Microstructural White Matter and Links With Subcortical Structures in Chronic Schizophrenia: A Free-Water Imaging Approach
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with often a chronic course. Neuroimaging studies report brain abnormalities in both white and gray matter structures. However, the relationship between microstructural white matter differences and volumetric subcortical structures is not known. We investigated 30 long-term treated patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder (mean age 51.1 ± 7.9 years, mean illness duration 27.6 ± 8.0 years) and 42 healthy controls (mean age 54.1 ± 9.1 years) using 3 T diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging. The free-water imaging method was used to mo...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Adding Suicide Prevention to the Triple Advantages of Injectable Long-Acting Second-Generation Antipsychotics
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Gender Differences in Dysfunctional Attitudes in Major Depressive Disorder
ConclusionFemales with MDD may be linked to more severe cognitive distortion than their male counterparts in seeking applause, dependence, and self-determination attitude, supporting the reasonableness for gender-specific psychosocial interventions. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Digital Interventions in Mental Health: Current Status and Future Directions
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Received Cradling Bias During the First Year of Life: A Retrospective Study on Children With Typical and Atypical Development
A population-level left cradling bias exists whereby 60–90% of mothers hold their infants on the left side. This left biased positioning appears to be mutually beneficial to both the mother and the baby's brain organization for processing of socio-emotional stimuli. Previous research connected cradling asymmetries and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), entailing impairment in socio-communicative relationships and characterized by an early hypo-lateralization of brain functions. In this explorative study, we aimed to provide a contribution to the retrospective investigations by looking for early behavioral markers of ne...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Baseline Difference in Quantitative Electroencephalography Variables Between Responders and Non-Responders to Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Depression
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depressive disorder, with outcomes approaching 45–55% response and 30–40% remission. Eligible predictors of treatment outcome, however, are still lacking. Few studies have investigated quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) parameters as predictors of rTMS treatment outcome and none of them have addressed the source localization techniques to predict the response to low-frequency rTMS (LF rTMS). We investigated electrophysiological differences based on scalp EEG data and inverse solution method, exact low-resolution brain elec...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Heterogeneity of Mental Health Assessment
Across the landscape of mental health research and diagnosis, there is a diverse range of questionnaires and interviews available for use by clinicians and researchers to determine patient treatment plans or investigate internal and external etiologies. Although individually, these tools have each been assessed for their validity and reliability, there is little research examining the consistency between them in terms of what symptoms they assess, and how they assess those symptoms. Here, we provide an analysis of 126 different questionnaires and interviews commonly used to diagnose and screen for 10 different disorder typ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adverse Psychosocial Work Environments and Depression –A Narrative Review of Selected Theoretical Models
This report provides a review of current evidence on their associations with depression, based on several systematic reviews and updated by most recent publications. Moreover, it discusses the conceptual and methodological strengths and weaknesses of these associations. In summary, the results of more than 40 cohort studies from a variety of Western modern societies confirm that stressful work in terms of these models is associated with a moderately increased risk of subsequent onset of depression. While this knowledge is considered robust enough to instruct efforts of primary and secondary prevention, several methodologic...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Functional Status of Hypothalamic –Pituitary–Thyroid and Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axes in Hospitalized Schizophrenics in Shanghai
ObjectiveNeuroendocrine dysfunction is related to the pathogenesis of mental disorders, but conclusions from clinical research lack consistency. We aimed to investigate the neuroendocrinal pathophysiology and its correlation with clinical symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.MethodsThe present cross-sectional study included 486 inpatients with schizophrenia admitted at a psychiatric hospital in Shanghai within one year, and 154 healthy controls (HC) matched on age and gender. The serum hemoconcentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3), total thyroxine (TT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Initiating Change of People With Criminal Justice Involvement Through Participation in a Drama Project: An Exploratory Study
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Micronutrients and Diets in the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Chances and Pitfalls
