The Effect of Employment on Delinquent Behavior Among Youth in Hidden Situation
This study examines the effect of employment on delinquent behavior among young people in “hidden situations”. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, and 588 young people in these hidden situations were investigated. Results showed that some of them had employment; their employment status constituted a mediating effect on preventing them from being involved in delinquent behavior. Also, participants who had work explained the reasons for not being involved in delinquent behavior. These results reflect that whether young people in hidden situation involve in delinquent behavior depends on their emp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Identifying Violent Behavior Using the Oxford Mental Illness and Violence Tool in a Psychiatric Ward of a German Prison Hospital
Vincent Negatsch1*, Alexander Voulgaris2, Peter Seidel3, Robert Roehle4,5,6 and Annette Opitz-Welke11Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Institute of Forensic Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany2Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Institute of Sexual Medicine and Forensic Psychiatry, Hamburg, Germany3Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Prison Hospital Berlin, Berlin, Germany4Charité–Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Clinical Correlates of Insulin Resistance in Chronic Schizophrenia: Relationship to Negative Symptoms
This study presents findings from a large sample with extensive clinical phenotyping—allowing us to examine the relationships of insulin resistance with a number of key psychopathological, cognitive, and functioning measures, using multivariate methods to assess the relative contributions of different factors to metabolic abnormalities. PwS often have many risk factors for metabolic abnormalities: lifestyle habits, medications, and underlying biological mechanisms including inflammation and oxidative stress. Treatment and prevention of metabolic abnormalities in PwS can be particularly challenging due to these multip...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stressful Newborn Memories: Pre-Conceptual, In Utero, and Postnatal Events
In this study, a link between mitochondrial changes and infant temperament has also been suggested. Maternal psychosocial stress and lifetime trauma have been associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the placenta (115, 116).IndividualityChronic stress links changes in the epigenetic landscape with health conditions (117). Different cell types are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression due to developmental, environmental, physiological, and pathological reasons (117). Epigenetic mechanisms affect gene function in a dynamic way as a result of different environmental exposures during fetal dev...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Increased Neural Activity in Hazardous Drinkers During High Workload in a Visual Working Memory Task: A Preliminary Assessment Through Event-Related Potentials
Elisa Schroder†, Clémence Dousset†, Xavier Noel, Charles Kornreich and Salvatore Campanella*Laboratoire de Psychologie Médicale et d’Addictologie, ULB Neuroscience Institute (UNI), CHU Brugmann-Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Brussels, BelgiumDespite equated behavioral performance levels, hazardous drinkers generally exhibited increased neural activity while performing simple cognitive tasks compared to light drinkers. Here, 49 participants (25 hazardous and 24 light drinkers) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study while performing an n-back working memory ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Experiences and Perceptions of Police Officers Concerning Their Interactions With People With Serious Mental Disorders for Compulsory Treatment
Conclusions: This study highlights the perceptions and experiences of police officers about the process of compulsory admission, and identifies areas of unmet needs. These findings help to raise awareness of their needs, improving this process, and ensuring a more humane and effective approach. Introduction Compulsory admission and treatment is a topic of intense debate in psychiatry. This is due to the effects such policies have on people's lives, given that it involves detaining them against their wishes and restricting their individual liberty (1). Compulsory treatment is ethically challenging, often assoc...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Early Trauma and Cognitive Functions of Patients With Schizophrenia
Conclusion: Although a cause–effect relationship cannot be firmly stated, an association between early trauma experience and cognitive impairment such as visual memory, as well as a relationship between negative symptoms and attention domains, is suggested by our preliminary findings. Future studies with larger sample sizes and prospective design will clarify the long-term effects of early exposure to trauma and its clinical meaning in terms of developing psychotic-related illness.IntroductionMore than 75% of patients with schizophrenia show some level of cognitive impairment, leading to poor functional status and im...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Moderating Effect of Mindfulness on the Relationships Between Perceived Stress and Mental Health Outcomes Among Chinese Intensive Care Nurses
This study aimed to explore the potential moderating effect of mindfulness and its facets on the relationships among perceived stress and mental health outcomes (burnout, depression, anxiety, and subjective well-being) among Chinese intensive care nurses. A total of 500 Chinese intensive care nurses completed self-report measures of mindfulness, burnout syndromes, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and subjective well-being. Correlation and hierarchical multiple regressions were applied for data analysis. Mindfulness moderated the effects of perceived stress on emotional exhaustion (the core component of burnout syndro...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Feasibility Randomised Trial Comparing Two Forms of Mental Health Supported Accommodation (Supported Housing and Floating Outreach); a Component of the QuEST (Quality and Effectiveness of Supported Tenancies) Study
Conclusions: Our results do not support investment in a large-scale trial in England at this time.Trial registration: UK CRN Portfolio database, Trial ID: ISRCTN19689576.Trial funding: National Institute of Health Research (RP-PG-0707-10093).IntroductionIn England, one third of working-age adults with severe mental health problems (around 60,000 people) reside in supported accommodation provided by health and social services and housing associations (1, 2). These services have been categorised into three main types (3): residential care homes (offering high levels of longer-term support, 24 h a day to individuals with high...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treatment-Resistant to Antipsychotics: A Resistance to Everything? Psychotherapy in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia and Nonaffective Psychosis: A 25-Year Systematic Review and Exploratory Meta-Analysis
