Toxoplasma Effector GRA15-Dependent Suppression of IFN- γ-Induced Antiparasitic Response in Human Neurons

Toxoplasma Effector GRA15-Dependent Suppression of IFN-γ-Induced Antiparasitic Response in Human Neurons Hironori Bando1,2, Youngae Lee1,2, Naoya Sakaguchi1, Ariel Pradipta1, Ryoma Sakamoto1, Shun Tanaka1, Ji Su Ma1,2, Miwa Sasai1,2 and Masahiro Yamamoto1,2* 1Department of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Suita, Japan 2Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan Toxoplasma gondii is an important human and animal pathogen that causes life-threatening toxoplasmosis. The host immune system produces interferon-γ (IFN-γ) to inhibit T. gondii proliferation. IFN-γ-inducible indole-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1), which mediates tryptophan degradation, has a major role in anti-T. gondii immune responses in various human cells. In response to the host's immune system, T. gondii secretes many virulence molecules into the host cells to suppress IFN-γ-dependent antiparasitic immune responses. The GRA15-induced proparasitic mechanism for suppressing IDO1-dependent immune responses has previously been tested only in human hepatocyte and monocyte co-cultures. Thus, whether human cells other than hepatocytes contain this virulence mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that the GRA15-dependent virulence mechanism for suppressing the IDO1-dependent anti-T. gondii response operates in human neuronal cell lines and primary human neurons. Analysis of various huma...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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AbstractThe novel coronavirus outbreak induces many concerns about the management of pregnancy, as well as rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases. The very rapid spread of the infection throughout all inhabited continents leads to a fast-growing number of infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requires answers and special recommendations to the most vulnerable group of people: pregnant woman and patients on immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive treatment. A systematic literature search was performed in Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus database for studies describing COVID-19 infection in pregnant women diagnosed with rheumatic and muscul...
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Source: Der Hautarzt: Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete - Category: Dermatology Tags: Hautarzt Source Type: research
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