Intranasal Low-Dose Naltrexone Against Opioid Side Effects: A Preclinical Study
In conclusion, intranasal low-dose naltrexone counteracted morphine and oxycodone induced gastrointestinal and CNS side effects without impairing opioid analgesia. It is a candidate to be a valid clinical strategy deserving deep analysis. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Feasibility Study of a Modified XELOX Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Recurrence Risk Patients With Operated Stage III Colon Cancer
ConclusionsThe modified XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy presented a comparable oncologic efficacy as standard XELOX chemotherapy for high-risk stage III colon cancer. The modified XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy could be an alternative treatment for patients suffering severe adverse events, especially severe neurotoxicity. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Platelet Protease Activated Receptor 1 Is Involved in the Hemostatic Effect of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol by Regulating Calcium Signaling
In this study, the bleeding time was measured in mouse tail amputation and liver scratch models to evaluate hemostatic effect of PPD. The routine blood and plasma coagulation parameters in NS, HC, and PPD (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) groups were measured using a blood analyzer. Platelet aggregation rate and ATP release were analyzed by a platelet aggregometer. Subsequently, the degranulation marker CD62P and PAC-1, and the concentrations of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), cAMP, cGMP, and PAC-1 expressions were also assessed. We found that PPD shorted the bleeding time on the mouse tail amputation and liver scratch models and mainly incre...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Repurposing Ziyuglycoside II Against Colorectal Cancer via Orchestrating Apoptosis and Autophagy
Effective chemotherapy drugs for colorectal cancer remain a challenge. In this research, Ziyuglycoside II (Ziyu II), exhibits considerable antitumor activity against CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that Ziyu II induced apoptosis through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was necessary for Ziyu II to inhibit colorectal cancer cells. Intriguingly, The treatment of Ziyu II triggered complete autophagic flux in CRC cells. Inhibition of autophagy partially reversed Ziyu II-induced growth inhibition, demonstrating a cytotoxic role of autophagy in response to Ziyu II-tr...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Propionic Acid Targets the TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway and Inhibits LPS-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Intestinal barrier dysfunction contributes to the development of intestinal diseases. Propionic acid (PA), a metabolite generated by anaerobic fermentation of dietary fiber in the intestinal cavity, has been proved to exert anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of diseases. However, the exact role of PA in LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction is still unclear. Accordingly, we examined the latent mechanism of PA and its protective role in LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro, we identified that PA treatment could strongly promote cell migration, inhibit activat...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Early Combination Therapy With Lianhuaqingwen and Arbidol in Moderate and Severe COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study
ConclusionThe early combined usage of LHQW and Arbidol may accelerate recovery and improve the prognosis of patients with moderate COVID-19. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Update
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has successfully been applied for the treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), which has led to studies on its application to other gastrointestinal diseases and extraintestinal diseases associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. Recently, the results of FMT for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been encouraging. However, studies have not fully clarified the clinical application of this emerging therapy. Here, we aimed to review the current knowledge in this fast-growing field and characterize the effectiveness, safety and mechanisms of FMT for...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Circadian Rhythm Protein Bmal1 Modulates Cartilage Gene Expression in Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis via the MAPK/ERK Pathway
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of the circadian gene Bmal1 in human cartilage and its crosstalk with the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA). We verified the periodical variation of the circadian gene Bmal1 and then established a modified multiple platform method (MMPM) to induce circadian rhythm disturbance leading to TMJ-OA. IL-6, p-ERK, and Bmal1 mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Chondrocytes were treated with an ERK inhibitor (U0126), siRNA and plasmid targeting Bmal1 under IL-6 simulation; then, ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

GLT25D2 Is Critical for Inflammatory Immune Response to Promote Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Autophagy Pathway
