Novel Contribution of Secreted Amyloid- β Precursor Protein to White Matter Brain Enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Novel Contribution of Secreted Amyloid-β Precursor Protein to White Matter Brain Enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder Deborah K. Sokol1, Bryan Maloney2, Cara J. Westmark3 and Debomoy K. Lahiri2,4* 1Pediatrics Section, Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States2Indiana Alzheimers Disease Center, Department of Psychiatry, Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States3Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States4Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States The most replicated neuroanatomical finding in autism is the tendency toward brain overgrowth, especially in younger children. Research shows that both gray and white matter are enlarged. Proposed mechanisms underlying brain enlargement include abnormal inflammatory and neurotrophic signals that lead to excessive, aberrant dendritic connectivity via disrupted pruning and cell adhesion, and enlargement of white matter due to excessive gliogenesis and increased myelination. Amyloid-β protein precursor (βAPP) and its metabolites, more commonly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), are also dysregulated in autism plasma and brain tissue samples. This review highlights findings that demonstrate how one βAPP metabolite, secreted APPα, and the ADAM family α-secret...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Source: BMJ Comments - Category: General Medicine Source Type: forums
Source: BMJ - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
This study compares the effect of Helicobacter (H.) pylori and Lactobacillus (L.) acidophilus on the cytokine profile of PBMCs of 5 men with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and 5 men with normal/insignificant angiography, CT-Scan and ultrasonography results in the single-culture and in the co-culture with HUVECs. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17 F, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured in culture supernatants using a commercial fluorescent-labeled-bead assay.In general, CagA+ H. pylori-extract induced higher production of IFN-γ, IL-13 and IL-21 by PBMCs. Treatment of ...
Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: Both hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia were associated with increased short- and long-term mortality with a U-shape relationship. PMID: 32066311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Authors: Ma Q, Shao Y, Chen W, Quan C, Zhu Y, Xu X, Zhou Z, Wang S Abstract Aim: To investigate whether cervical cancer (CC) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) can be screened by analyzing gene expression profiling of peripheral blood. Methods: RNA-sequencing analysis of blood was performed on 11 CC patients, 21 CIN patients and 19 healthy controls (H). Fifty-nine genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR using blood samples from 46 H, 83 CC and 32 CIN patients. Results: There were significant differences in the expression levels of six genes between CC and H, five genes between CIN and H and fou...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
Authors: Deng Z, Wu J, Xu S, Chen F, Zhang Z, Jin A, Wang J Abstract Exosomes have appeared as fundamental vehicle-modulated crosstalk among various cells in the tumor microenvironment. The systematic understanding of exosomes in gastric cancer (GC) enhances our comprehension about the tumor growth, metastasis, chemoresistance and diagnosis of cancers. The versatile functions of exosomes provide reasonable explanations about the propensity for GC metastasis. The selectively enriched components, especially some exosomal miRNAs, are potential noninvasive biomarkers for sensitive and specific GC diagnosis. Given the c...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
This study aimed to quantitatively grasp the structure of support for balancing cancer treatment and work among occupational health nurses (OHNs) with the current implementation status. The anonymous questionnaire was designed based on the findings of our previous qualitative study and distributed to OHNs. The degrees of support implementation for workers with cancer, superiors and colleagues, and human resource managers were assessed for each item. Factor analysis of support items was conducted, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was carried out to compare the support scores between the factors. Support for workers with cancer...
Source: Industrial Health - Category: Occupational Health Tags: Ind Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Konstantinos Palikaras, Nektarios TavernarakisAbstractMaintenance of synaptic homeostasis is a challenging task, due to the intricate spatial organization and intense activity of synapses. Typically, synapses are located far away from the neuronal cell body, where they orchestrate neuronal signalling and communication, through neurotransmitter release. Stationary mitochondria provide energy required for synaptic vesicle cycling, and preserve ionic balance by buffering intercellular calcium at synapses. Thus, synaptic h...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2020Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and DevelopmentAuthor(s): Cui Chen, Min Zhou, Yuchen Ge, Xiaobo WangAbstractAging is a biological phenomenon in which the structure and function of organisms declining with the increasing of age. It has become a major risk factor of human diseases, including diabetes, cancers, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. Silencing information regulator 2 related enzyme 1(sirtuin1, SIRT1) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, which has been reported to be involved in the regulation of cellular senescence and aging. The expression of SIRT1...
Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2020Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Maria Guarino, Valentina Cossiga, Filomena MoriscoAbstractAbnormal liver tests occur in 3-5% of pregnancies and show many different causes. Although alterations of liver enzymes could be a physiological phenomenon, it may also reflect potential severe liver injury, necessitating further assessment and accurate management. The work-up has to consider liver diseases specific of pregnancy and non pregnancy-related liver damage (coincidental and pre-existing to pregnancy).Pre-existing liver diseases during...
Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
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