N6-Acetyl-L-Lysine and p-Cresol as Key Metabolites in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 in Obese Patients
In conclusion, this report highlights the plasma metabolome of COVID-19 obese patients as a metabolic feature and signature to help improve clinical outcomes. We propose n6-acetyl-l-lysine and p-cresol as potential metabolic markers which warrant further investigations to better understand their involvement in different metabolic pathways in COVID-19. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Case Report: Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder With Progressive Elevation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cell Count and Protein Level Mimicking Infectious Meningomyelitis: A Diagnostic Challenge
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune-mediated idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease with a typical clinical presentation of optic neuritis, acute myelitis, and area postrema syndrome. Most NMOSD patients are seropositive for disease-specific and pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, which are key markers for the NMOSD diagnosis. Herein, we report an atypical case of a 41-year-old man who complained of intractable hiccups and vomiting at disease onset, followed by fever, headache, back pain, progressive paresthesia, and weakness of extremities later on. Magnetic resonance imaging revea...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Multimericity Amplifies the Synergy of BCR and TLR4 for B Cell Activation and Antibody Class Switching
Sustained signaling through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is thought to occur only when antigen(s) crosslink or disperse multiple BCR units, such as by multimeric antigens found on the surfaces of viruses or bacteria. B cell-intrinsic Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling synergizes with the BCR to induce and shape antibody production, hallmarked by immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) of constant heavy chains from IgM/IgD to IgG, IgA or IgE isotypes, and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of variable heavy and light chains. Full B cell differentiation is essential for protective immunity, where class switched hi...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparison of Immune Responses Elicited by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and Recombinant Protein Vaccine Candidates
In this study, we made a head-to-head comparison between an mRNA vaccine candidate and a recombinant protein vaccine we developed previously. Results demonstrated that both vaccine candidates could elicit high specific binding and neutralizing antibody titers in BALB/c mice, but with bias towards different IgG subtypes. Besides, the mRNA vaccine candidate induces higher cellular immune responses than the recombinant protein vaccine. To date, this is the first reported study to directly compare the immune responses of both arms between SARS-CoV-2 mRNA and recombinant vaccines. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Presence of Tertiary Lymphoid Structures Provides New Insight Into the Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer
ConclusionsTLS presence provides new insight into the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with BC, whereas the factors discussed limited the evidence quality of this study. We look forward to consistent methods to define and characterize TLSs, and more high-quality prospective clinical trials designed to validate the value of TLSs alone or in combination with other markers. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Synergistic Interaction of Low Salinity Stress With Vibrio Infection Causes Mass Mortalities in the Oyster by Inducing Host Microflora Imbalance and Immune Dysregulation
In this study, we performed an experiment by low salinity stress and pathogen infection with Vibrio alginolyticus to investigate their synergistic effect on the mortality of the Pacific oyster toward understanding of the interaction among environment, host, and pathogen. We showed that low salinity stress did not significantly affect proliferation and virulence of V. alginolyticus, but significantly altered microbial composition and immune response of infected oysters. Microbial community profiling by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed disrupted homeostasis of digestive bacterial microbiota with the abundance of several...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Efficacy and Safety of Probiotics for Allergic Rhinitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ConclusionsTo sum up, probiotic supplement seems to be effective in ameliorating allergic rhinitis symptoms and improving the quality of life, but there is high heterogeneity in some results after subgroup analysis and clinicians should be cautious when recommending probiotics in treating allergic rhinitis.Systematic Review Registrationhttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, PROSPERO (CRD42021242645). (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The Role of M1/M2 Macrophage Polarization in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovitis
Innate and adaptive immunity represent a harmonic counterbalanced system involved in the induction, progression, and possibly resolution of the inflammatory reaction that characterize autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the immunopathophysiological mechanisms of the ARDs are not fully clarified, they are often associated with an inappropriate macrophage/T-cell interaction, where classical (M1) or alternative (M2) macrophage activation may influence the occurrence of T-helper (Th)1 or Th2 responses. In RA patients, M1/Th1 activation occurs in an inflammatory environment domina...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Promotes Allergic Lung Inflammation by Modulating CD8 α+ Dendritic Cell Differentiation via Metabolite MEHP-PPARγ Axis
This study explored the immunomodulatory effect of DEHP on allergic lung inflammation, while particularly focusing on the impact of DEHP and its metabolite on dendritic cell differentiation and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The results showed that exposure to DEHP at a human tolerable daily intake dose exacerbated allergic lung inflammation in mice. Ex vivo flow cytometric analysis revealed that DEHP-exposed mice displayed a significantly decreased number of CD8α+ dendritic cells (DCs) in spleens and DC progenitors in the bone marrow, as well as, less interleukin-12 production in s...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes Down-Modulate CD4 Expression Reducing HIV Entry in Human Type-1 Macrophages
In this study, we found that phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes reduced the expression of the CD4 receptor in human primary type-1 macrophages but not in CD4+ T cells. The down-regulation was specific to CD4, as any effect was not observed in CCR5 membrane expression. Moreover, the reduction of membrane CD4 expression required the Ca2+-independent protein kinase C (PKC), which in turn mediated serine phosphorylation in the intracytoplasmic tail of the CD4 receptor. Serine phosphorylation of CD4 was also associated with its internalization and degradation in acidic compartments. Finally, the observed CD4 downregulation indu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Dynamic Monitoring of Immunoinflammatory Response Identifies Immunoswitching Characteristics of Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Rats
ConclusionThe SAP rats showed characteristics of intestinal mucosal immune dysfunction after model construction, and the 48th h was identified as the immunoswitching point from excessive inflammatory response to immunosuppression. The results are of great significance for optimizing the timing of SAP immune regulation. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Estrogen Acts Through Estrogen Receptor- β to Promote Mannan-Induced Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation
Sex-bias is more obvious in several autoimmune disorders, but not in psoriasis. However, estrogen levels fluctuate during puberty, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause, which are related to variations in psoriasis symptoms observed in female patients. Estrogen has disease promoting or ameliorating functions based on the type of immune responses and tissues involved. To investigate the effects of estrogen on psoriasis, at first, we developed an innate immunity dependent mannan-induced psoriasis model, which showed a clear female preponderance in disease severity in several mouse strains. Next, we investigated the effec...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Targeting Glutamine Metabolism Ameliorates Autoimmune Hepatitis via Inhibiting T Cell Activation and Differentiation
ConclusionsWe proved that targeting glutamine metabolism represents a potential new treatment strategy for patients with AIH and other T cell-mediated disease. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that glutamine metabolism blocking inhibits T cells activation and suppresses the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells and CTL. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Inferring Tissue-Specific, TLR4-Dependent Type 17 Immune Interactions in Experimental Trauma/Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation Using Computational Modeling
Trauma/hemorrhagic shock followed by resuscitation (T/HS-R) results in multi-system inflammation and organ dysfunction, in part driven by binding of damage-associated molecular pattern molecules to Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4). We carried out experimental T/HS-R (pseudo-fracture plus 2 h of shock followed by 0-22 h of resuscitation) in C57BL/6 (wild type [WT]) and TLR4-null (TLR4-/-) mice, and then defined the dynamics of 20 protein-level inflammatory mediators in the heart, gut, lung, liver, spleen, kidney, and systemic circulation. Cross-correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on data from the 7 tissues sampled...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Structural and Temporal Dynamics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Liver Diseases From 2001 to 2021: A Bibliometric Analysis
ConclusionsIn this study, bibliometrics and visual methods were used to review the research of MSCs in liver diseases comprehensively. This paper will help scholars better understand the dynamic evolution of the application of MSCs in liver diseases and point out the direction for future research. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - May 19, 2022 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research