In conclusion, our study proves that the upregulated expression of GLT25D2 decreased autophagy contributing to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by mediating the inflammatory immune regulatory mechanism. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Candidates for COVID-19: A Poorly Understood Arena
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute onset pneumonia caused by a novel Betacoronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in the Wuhan City of China in December 2019 and evolved into a global pandemic. To date, there are no proven drugs or vaccines against this virus. Hence, the situation demands an urgent need to explore all potential therapeutic strategies that can be made available to prevent the disease progression and improve patient outcomes. In absence of clinically proven treatment guidelines, several repurposed drugs and investigational agents are currently being evalua...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Regulation of High-Altitude Hypoxia on the Transcription of CYP450 and UGT1A1 Mediated by PXR and CAR
Little is known about what roles the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) play in drug metabolism in high-altitude hypoxia. Likewise, the potential interaction of nuclear receptors and drug metabolism enzymes during drug metabolism of high-altitude hypoxia is not fully understood. In this work, we investigated the effects of high-altitude hypoxia on transcriptional regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) genes mediated by PXR and CAR proteins. The protein and mRNA expressions of CYP450, UGT1A1, PXR, and CAR were determined by enzyme-linked immunoso...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Alterations and Management of Patients With White Coat Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis
A large and growing body of literature has focused on the association between “white coat hypertension” (WCH) and the underlying target organ damage. The evidence suggests that WCH is may not an entirely benign phenomenon. However, whether patients with WCH should receive antihypertensive drugs is unresolved. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to fully determine the ability of WCH to alter cardiovascular structure and to determine whether patients with WCH could benefit from drug intervention. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through 21 Oct 2019. A total of 25 stu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Cytotoxic, and Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Hedychium flavum Rhizome
Hedychium flavum Roxb., a medicinal, edible, and ornamental plant, is widely cultivated throughout China, India, and Southeast Asia. The rhizome from this plant has been used for food flavoring and in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diverse diseases, but the detailed constituents and bioactivities are still limited known. Therefore, phytochemical analysis by GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS, and antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic, and enzyme inhibitory activities tests have been conducted in the current study. Based on the GC-MS results, the essential oil (EO) of rhizome was mainly composed of coronarin E (20.3%), &b...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Wenxia Changfu Formula Combined With Cisplatin Reversing Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Adhesion-Mediated Drug Resistance
This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of WCF combined with DDP in reversing CAM-DR. Firstly, the chemical profile of WCF was characterized by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis. A total of 237 compounds with mzCloud Best Match of greater than 70 were identified by using the online database mzCloud. Secondly, we established A549 three-dimensional(3D) cells cultured in vitro and nude mice xenografts models of the A549 cell line with Integrin β1 overexpression. In vitro, the cell viability, migration and adhesion were measured though MTT Assay, Wound Healing Assay and Cell Adhesion Assay, the Integrin β1 expre...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

tRNA-Derived Small RNAs and Their Potential Roles in Cardiac Hypertrophy
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are abundantly expressed, small non-coding RNAs that have long been recognized as essential components of the protein translation machinery. The tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs), including tRNA halves (tiRNAs), and tRNA fragments (tRFs), were unexpectedly discovered and have been implicated in a variety of important biological functions such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Mechanistically, tsRNAs regulate mRNA destabilization and translation, as well as retro-element reverse transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes. Emerging evidence has shown that tsRNAs are expr...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV Derivative (LS-102) Alleviated Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Drp1Ser616 Phosphorylation-Mediated Mitochondrial Fission
In conclusion, LS-102 exerts cardio protection against I/R-induced injury by inhibiting mitochondrial fission via blocking GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation at Ser616 of Drp1. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Systematic Review of the Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics of Matrine