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness Measurements in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. It is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of clinical presentation that is probably due to the frequent occurrence of comorbidity. Children with ADHD more frequently report sleep disorders (notably delayed sleep phase syndrome) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) than typically developing children. The aim of this article is to propose a narrative review of the assessment of EDS in the context of ADHD with first a summary of the subjective and objective tools used to measure it. Secondly, perspectives i...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Exploratory Analysis of Behavioral Impulsivity, Pro-inflammatory Cytokines, and Resting-State Frontal EEG Activity Associated With Non-suicidal Self-Injury in Patients With Mood Disorder
Conclusion: NSSI in mood disorders was associated with increased behavioral impulsivity and greater inflammation. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokines were associated with frontal theta power. Increased inflammation might change major neurotransmitter metabolism, which eventually affects frontal function and decreases response inhibition. Further studies to explore their causal relationship are warranted. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Back to the Future: On the Road Towards Precision Psychiatry
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond Recovery: Exploring Growth in the Aftermath of Psychosis
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Adult Mild Encephalitis With Reversible Splenial Lesion Associated With Delirious Mania: A Case Report
Mild encephalitis with reversible splenial lesion is a rare clinic-radiological entity presenting with neurological and neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with cerebral lesion/s. Delirious mania is a severe psychiatric syndrome characterized by acute onset of delirium, excitement, and psychosis with a high mortality rate. In this paper, we present a case report of mild encephalitis with reversible splenial lesion clinically presenting as delirious mania and evolving into life-threatening multi-organ failure. The patient was treated with aripiprazole and benzodiazepine with poor effect and, after 4 days, the patient's con...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Schizophrenia and Influenza at the Centenary of the 1918-1919 Spanish Influenza Pandemic: Mechanisms of Psychosis Risk
Associations between influenza infection and psychosis have been reported since the eighteenth century, with acute “psychoses of influenza” documented during multiple pandemics. In the late 20th century, reports of a season-of-birth effect in schizophrenia were supported by large-scale ecological and sero-epidemiological studies suggesting that maternal influenza infection increases the risk of psychosis in offspring. We examine the evidence for the association between influenza infection and schizophrenia risk, before reviewing possible mechanisms via which this risk may be conferred. Maternal immune activatio...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Neuroinflammation in Bipolar Depression
The objective of this review is to summarize available evidence on the connection between inflammation and BD, focusing on peripheral inflammatory markers and recent findings on their connection with other typical features of BD, to outline a general overview of the disorder. Moreover, it is meant to analyze the issues with data gathering and interpretation, given the partially contradictory and inconsistent nature of results. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Forensic Restrictiveness Questionnaire: Development, Validation, and Revision
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Advances in Biological Approaches to Treating Resistant/Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

CACNA1C Gene rs11832738 Polymorphism Influences Depression Severity by Modulating Spontaneous Activity in the Right Middle Frontal Gyrus in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder
ConclusionsA genetic variant in CACNA1C rs11832738 may influence depression severity in MDD patients by moderating spontaneous MFG_R activity. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Sleep Deprivation in Treating Acute Bipolar Depression as Augmentation Strategy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
BackgroundBipolar disorder is a disabling disease characterized by the recurrence of mood episodes. Successful strategies for the acute treatment of bipolar depression are still a matter of controversy. Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has shown acute antidepressant effect; however, the prompt relapse of depressive symptoms after sleep recovery has been reported. Taking this into consideration, we aimed to address a twofold research question: what are the acute effects of adding TSD to pharmacological treatment and what are the acute and chronic effects of adding medications to TSD.MethodsMEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Reg...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prediction of Recurrent Emergency Department Visits in Patients With Mental Disorders
BackgroundPatients with mental disorders are more likely to be frequent emergency department (ED) users than patients with somatic illnesses. There is little information about recurrent ED visitors (≥four ED visits/year) due to mental health problems in Switzerland. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the prevalence of recurrent ED visits due to mental disorders and to determine which mental disorders and risk factors were associated with recurrent ED visits.MethodsIn a retrospective analysis, we investigated patients suffering from mental health problems between January and December 2015 who presented more than once ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Features That Evoke the Concept of Disinhibition in Tourette Syndrome
The capacity to efficiently control motor output, by either refraining from prepotent actions or disengaging from ongoing motor behaviors, is necessary for our ability to thrive in a stimulus-rich and socially complex environment. Failure to engage in successful inhibitory motor control could lead to aberrant behaviors typified by an excess of motor performance. In tic disorders and Tourette syndrome (TS) — the most common tic disorder encountered in clinics — surplus motor output is rarely the only relevant clinical sign. A range of abnormal behaviors is often encountered which are historically viewed as &ldqu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Long-Term Impact of War, Civil War, and Persecution in Civilian Populations —Conflict and Post-Traumatic Stress in African Communities
