Auranofin, an Anti-rheumatic Gold Drug, Aggravates the Radiation-Induced Acute Intestinal Injury in Mice

In this study, we evaluated the effect of auranofin on the radiosensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells. The treatment with a combination of 1 μM auranofin and 5 Gy ionizing radiation showed clear additive effects on caspase 3 cleavage and apoptotic DNA fragmentation in IEC-6 cells, and auranofin administration significantly aggravated the radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice. Auranofin treatment also resulted in the activation of the unfolded protein response and in the inhibition of thioredoxin reductase, which is a key component of the cellular antioxidant system. Pre-treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, a well-known scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but not with a chemical chaperone, which inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress and the ensuing unfolded protein response, significantly reduced the radiosensitizing effects of auranofin in the IEC-6 cells. In addition, transfection of IEC-6 cells with a small interfering RNA targeted against thioredoxin reductase significantly enhanced the radiosensitivity of these cells. These results suggest that auranofin-induced radiosensitization of intestinal epithelial cells is mediated through oxidative stress caused by the deregulation of thioredoxin redox system, and auranofin treatment can be an independent risk factor for the development of acute pelvic radiation disease. Introduction Gold (atomic number 79) is a metal belonging to Group IB in the periodic table. The therapeutic value of gold compounds has bee...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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We describe the most highly recommended generic and disease-specific PRO tools in SCD and discuss the challenges of incorporating them in clinical practice. EXPERT OPINION: PRO measures are essential to incorporate into SCD clinical trials either as primary or secondary outcomes. The use of PRO measures in SCD facilitates a patient-centered approach, which is likely to lead to improved outcomes. Significant challenges remain in adapting PRO tools to routine clinical use and in developing countries. PMID: 33034214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
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