Matrine (MT) is a naturally occurring alkaloid and an bioactive component of Chinese herbs, such as Sophora flavescens and Radix Sophorae tonkinensis. Emerging evidence suggests that MT possesses anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-fibrotic, anti-allergic, antinociceptive, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. These pharmacological properties form the foundation for its application in the treatment of various diseases, such as multiple types of cancers, hepatitis, skin diseases, allergic asthma, diabetic cardiomyopathy, pain, Alzheimer’s disease (...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Intrathecal Oxytocin Improves Spontaneous Behavior and Reduces Mechanical Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Postoperative Pain
This report provides a basis for addressing the therapeutic relevance of oxytocin as a potential preemptive analgesic molecule. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Outcomes and Laboratory and Clinical Findings of Asthma and Allergic Patients Admitted With Covid-19 in a Spanish University Hospital
In conclusion, antecedents of allergic diseases might influence hospitalization risk in relatively young patients. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

In Silico Prediction of Molecular Targets of Astragaloside IV for Alleviation of COVID-19 Hyperinflammation by Systems Network Pharmacology and Bioinformatic Gene Expression Analysis
ConclusionsThis study is the first to propose Astragaloside IV as a new drug candidate for alleviating hyper-inflammation in COVID-19 patients. Besides, the key targets and pathways may reveal the main pharmacological mechanism of Astragaloside IV in the treatment of COVID-19. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Commentary: Recommendation of Antimicrobial Dosing Optimization During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
(Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bis-Quinolinium Cyclophane Blockers of SK Potassium Channels Are Antagonists of M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors
Dequalinium is used as an antimicrobial compound for oral health and other microbial infections. Derivatives of dequalinium, the bis-quinolinium cyclophanes UCL 1684 and UCL 1848, are high affinity SK potassium channel antagonists. Here we investigated these compounds as M3 muscarinic receptor (mACHR) antagonists. We used the R-CEPIAer endoplasmic reticulum calcium reporter to functionally assay for Gq-coupled receptor signaling, and investigated the bis-quinolinium cyclophanes as antagonists of M3 mACHR activation in transfected CHO cells. Given mACHR roles in airway smooth muscle (ASM) contractility, we also tested the a...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Use of Enoxaparin to Counteract COVID-19 Infection and Reduce Thromboembolic Venous Complications: A Review of the Current Evidence
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been dramatic worldwide, with China, Italy, and now US at its epicenter. Researchers and clinicians are studying and testing different approaches in the attempt to prevent the infection and minimize its severity. Major efforts are focused on optimizing mechanical ventilation, antiviral, and supportive treatment; however, the role of heparin and low molecular weight (LMW) heparin in this setting has been largely overlooked. This review summarizes the available evidence about the role of heparan sulfate as a key entry mechanism for SARS-CoV-2; the efficacy of heparin and LMW heparin in...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

miRNAs as Novel Biomarkers of Chronic Kidney Injury in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: An Experimental Study
This study represents a pilot study to define if these expression patterns could be studied in other biological samples (plasma, urine) in subjects with different kidney injury linked to chronic kidney diseases and AAS use, to identify reliable biomarkers that could be applied in clinical and forensic diagnostics, as well as a target for toxicological investigations or therapeutic treatments. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Mushrooms-Rich Preparations on Wound Healing: From Nutritional to Medicinal Attributes
Mushrooms have a significant role in human diet as functional food and as a nutraceutical resource. The combination of its umami flavor, protein, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrates has meant that mushrooms could be considered a cheap food source for a long time in many countries. Moreover, mushrooms contain an excellent variety of bioactive metabolites that can be successful in both prevention and treatment of various human health hazards. In addition, extracts from medicinal mushrooms and their metabolites have been verified for wound treating with contribution to different mechanisms of the healing process. This review...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sanqi Oral Solution Ameliorates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Reducing Apoptosis and Enhancing Autophagy: Involvement of ERK/mTOR Pathways
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a significant health problem with high morbidity and mortality, yet prophylaxis strategies and effective drugs are limited. Sanqi oral solution (SQ) is a formulated medicine widely used in clinical settings to treat various renal diseases via enriching qi and activating blood circulation while its role on I/R-AKI remains unclear. Herein, by establishing rat I/R-AKI models, we intended to investigate the effect of SQ on the prevention of I/R-AKI and explore its underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that SQ treatment significantly attenuated renal dysfunction o...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Imperatorin on the Pharmacokinetics of Diazepam In Vitro and In Vivo
BackgroundDiazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms. Imperatorin is a phytochemical isolated from medicinal plants and is widely used in herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between imperatorin and diazepam in vitro and in vivo and to provide evidence-based guidance for the safe clinical use of the drug.MethodsIn vitro inhibition of imperatorin was assessed by incubating rat liver microsomes with diazepam to determine IC50 values and the type of inhibition. For in vivo assessment, six rats were pretreated with 50 mg/kg imperatorin for two week...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Potential of Antiviral Peptides as COVID-19 Therapeutics
(Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Systems Pharmacology and Verification of ShenFuHuang Formula in Zebrafish Model Reveal Multi-Scale Treatment Strategy for Septic Syndrome in COVID-19
This study provided additional evidence of SFH formula for treating COVID-19 patients with septic syndrome using multiple-scale estimation. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Synthetic Myeloperoxidase Inhibitor AZD3241 Ameliorates Dextran Sodium Sulfate Stimulated Experimental Colitis
Chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a condition with multifactorial pathophysiology. To date, there is no permanent cure and the disease is primarily managed by immunosuppressive drugs; long-term use promotes serious side effects including increased risk malignancies. The current study aimed to target neutrophil-myeloperoxidase, a key contributor to the pathogenesis of IBD, through the use of AZD3241that inhibits extracellular myeloperoxidase. Experimental colitis was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by 2% dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum over 9 days. Mice received either normal drinking water and pe...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

CU06-1004 Alleviates Experimental Colitis by Modulating Colonic Vessel Dysfunction
In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of CU06-1004, an endothelial dysfunction blocker that reduces vascular hyperpermeability and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in mice using 3% (w/v) dextran sodium sulfate added to their drinking water for 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the addition of dextran sodium sulfate, either mesalazine or CU06-1004 was administered orally each day. Administration of CU06-1004 significantly reduced the clinical manifestations (weight loss, diarrhea, and bloody stool) and histological changes (epithelium loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cry...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Jianpi Bushen Therapy for Treatment of CKD Anemia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ObjectivesTo evaluate the efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, specifically Jianpi Bushen (JPBS) therapy, for treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) anemia.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of JPBS therapy for CKD anemia were searched and selected from seven electronic databases. The Cochrane collaboration tool was used to conduct methodological quality assessment. RevMan v5.3 software was utilized to perform data analysis.ResultsIn total, 12 randomized controlled trials with 799 patients met the meta-analysis criteria. The aggregated results indicated that JPBS therapy is beneficial for CKD anemia ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Hematopoietic Cell Kinase (HCK) Is Essential for NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vivo
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in caspase 1 cleavage, which subsequently leads to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, as well as pyroptosis, and aberrant activation of the inflammasome is involved in several diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. NLRP3 activity is regulated by various kinases. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK), a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) primarily expressed in myeloid cells, has previously been shown to ameliorate inflammati...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Tim-3 Expression and MGMT Methylation Status Association With Survival in Glioblastoma
ConclusionsWe profiled the immune status of MGMT promoter methylation in GBM and established a local immune signature for GBM that could independently identify patients with a favorable prognosis, indicating a relationship between prognosis and GBM immune signature. MGMT promoter methylation with lower Tim-3 expression was significantly associated with better survival. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Huoxue Huatan Decoction Ameliorates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Hyperlipidemic Rats via PGC-1 α–PPARα and PGC-1α–NRF1–mtTFA Pathways
ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to eluc\idate the preventive and therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of Huoxue Huatan Decoction (HXHT) on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in hyperlipidemic rats.MethodsAn I/R model was established in hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. After 4–8 weeks of HXHT treatment, the physical signs of rats were observed. Lipid metabolism, myocardial enzyme spectrum, cardiac function, myocardial histomorphology, and mitochondrial biosynthesis were investigated by a biochemical method, ultrasonography, electron microscopy, pathological examination, real-time PCR, and Western ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Involvement of TGF- β and Autophagy Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diabetes: A Comprehensive Review on Biological and Pharmacological Insights
This study examines exciting new hallmarks for the strict involvement of autophagy and TGF-β signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of diabetes and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Dysregulated autophagy in pancreatic β cells due to hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation is associated with diabetes and accompanied by dysregulated autophagy in insulin target tissues and the progression of diabetic complications. Consequently, several therapeutic agents such as adiponectin, ezetimibe, GABA tea, geniposide, liraglutide, guava extract, and vitamin D were shown to inhibit diabetes and its complic...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-Based Serum and Urine Metabonomics Study on the Ameliorative Effects of Palmatine on Helicobacter pylori –Induced Chronic Atrophic Gastritis
ConclusionsMetabolomics was used for the first time to identify potential biomarkers of CAG and to illuminate the therapeutic mechanism of Pal on CAG induced by H. pylori. The results provided a new insight for further research on CAG treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of Selected Nigerian Medicinal Plants on the Viability, Mobility, and Multidrug-Resistant Mechanisms in Liver, Colon, and Skin Cancer Cell Lines
In conclusion, the above in-vitro activities of herbal infusions regularly consumed by Nigerian diabetic patients may either act as a baseline chemoprotection or as sensitizing agents. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Thymoquinone Selectively Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis in Synergism With Clinical Therapeutics and Dependence of p53 Status
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a natural compound extracted from the black seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. belonging to the Ranunculaceae family. TQ exhibits anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic activities against various cancers. Many therapeutics in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatments, such as doxorubicin (DOX) and cisplatin (DDP), exhibit considerable side effects on patients. We investigated cytotoxic effects of TQ, alone or in combination with DDP and DOX to HCC cells. TQ exhibited selective killing to HCC HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, but relatively low toxicity to normal liver HL-7702 cells. Importantly, when used with DOX o...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Bibliometric Study of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Research
ConclusionMost studies focused on clinical trial outcomes, such as cardiovascular death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization. The mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors, especially those related to cardiac metabolism, may soon become hotspots and should be closely monitored. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Compound K Attenuates Ox-LDL-Mediated Macrophage Inflammation and Foam Cell Formation via Autophagy Induction and Modulating NF- κB, p38, and JNK MAPK Signaling
Atherosclerosis is a major reason for the high morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Macrophage inflammation and foam cell formation are the key pathological processes of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a metabolite derived from ginseng. CK has anti atherosclerotic effect, but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. We aim to explore the protective effect of CK against ox-LDL-induced inflammatory responses and foam cells formation in vitro and explore its potential mechanisms. Through the results of oil red O staining, Western blot, and qPCR, we found that CK significantly inhibited ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

The Combination of Propofol and Ketamine Does Not Enhance Clinical Responses to Electroconvulsive Therapy in Major Depression —The Results From the KEOpS Study
ObjectiveWe investigated the clinical effects of the combination of ketamine and propofol as anesthetic agents during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with uni- or bipolar major depressive episodes. We hypothesized that ketamine may confer short- and long- term advantages in improving depressive symptoms at the early stages of ECT.MethodsIn a randomized placebo-controlled trial, remission rates after 4 and 8 weeks of ECT were compared between patients who were randomly allocated to receive either the combination of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) + propofol (n= 11) or placebo + propofol (n = 16). Depressive symptoms were a...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Potential Therapeutic Options for COVID-19: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Perspectives