This chapter describes how chronic conflict, warfare, and persecution, as lived experiences, have created significant mental distress in communities on the African continent. There is a growing body of research that highlights increasing mental distress in Africa e.g., about sexuality, health, disease, modernity, climate, politics, culture, religion, ethnicities, race, economies etc. Many of these stresses and uncertainties are driven by political persecution, war, and conflict. This has shaped many African people’s attitudes and government policies and an increasing scholarly interest in exploring these “uncer...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

An Investigation of Lower Limb Representations Underlying Vision, Touch, and Proprioception in Body Integrity Identity Disorder
Individuals with Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) have a (non-psychotic) longstanding desire to amputate or paralyze one or more fully-functioning limbs, often the legs. This desire presumably arises from experiencing a mismatch between one’s perceived mental image of the body and the physical structural and/or functional boundaries of the body itself. While neuroimaging studies suggest a disturbed body representation network in individuals with BIID, few behavioral studies have looked at the manifestation of this disrupted lower limb representations in this population. Specifically, people with BIID feel like...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rationale, Methods, Feasibility, and Preliminary Outcomes of a Transdiagnostic Prevention Program for At-Risk College Students
PurposeEarly adulthood represents one period of increased risk for the emergence of a serious mental illness. The college campus provides a unique opportunity to assess and monitor individuals in this at-risk age group. However, there are no validated early detection programs that are widely implemented on college campuses. In an effort to address this gap, we designed and tested an early detection and prevention program tailored to college students. A transdiagnostic approach was employed because of evidence for shared risk factors across major mental illnesses.DesignSingle arm, prospective study evaluating outcomes follo...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Assessing Voice Hearing in Trauma Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison of Two Measures and a Review of the Literature
In this study, we sought to better characterize the rate and phenomenology of VH in a sample of 70 women with TSD related to childhood abuse who were receiving care in a specialized trauma program. We compared the rate of VH within our sample using two different measures: 1) the auditory hallucination (AH) item in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID), and 2) the thirteen questions involving VH in the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), a self-report questionnaire that comprehensively assesses pathological dissociation. We found that 45.7% of our sample met threshold for SCID AH, while 91.4% ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Persistent Intrinsic Functional Network Connectivity Alterations in Middle-Aged and Older Women With Remitted Depression
This study examined intrinsic network functional connectivity in midlife and older women with remitted depression.MethodsA total of 69 women (24 with a history of depression, 45 with no psychiatric history) over 50 years of age completed 3T fMRI with resting-state acquisition. Participants with remitted depression met DSM-IV-TR criteria for an episode in the last 10 years but not the prior year. Whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting-state functional connectivity analyses examined the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN), plus bilateral hippocampal seeds. All analyses were adjus...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Interoception in Anorexia Nervosa: Exploring Associations With Alexithymia and Autistic Traits
ConclusionThe results found no differences between heartbeat tracking task performance in people with AN compared to HC. There was no association between task performance, alexithymia and autistic traits in AN. Results do suggest that people with AN exhibit lowered confidence in their task performance, and that they may lack insight into this performance compared to HC. The findings are discussed in the context of potential significant limitations of the heartbeat tracking task, with recommendations for future research into interoception in AN. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inspecting Vulnerability to Depression From Social Media Affect
This study examined the longitudinal pattern of affect on a popular Chinese social media platform: Weibo. We collected 1,664 Chinese Weibo users’ self-reported CES-D scores via surveys and 3 years’ worth of Weibo posts preceding the surveys. First, we visualized participants’ social media affect and found evidence of cognitive vulnerability indicated by affect patterns: Users with high depression symptoms tended to use not only more negative affective words but also more positive affective words long before they developed early depression symptoms. Second, to identify the type of language that is directly...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

BDNF Serum Levels are Associated With White Matter Microstructure in Schizophrenia - A Pilot Study
