Absence of Neu5Gc and Presence of Anti-Neu5Gc Antibodies in Humans —An Evolutionary Perspective
Conclusions and Perspectives It is interesting that watershed events, such as the loss of Neu5Gc from the glycocalyx of human cells have occurred numerous times in many mammalian and other vertebrate species. These cases of convergent evolution represent precious opportunities for increased understanding of evolutionary processes. In some respects, Neu5Gc is an ideal self-molecule as it is “private” to vertebrates and, based on current data, has yet to be successfully mimicked by microbes. Against the background of this benefit, the loss of Neu5Gc appears paradoxical and may implicate strong selective regimes, either catastrophically caused by pathogens, or under directional sexual selection via female immunity to paternal xenoglycans. Massive genetic drift, or combinations of milder selection and founder events, can also not be excluded. More information on species expected to encounter Neu5Gc in their diets, i.e., mustelids, pinnipeds, and humans, is needed to begin answering several outstanding questions in the field: For instance, what are the potential protective functions of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in species that lack this sialic acid, especially as regards ongoing protection from cross-species infections by enveloped viruses bearing Neu5Gc on their viral envelopes? Or on the flip-side, what are the potential liabilities of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies due to autoimmunity against incorporated dietary Neu5Gc? Evolutionary events such as the ones discussed here ex...
[Nation] Kenya has an adequate supply of two syrups used to treat and prevent HIV/AIDS, the Health ministry has said, noting the stock will last until December 2019.
[Nation] About 69,000 children born to HIV-positive mothers risk getting infected due to a shortage of some antiretroviral drugs (ARVs).
[Daily Trust] Malam Umar Aminu-Imam, President, Environmental Health Officers Association of Nigeria (EHOAN) in Katsina State, has said that 13,687,500 Nigerians battled with malaria annually.
Several human polyomaviruses, including Merkel cell polyomavirus, have been isolated on the skin. Which are associated with cutaneous disease, and what do we know about their molecular mechanisms?The British Journal of Dermatology
(Wiley) Survivors of childhood brain tumors who received radiotherapy and were very young at the time of diagnosis may experience cognitive and socioeconomic burdens decades after treatment, according to a study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. Interventions such as cognitive therapies and educational and occupational services may be needed to mitigate such long-term effects.
This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using a 320-detector CT scanner with a 16 cm wide-detector combined with iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm to further reduce radiation dose when scanning the PS. METHODS: A total of 90 children who underwent CT of the PS were randomly allocated into three groups namely, (1) the experimental group using low-dose wide-detector scan (n = 30, 9±4 years); (2) low-dose helical group (n = 30, 9±4 years); and (3) pediatric conventional group (n = 30, 8±4 years). Statistical software SPSS 19.0 was used for one-way ANOVA analysis of the general data (ag...
Conclusion: Textures of the hippocampus, precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex predicted conversion from MCI to Alzheimer disease at an earlier time point and with higher accuracy than hippocampal volume. PMID: 31228173 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
More News: Academia | Allergy & Immunology | Biology | Brain | Brain Cancers | Brazil Health | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Cancer of the Uterus | Carbohydrates | Carcinoma | Cervical Cancer | Child Development | Cholera | Colorectal Cancer | Diabetes | Diets | Endocrinology | Endometrial Cancer | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Epithelial Cancer | Fish | Fruit | Gastroenteritis | Genetics | Grants | Haemophilus Influenzae (Hib) | History of Medicine | HIV AIDS | Infertility | Influenza | Israel Health | Laboratory Medicine | Legislation | Malaria | Meat | Middle East Health | Milk | Molecular Biology | Neurology | Norovirus | Nutrition | Parasitic Diseases | Parasitology | Pathology | PET Scan | Reproduction Medicine | Salmonella | Study | Sugar | Swine Flu | Training | Transplants | Typhoid | UK Health | Universities & Medical Training | University of Wisconsin | USA Health | Washington University | Women