Innate Lymphoid Cells: Expression of PD-1 and Other Checkpoints in Normal and Pathological Conditions

Conclusions and Future Perspectives It is now evident that NK/ILC family plays a pivotal role in the immune defenses. Recent studies in murine and human settings demonstrated that the expression of several inhibitory checkpoints, that may be detrimental in the tumor context, is not restricted to T lymphocytes, revealing an important, yet poorly appreciated, contribution of their expression on innate immune cells. Thus, in the recent years different immunotherapy approaches, based on the blockade of inhibitory NK cell receptors, have been developed in order to unleash NK cell cytotoxicity. This is particularly important in the context of tumors that downregulate HLA-I expression and become invisible to T cells. However, it must be considered that most inhibitory checkpoints, targeted by mAbs therapies, are shared by T, NK and ILCs. Therefore, further studies are required in order to identify all the receptors regulating NK/ILC cells function for the development of new mAbs-based immunotherapies. In addition, considering the role exerted by the tumor microenvironment on ILCs plasticity and functions, it is necessary to better clarify the role of tumor infiltrating innate immune cells to improve the selectivity of cancer therapies. Therefore, also accurate patient analysis and deeper examinations of tumor biopsies will become key aspects to consider in order to construct personalized protocols. In this context, studies have been performed to determine the exact number of biopsi...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: MethodsAuthor(s): Rui Yan, Fei Ren, Zihao Wang, Lihua Wang, Tong Zhang, Yudong Liu, Xiaosong Rao, Chunhou Zheng, Fa ZhangAbstractEven with the rapid advances in medical sciences, histopathological diagnosis is still considered the gold standard in diagnosing cancer. However, the complexity of histopathological images and the dramatic increase in workload make this task time consuming, and the results may be subject to pathologist subjectivity. Therefore, the development of automatic and precise histopathological image analysis methods is essential for the field. In thi...
Source: Methods - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2019Source: Journal of Molecular LiquidsAuthor(s): Prakash Bansode, Pradnya Patil, Prafulla Choudhari, Manish Bhatia, Apurva Birajdar, Indumathi Somasundaram, Gajanan RashinkarAbstractA novel series of ferrocene tethered ionic liquids (ILs) has been synthesized by quaternization of 1-N-(ferrocenylmethyl)benzimidazole, 1-N-(ferrocenylmethyl)imidazole and 1-N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-1,2,4-triazole with long chain alkyl bromides. The synthesized ILs were screened for their anticancer activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ILs 2a–d and 4b displayed significant anticanc...
Source: Journal of Molecular Liquids - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
In this study, whole genome comparative genomic hybridization array (array CGH) based genomic analysis was performed on twelve Saudi Lynch syndrome patients. A total of 124 chromosomal alterations (structural loss) were identified at mean log2 ratio cut off value of ±0.25. We also found structural loss in 2p21-p16.3, 3p23-p14.2, 7p22.1 and 1p34.1-p33 regions. These findings were subsequently validated by real time quantitative PCR showing downregulation of MSH2, MSH6, EPCAM, MLH1, PMS2 and MUTYH genes. These findings shall help in establishing database for alterations in mismatch repair genes underlying Lynch syndro...
Source: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2019Source: Fish &Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Qingri Jin, Fei ZhuAbstractThis is the first study to use a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Illumina Hiseq2000 method, to analyze the transcriptome from hemocytes of Marsupenaeus japonicus. A total of 80,929,652 Illumina reads, including 79,525,942 high quality reads were obtained in this study. From these, 40,231 unigenes with a mean length of 1557 bp were assembled using Trinity de novo software and 28,746 cDNA were matched in the NCBI database. Then we compared the transcriptome changes after whi...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionWe present a comprehensive mRNA expression profile of chromogranin A positive enteroendocrine cells following RYGB in rats. The data provides a region-specific characterization of all regulated preprohormone encoding genes in the rat GI tract including 16 not hitherto known. The comprehensive catalogue of preprohormone expression changes may support our understanding of hormone mediated effects of RYGB on diabetes remission and body weight reduction.Graphical abstract
Source: Peptides - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 296Author(s): Chammari Pothipor, Natta Wiriyakun, Thitirat Putnin, Aroonsri Ngamaroonchote, Jaroon Jakmunee, Kontad Ounnunkad, Rawiwan Laocharoensuk, Noppadol AroonyadetAbstractRecent studies show that electrochemical biosensors offer simple, robust and low-cost solution for point-of-care applications. To meet rigorous requirements of early disease diagnosis and other medical applications, nanomaterials have been investigated to increase sensitivity and selectivity of electrochemical sensors. Herein, we successfully developed graphene-poly(3-...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
ConclusionThis study indicates that having access to a known midwife might have an impact on women’s birth experience. This study was limited by its small sample size and further research would need to randomise fearful women to counselling or continuity of care to determine the contribution of each to reducing fear.
Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare - Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract The underlying molecular basis for neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders is not known. In contrast, mechanistic understanding of other brain disorders including neurodegeneration has advanced considerably. Yet, these do not approach the knowledge accrued for many cancers with precision therapeutics acting on well-characterized targets. Although the identification of genes responsible for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders remains a major obstacle, the few causally associated genes are ripe for discovery by focusing efforts to dissect their mechanisms. Here, we make a case for del...
Source: CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: CNS Neurosci Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Albisinni S, Pretot D, Al Hajj Obeid W, Aoun F, Quackels T, Peltier A, Roumeguère T Abstract INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are established markers of systemic inflammation. Moreover, anemia is a known adverse prognostic factor and reduced haemoglobin to platelet ratio (HPR) seems associate to poor outcomes in urothelial cancer. Aim of the current study was to explore the prognostic value of NLR, HPR and PLR in patients harboring localized RCC. Materials and Methods 184 patients undergoing partial and radical nephrectomy for renal ma...
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
Contributors : Shaoqing Ju ; Xianjuan ShenSeries Type : OtherOrganism : Homo sapiensPurpose: With the advent of human genome sequencing project, circRNAs attracted widespread attention in cancer research due to its stable ring structure. Our aim was to identify differentially expressed circRNAs in GC and explore their potential roles in GC diagnosis and treatment.Methods: Total RNA from tissues was isolated by Hipure Total RNA Mini Kit (Magen, Germany). Qubit 3.0 Fluorometer (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, California) was used for RNA concentration measurement while Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer (Applied Biosystems, Carlsbad, CA) for RN...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Other Homo sapiens Source Type: research
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