Poly-ICLC, a TLR3 Agonist, Induces Transient Innate Immune Responses in Patients With Treated HIV-Infection: A Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo Controlled Trial

Conclusions: These finding suggest that Poly-ICLC could be safely used for inducing transient innate immune responses in treated HIV+ subjects indicating promise as an adjuvant for HIV therapeutic vaccines. Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02071095. Introduction Innate immune dysregulation during HIV infection hinders the formation of anti-HIV adaptive immunity (1–6) resulting in rampant viral dissemination and progression to AIDS. Adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) regimens controls viremia, restores CD4+T cell counts and reverses immune dysfunction to a larg extent. However, cART fails to eradicate latent viral reservoirs, posing a major barrier to achieving sterilizing cure (7). Thus, safe and effective adjuvants that stimulate innate immune responses (8) and reactivate latent HIV, allowing for killing of infected cells, are likely to be a vital element of successful therapeutic immunization strategies in aviremic patients (9). Pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are key activators of innate immunity. These germ line encoded receptors induce rapid inflammation in response to a wide range pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (10). Of the 10 TLRs expressed in humans, TLRs 1,2,4,5,6, and 10 are expressed on the cell surface and recognize pathogenic cell membrane components such as lipoproteins, peptidoglycans, flagellin, etc. TLR 3, TLR 7/8, and TLR9 are intracellular recepto...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Authors: Mendenhall E, Musau A, Bosire E, Mutiso V, Ndetei D, Rock M Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a condition that both results from and produces social and psychological suffering. As 'diabetes' increases among low income patients in poorer nations, new challenges arise that drive, co-occur, and result from the condition. In this article, we describe how social suffering produces diabetes by way of addressing the varied social, psychological, and biological factors that drive diabetes and are reflected in diabetes experiences among patients seeking care at a public hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. We recruited ...
Source: Anthropology and Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Anthropol Med Source Type: research
This report shares key lessons learned for community engagement practices during a malaria outbreak response in the Los Tres Brazos neighborhood of urban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from 2015-2016. In this two-year period, 233 cases of malaria were reported-more than seven times the number of cases (31) reported in the previous two years. The initial outbreak response by the national malaria program emphasized "top-down" interventions such as active surveillance, vector control, and educative talks within the community. Despite a transient reduction in reported cases in mid-2015, transmission resurged at th...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Conclusions: The bibliometric analysis allowed to objectively record the productivity and visibility of the Regional System for Vaccines for Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Region. PMID: 32774349 [PubMed]
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Authors: Marín-Sánchez A Abstract The basic clinical characteristics of the first 100 fatal cases from COVID-19 in Colombia were analyzed based on reports from the National Institute of Health (INS) since the beginning of the pandemic. Since the INS records do not include clinical variables of comorbidity in the total number of cases reported as positive, but only in patients with fatal outcome, comorbidities, age and sex available in the daily INS reports were reviewed. Their frequency was identified and mortality risk behavior for the analyzed variables was established and compared with the behavior...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Authors: Sola A, Rodríguez S, Cardetti M, Dávila C Abstract Objective: To evaluate and report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in Latin America. Methods: Descriptive study based on the prospective report of the units of the Ibero-American Society of Neonatology Network. Results: Of 86 pregnant women with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR in seven countries (6 from Latin America, and Equatorial Guinea) 68% (59) were asymptomatic. Of 32% of symptomatic women, 89% (24) had mild symptoms and 3.5% (3) had severe respiratory symptoms. No wom...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
In this study, we found only minor ethnic differences in persistent pain. Similar living conditions and cultural features may explain these findings. PMID: 32780007 [PubMed - in process]
Source: International Journal of Circumpolar Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Int J Circumpolar Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2020Source: Journal of Oral BiosciencesAuthor(s): Sho Akashi, Takashi Nishida, Tomomi Mizukawa, Kazumi Kawata, Masaharu Takigawa, Seiji Iida, Satoshi Kubota
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 December 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 249Author(s): Shijie Dai, Shaozhong Liu, Chen Li, Zhifang Zhou, Zhimeng Wu
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 December 2020Source: Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 249Author(s): Shuxian Hu, Rei Kuwabara, Martin Beukema, Michela Ferrari, Bart J. de Haan, Marthe T.C. Walvoort, Paul de Vos, Alexandra M. Smink
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 August 2020Source: Carbohydrate PolymersAuthor(s): Sevil Vaghefi Moghaddam, Fatemeh Abedi, Effat Alizadeh, Behzad Baradaran, Nasim Annabi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Soodabeh Davaran
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
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