Medicina de Experimental y Salud Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica Source Type: research
Authors: Lancellotti P, De Pauw M, Claeys M Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer represent the two main causes of death in industrialised countries. Both share common risk factors (diabetes, obesity, hypertension, diet, smoking, etc.). The associated timing of CVD and cancer onset is thus largely influenced by modifiable risk factors. Advances in cancer treatment have extended the lives of patients with cancer, but for some at the cost of adverse cardiovascular events. The rapidly growing number of patients surviving cancer, often in the setting of advanced age, new or pre-existing CV disease and risk f...
Source: Acta Cardiologica - Category: Cardiology Tags: Acta Cardiol Source Type: research
Authors: Acar RD, Acar Ş, Doğan C, Bayram Z, Karaduman A, Uysal S, Akbal ÖY, Hakgör A, Kaymaz C, Özdemir N Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion/pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP) ratio and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in patients with advanced heart failure. METHODS: A total of 103 patients with advanced heart failure evaluated for candidacy for heart transplantation were included in this study. TAPSE was measured by M‑mode echocardiography and cardiac catheteri...
Source: Herz - Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research
Structured light illumination is an active three-dimensional scanning technique that uses a projector and camera pair to project and ...
Source: Applied Optics - Category: Physics Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTo investigate the prevalence of different patterns of cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) morphology under swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). One hundred extracted human teeth were used consisting of incisors, premolars, and molars. Each sample was observed for every 500  μm circumferentially along CEJ and OCT images of the pattern were noted. Microscopic observations were done for the representative sample using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The OCT images exhibited four CEJ patterns: edge-to-edge (type I), exposed dentin (type II), cement...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research
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