Targeting Oxidative Stress as a Therapeutic Approach for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease characterized by an abnormal reepithelialisation, an excessive tissue remodelling and a progressive fibrosis within the alveolar wall that are not due to infection or cancer. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a key molecular process in pulmonary fibrosis development and different components of the redox system are altered in the cellular actors participating in lung fibrosis. To this respect, several activators of the antioxidant machinery and inhibitors of the oxidant species and pathways have been assayed in preclinical in vitro and in vivo mo...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Specific Interleukin-1 Inhibitors, Specific Interleukin-6 Inhibitors, and GM-CSF Blockades for COVID-19 (at the Edge of Sepsis): A Systematic Review
Conclusions: This systematic review showed that tocilizumab, sarilumab, and anakinra could reduce the mortality of people with COVID-19 (at the edge of sepsis), and tocilizumab did not significantly affect SAEs and secondary infections. The current evidence of the studies on patients treated with siltuximab, mavrilimumab, and lenzilumab is insufficient. In order to establish evidence with stronger quality, high-quality studies are needed.Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/), identifier CRD42020226545 (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Kinsenoside Protects Against Radiation-Induced Liver Fibrosis via Downregulating Connective Tissue Growth Factor Through TGF- β1 Signaling
In conclusion, this study revealed that KD alleviated RILF through the regulation of TGFβ1/Smad/CTGF pathway with no side effects on the tumor therapy. KD, in combination with blocking the TGF-β1 pathway and CTGF molecule or not, may become the innovative and effective treatment for RILF. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Activity of CB2 Receptors Attenuates Stress-Induced Behavioral and Neuroplastic Deficits in Male Mice
The monoaminergic theory of depression/anxiety disorders cannot fully explain the behavioral and neuroplastic changes observed after ADs chronic treatment. Endocannabinoid system, which comprises CB2 receptors, has been associated with the chronic effects of these drugs, especially in stressed mice. CB2-KO mice display more vulnerability to stressful stimuli. In the present study, we hypothesized that the behavioral and neuroplastic effects observed after repeated treatment with the AD escitalopram (Esc) in chronically stressed mice depend on CB2 receptor signaling. Male mice submitted to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Rivastigmine Regulates the HIF-1 α/VEGF Signaling Pathway to Induce Angiogenesis and Improves the Survival of Random Flaps in Rats
This study was performed to examine the effect of rivastigmine on flap survival. Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats with a modified McFarland flap were randomly divided into three groups: control group, 1 ml of solvent (10% DMSO + 90% corn oil); low-dose rivastigmine group (Riv-L), 1.0 mg/kg; and high-dose rivastigmine group (Riv-H), 2.0 mg/kg. All rats were treated once a day. On day 7, the skin flap survival area was measured. After staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), the pathological changes and microvessel density (MVD) were examined. The expression of inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-18, CD34, hypoxia-in...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Do Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF) Levels in Patients With Sickle Cell Anemia Treated With Hydroxyurea? A Systematic Review and Pathway Analysis
Hydroxyurea has long been used for the treatment of sickle cell anemia (SCA), and its clinical effectiveness is related to the induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), a major modifier of SCA phenotypes. However, there is substantial variability in response to hydroxyurea among patients with SCA. While some patients show an increase in HbF levels and an ameliorated clinical condition under low doses of hydroxyurea, other patients present a poor effect or even develop toxicity. However, the effects of genetic polymorphisms on increasing HbF levels in response to hydroxyurea in patients with SCA (Hb SS) have been less explored. ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Identification of an Aptamer With Binding Specificity to Tumor-Homing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a critical role in tumor growth and metastasis. Since they constantly infiltrate into the tumor tissue, these cells are considered as an ideal carrier for tumor-targeted drug delivery. We recently identified a DNA-based thioaptamer (T1) with tumor accumulating activity, demonstrated its potential on tumor targeting and drug delivery. In the current study, we have carried out structure-activity relationship analysis to further optimize the aptamer. In the process, we have identified a sequence-modified aptamer (M1) that shows an enhanced binding affinity to MDSCs over the parent...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Elucidation of Cellular Contributions to Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Using Omic Approaches
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an unpredictable, complex, immune-mediated adverse drug reaction associated with a high mortality. Despite decades of research into HIT, fundamental knowledge gaps persist regarding HIT likely due to the complex and unusual nature of the HIT immune response. Such knowledge gaps include the identity of a HIT immunogen, the intrinsic roles of various cell types and their interactions, and the molecular basis that distinguishes pathogenic and non-pathogenic PF4/heparin antibodies. While a key feature of HIT, thrombocytopenia, implicates platelets as a seminal cell fragment in HIT path...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cross-Adversarial Learning for Molecular Generation in Drug Design
Molecular generation is an important but challenging task in drug design, as it requires optimization of chemical compound structures as well as many complex properties. Most of the existing methods use deep learning models to generate molecular representations. However, these methods are faced with the problems of generation validity and semantic information of labels. Considering these challenges, we propose a cross-adversarial learning method for molecular generation, CRAG for short, which integrates both the facticity of VAE-based methods and the diversity of GAN-based methods to further exploit the complex properties ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha -308G/A Gene Polymorphisms Combined with Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts the Efficacy and Safety of Anti-TNF- α Therapy in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Psoriasis Arthritis
Conclusion: Our study preliminarily shown that combining TNF-α -308G/A polymorphisms with NLR and PLR can predict the responsiveness and safety of anti-TNF therapy in patients with AS or RA. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cationic Nanomaterials for Autoimmune Diseases Therapy
Cationic nanomaterials are defined as nanoscale structures smaller than 100 nm bearing positive charges. They have been investigated to apply to many aspects including clinical diagnosis, gene delivery, drug delivery, and tissue engineering for years. Recently, a novel concept has been made to use cationic nanomaterials as cell-free nucleic acid scavengers and inhibits the inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases. Here, we highlighted different types of cationic materials which have the potential for autoimmune disease treatment and reviewed the strategy for autoimmune diseases therapy based on cationic nanoparticles...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy for Primary Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Rats
(Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Modulates Hematotoxicity, Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by β-cyfluthrin in Rat Liver
Pesticides are used in large quantities infrequently, resulting in environmental damage and health issues. The goal of the current study was to explore the ameliorating effect of Ocimum basilicum (Basil) leaves essential oil versus the harmful effects of β-cyfluthrin in rat liver. Male Wistar rats were classified at random into four groups; negative control (corn oil), basil leaves essential oil (BEO, 3 ml/kg), β-cyfluthrin (positive control) (β-Cyf; 15 mg/kg BW, 1/25 LD50), and BEO plus β-Cyf, respectively. The rats were given their doses orally every day for a month. Results revealed that BEO yielded 6.32 mg/g wit...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Mechanisms of Cucurbitacin E as a Neuroprotective and Memory-Enhancing Agent in a Cerebral Hypoperfusion Rat Model: Attenuation of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Excitotoxicity
(Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Development and Testing of a Spray-Dried Tuberculosis Vaccine Candidate in a Mouse Model
This study assesses the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of spray-dried ID93+GLA-SE, a promising TB vaccine candidate, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in a murine model when administered via different routes. Four administration routes for the spray-dried ID93+GLA-SE were evaluated along with relevant controls—1) reconstitution and intramuscular injection, 2) reconstitution and intranasal delivery, 3) nasal dry powder delivery via inhalation, and 4) pulmonary dry powder delivery via inhalation. Dry powder intranasal and pulmonary delivery was achieved using a custom nose-only inhalation device, and optimiz...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - January 21, 2022 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research