The COVID-19 pandemic represents an unprecedented challenge for the researchers to offer safe, tolerable, and effective treatment strategies for its causative agent known as SARS-CoV-2. With the rapid evolution of the pandemic, even the off-label use of existing drugs has been restricted by limited availability. Several old antivirals, antimalarial, and biological drugs are being reconsidered as possible therapies. The effectiveness of the controversial treatment options for COVID-19 such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, angiotensin 2 conversion enzyme inhibitors and selective angiotensin receptor blockers was also ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Wolfiporia cocos  (F.A. Wolf) Ryvarden & Gilb
Poria cocos is the dried sclerotium of Wolfiporia cocos (F.A. Wolf) Ryvarden & Gilb., which was the current accepted name and was formerly known as Macrohyporia cocos (Schwein.) I. Johans. & Ryvarden, Pachyma cocos (Schwein.) Fr., Poria cocos F.A. Wolf and Sclerotium cocos Schwein. It is one of the most important crude drugs in traditional Chinese medicine, with a wide range of applications in ameliorating phlegm and edema, relieving nephrosis and chronic gastritis and improving uneasiness of minds. Its extensive pharmacological effects have attracted considerable attention in recent y...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treating Influenza: From Basic Science to Clinical Applications
Influenza infection is a highly contagious, acute febrile respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has dominated plenty of theoretical and practical approaches in the treatment of influenza. It is, therefore, important to highlight the effects of TCM in the clinical treatment of influenza and their impact on inhibiting the growth of this virus in laboratory experiments. We scrutinized existing evidence on whether TCM is effective in clinical applications. Moreover, we described the potential mechanisms of TCM against the influenza virus. Our findings provide analytical evidence ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Ubc9 Attenuates Myocardial Ischemic Injury Through Accelerating Autophagic Flux
ConclusionsWe uncovered a novel role of Ubc9 in protecting cardiomyocytes from ischemic stress via Ubc9-induced SUMOylation, leading to increased PI3K-III complex assembly and autophagy-positioning. These findings may indicate a potential therapeutic target, Ubc9, for treatment of myocardial ischemia. (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Turmeric and Its Major Compound Curcumin on Health: Bioactive Effects and Safety Profiles for Food, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnological and Medicinal Applications
Curcumin, a yellow polyphenolic pigment from the Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) rhizome, has been used for centuries for culinary and food coloring purposes, and as an ingredient for various medicinal preparations, widely used in Ayurveda and Chinese medicine. In recent decades, their biological activities have been extensively studied. Thus, this review aims to offer an in-depth discussion of curcumin applications for food and biotechnological industries, and on health promotion and disease prevention, with particular emphasis on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and cardiopro...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics in Psychiatry: An Update on Clinical Usability
Using pharmacogenetics in guiding drug therapy experiences a steady increase in uptake, although still leads to discussions as to its clinical use. Psychiatry constitutes a field where pharmacogenomic testing might help in guiding drug therapy. To address current challenges, this minireview provides an update regarding genotyping (SNP analysis/arrays/NGS), structural variant detection (star-alleles/CNVs/hybrid alleles), genotype-to-phenotype translations, cost-effectiveness, and actionability of results (FDA/CPIC/PharmGKB) regarding clinical importance of pre-emptive pharmacogenomic testing for prescription of antidepressa...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNAs in the Regulation of Asthma: Current Research and Clinical Implications
Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disorder related to variable expiratory airflow limitation, leading to wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and cough. Its characteristic features include airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. The pathogenesis of asthma remains extremely complicated and the detailed mechanisms are not clarified. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play a prominent role in asthma and function as modulators of various aspects in pathological progress of asthma. Here, we summarize recent advances of lncRNAs in asthma pathogenesis to guide fu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cannabis Contaminants Limit Pharmacological Use of Cannabidiol
For nearly a century, Cannabis has been stigmatized and criminalized across the globe, but in recent years, there has been a growing interest in Cannabis due to the therapeutic potential of phytocannabinoids. With this emerging interest in Cannabis, concerns have arisen about the possible contaminations of hemp with pesticides, heavy metals, microbial pathogens, and carcinogenic compounds during the cultivation, manufacturing, and packaging processes. This is of particular concern for those turning to Cannabis for medicinal purposes, especially those with compromised immune systems. This review aims to provide types of con...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - September 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research