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. As BDNF regulates axonal and dendritic growth, altered BDNF levels in schizophrenia patients might underlie changes in structural connectivity that have been identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated a possible correlation between BDNF serum levels, fiber tract architecture, and regional grey matter volumes in 19 schizophrenia patients and a gender- and age-matched control group. Two patients had to be excluded due to abnormalities in their MRI scans. Serum samples were obtained to determine BDNF leve...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Learning to Let Go: A Cognitive-Behavioral Model of How Psychedelic Therapy Promotes Acceptance
This article presents a conceptual model that specifies potential psychological mechanisms underlying such change, and that shows substantial parallels between psychedelic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy: We propose that in the carefully controlled context of psychedelic therapy as applied in contemporary clinical research, psychedelic-induced belief relaxation can increase motivation for acceptance via operant conditioning, thus engendering episodes of relatively avoidance-free exposure to greatly intensified private events. Under these unique learning conditions, relaxed avoidance-related beliefs can be exposed ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Ruminative Tendency Relates to Ventral Striatum Functionality: Evidence From Task and Resting-State fMRI
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that ruminative tendencies manifest in VS/NAcc reward- and rumination-related functions, providing support for a theoretical-clinical perspective of rumination as a habitual impairment in selection of rewarding, adaptive coping strategies. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Possible Involvement of Tissue Plasminogen Activator/Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Pathway in Anti-Depressant Effects of Electroacupuncture in Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression in Rats
ObjectiveUsing a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway.MethodsSixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal, model, fluoxetine (fluox), or EA. Experimental groups were subjected to 28 d of CUMS modeling. One hour after CUMS, the fluox and EA groups were treated with fluox and a 20 min EA intervention, respectively. Depressive-like behaviors were assessed by open field and sucrose preference tests. After the rats were sacrific...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Implementation of Key Components of Evidence-Based Family Therapy for Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatient Care
DiscussionWe expect that by implementing the key components of the evidence-based family therapy during the first month of treatment, the prognosis of young newly diagnosed patients with severe restrictive eating disorders, primarily anorexia nervosa will improve, which, in turn, will reduce the need for psychiatric inpatient care.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT04060433. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inflammation and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Implications for Reward Processing and Motivational Deficits
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are debilitating and chronic in nature, are difficult to treat, and contribute to poor functional outcomes. Motivational deficits are a core negative symptom and may involve alterations in reward processing, which involve subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia. More specifically, dopamine-rich regions like the ventral striatum, have been implicated in these reward-processing deficits. Inflammation is one mechanism that may underlie negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, via the effects of inflammatory cytokines on the basal ganglia. Previous work has demonstrate...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Integrating Urban Adolescent Mental Health Into Urban Sustainability Collective Action: An Application of Shiffman & Smith ’s Framework for Global Health Prioritization
The majority (55%) of the world’s population lives in urban environments. Of relevance to global mental health, the rapid growth in urban populations around the world and the attendant risks coincide with the presence of the largest population of adolescents the global community has seen to date. Recent reviews on the effects of the urban environment on mental health report a greater risk of depression, anxiety, and some psychotic disorders among urban dwellers. Increased risk for mental disorders is associated with concentrated poverty, low social capital, social segregation, and other social and environmental adver...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Efficient Prediction of Vitamin B Deficiencies via Machine-Learning Using Routine Blood Test Results in Patients With Intense Psychiatric Episode
This study demonstrates that machine-learning can efficiently predict some vitamin deficiencies in patients with active psychiatric symptoms, based on the largest cohort to date with intense psychiatric episode. The prediction method may expedite risk stratification and clinical decision-making regarding whether replacement therapy should be prescribed. Further research includes validating its external generalizability in other clinical situations and clarify whether interventions based on this method could improve patient care and cost-effectiveness. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of MRI-Based Identification of Presymptomatic Autism in a High-Risk Population
Biological siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased risk of receiving an ASD diagnosis. In the U.S., most children with ASD are diagnosed after the optimal age to initiate early intervention which can reduce symptom severity and improve outcomes. Recent evidence suggests magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the first year of life can predict later diagnostic status in high-risk siblings. We investigated whether MRI-based screening is a cost-effective method for assigning early intervention. A hybrid decision tree/Markov model was used to evaluate two MRI-based screening strategies at 6 and 12 ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Compromised Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation in Patients With Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Behavior Disorder: A Case-Control Study Using Transcranial Doppler
ConclusionsCA function is compromised in patients with IRBD during wakefulness, which might be an intermediate link between IRBD and neurological symptoms. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pooled Time Series Modeling Reveals Smoking Habit Memory Pattern
Smoking is a habit that is hard to break because nicotine is highly addictive and smoking behavior is strongly linked to multiple daily activities and routines. Here, we explored the effect of gender, age, day of the week, and previous smoking on the number of cigarettes smoked on any given day. Data consisted of daily records of the number of cigarettes participants smoked over an average period of 84 days. The sample included smokers (36 men and 26 women), aged between 18 and 26 years, who smoked at least five cigarettes a day and had smoked for at least 2 years. A panel data analysis was performed by way of multilevel p...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Cognitive Task Performance During Titration Predicts Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment Efficacy: Evidence From a Case Study
Device titration is a major challenge when using deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat behavioral disorders. Unlike in movement disorders, there is no reliable real-time clinical feedback for changes in complex behaviors resulting from DBS. Here, a female patient receiving DBS of the nucleus accumbens for the treatment of morbid obesity underwent cognitive testing via the flanker task alongside traditional methods of device titration. One set of stimulation parameters administered during titration resulted in acute cognitive improvement (p = 0.033) and increased frontal engagement as measured by electroencephalography (lef...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Five Applications of Narrative Exposure Therapy for Children and Adolescents Presenting With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders
Narrative exposure therapy (NET) is an individual therapeutic approach that has an emerging evidence base for children. It was initially trialed with refugee and asylum seeking populations, in low, middle and high-income settings, utilizing either lay or professional therapists. The results of treatment trials for PTSD in refugee children with NET (or the child “KIDNET” adaptation) demonstrates how this is an effective intervention, is scalable and culturally dexterous. This paper describes, in five cases from clinical practice settings, the applicability of NET into broader, routine practice. The cases outline...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Deciding to End One ’s Life Because of a Psychiatric Illness—A Decision Without Second Thoughts?
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Lower Serum Uric Acid Is Associated With Post-Stroke Depression at Discharge
ConclusionsLower SUA levels on admission were found to be associated with PSD at discharge and the threshold effect was also revealed. For stroke patients, doctors should pay attention to the baseline SUA for screening high-risk PSD at discharge in clinical practice. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Decision-Making by Patients With Methamphetamine Use Disorder Receiving Contingency Management Treatment: Magnitude and Frequency Effects
ConclusionsA predilection for choices based on the size and immediacy of reward may reflect a cognitive strategy that works against CM. Pretesting with a decision-making task, such as the IGT, may help in matching cognitive therapies to clients with MA Use Disorder. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Negative Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Mental Health
Infection by the parasite Toxoplasma, which affects about 33% of world population, is associated with an increased risk of several mental health disorders, the most strongly with schizophrenia. It is unknown whether schizophrenia is associated with this infection the most strongly, or whether this association has just been the most intensively studied for historical reasons. We used the data from 6,367 subjects tested for toxoplasmosis who took part in an internet survey to search for associations of these infections with 24 mental health disorders and evidence of otherwise impaired mental health. The typical symptom assoc...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological and Psychosocial Interventions for PTSD, Depression and Anxiety Among Children and Adolescents in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Meta-Analysis
ConclusionHigh quality RCTs investigating the effect of psychological and psychosocial interventions on PTSD, depression and anxiety among children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries are scarce. Results of the available studies may suggest that psychological and psychosocial interventions might be more effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD compared to control conditions. Due to very high heterogeneity, this evidence must be considered with caution. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Pharmacological Human Enhancement: An Overview of the Looming Bioethical and Regulatory Challenges
Cognitive enhancement, a rather broad-ranging principle, can be achieved in various ways: healthy eating and consistent physical exercise can lead to long-term improvements in many cognitive domains; commonplace stimulants such as caffeine, on the other hand, temporarily raise levels of alertness, attentiveness, and concentration; sedative substances are also used as an indirect form of enhancement to relax before an exam or an important meeting. Such approaches raise no ethical issue. Nonetheless, clinical research has led to the off-label use of drugs called nootropics or “smart drugs”, which can, under certa...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - February 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research