Conclusions: CBT, psychosocial intervention, supportive counseling, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and other psychological interventions can be recommended for clinical practice. More studies are needed, especially for non-CBT interventions and for all psychotherapies on negative symptoms.IntroductionSchizophrenia affects approximately 1% of the population, usually starting in adolescence or young adulthood, frequently leading to persistent disability, with a high risk of suicide (8%). Despite the advance in antipsychotics treatment, approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia show a poor response or no response to anti...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Improving Identification and Child-Focused Collaborative Care for Children of Parents With a Mental Illness in Tyrol, Austria
ConclusionThe research project aims to directly improve identification and support of vulnerable children across selected regions in Austria, and by doing so, improve the health and well-being of future Austrian generations while breaking the cycle of intergenerational transfer of adverse childhood experiences. The described project underwent a rigorous public review process (https://ois.lbg.ac.at/en/methods-projects/crowdsourcing-research-questions-in-science) with different stakeholders as well as people with lived experience and scientific experts of the field having reviewed our proposal (https://ois.lbg.ac.at/en/metho...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosis Polyrisk Score (PPS) for the Detection of Individuals At-Risk and the Prediction of Their Outcomes
Dominic Oliver1,2, Joaquim Radua1,3,4, Abraham Reichenberg5,6,7,8, Rudolf Uher9 and Paolo Fusar-Poli1,2,10,11* 1Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical Detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom 2OASIS Service, South London and the Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom 3Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Stockh...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stressful Life Events, Depression, and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Chinese Left-Behind Children: Moderating Effects of Self-Esteem
Tian Lan1, Xuji Jia2, Danhua Lin1 and Xia Liu1*1Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China2Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, ChinaUsing cross-sectional data of the children in the Guizhou Province of China, the present study examined the association between stressful life events and self-esteem, depression, and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). The participants included 1,210 children recruited from four junior high schools. Self-report questionnaires concerned stressful life events, self-esteem, depression, and NSSI. Results indicated that Chinese left-behind children who faced more stressful life events were more likely ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Anxiety in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: Risk Factors and Effects on Functional Status
Wei Li1†, Wei-Min Xiao1†, Yang-Kun Chen1*, Jian-Feng Qu1, Yong-Lin Liu1, Xue-Wen Fang2, Han-Yu Weng1 and Gen-Pei Luo11Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China2Department of Radiology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, ChinaBackground: Anxiety is prevalent after a stroke. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of poststroke anxiety (PSA) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging risk factors for development of PSA and examine the effects of PSA on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Case Management for Substance Use Disorders: A Recovery Perspective
Conclusions: The primary results from earlier meta-analyses were supported: case management is more effective than TAU conditions for improving outcomes, but this effect is significantly larger for treatment-related tasks than for personal functioning outcomes. Case management can be an important supplement to available services for improving linkage and retention, although further research is needed to assess its potential for supporting recovery from a longitudinal perspective. Introduction Rationale Substance use disorders (SUD) are associated with a wide range of consequences, including adverse health, social ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Validating the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS) to Detect Longitudinal Cognitive Decline in Adults With Down Syndrome
Carla M. Startin1,2,3*, Bryony Lowe2,3, Sarah Hamburg1,2,3, Rosalyn Hithersay1,2,3, Andre Strydom1,2,3 and LonDownS Consortium 1Department of Forensic and Neurodevelopmental Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom2Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, United Kingdom3LonDownS Consortium, London, United Kingdom Down syndrome (DS) is associated with intellectual disability and an ultra-high risk of developing dementia. Informant ratings are invaluable to assess abilities and related changes in adults with DS, particularl...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Epistatic Interaction Between 5-HT1A and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms in the Northern Chinese Han Population With Major Depressive Disorder
Conclusions: The interactions between 5-HT1A and VEGF gene polymorphisms may play a key role in the development of MDD in the Northern Chinese Han population.IntroductionMajor depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common complex mental disorders, with symptoms that include loss of interest, periodic depression, and thoughts of suicide. Epidemiologic studies have shown that MDD afflicted an estimated 7%–11% of the general population (1, 2); yet, the underlying mechanism of MDD remains unclear. Genetic factors are likely to play a critical role in its etiology with the total contribution of heritability estimate...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Thalamocortical Hyperconnectivity and Amygdala-Cortical Hypoconnectivity in Male Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that pathophysiological changes associated with ASD are more likely related to thalamocortical hyperconnectivity than to amygdala-cortical hypoconnectivity. Future studies should examine full sets of clinical and behavioral symptoms in combination with functional connectivity to explore possible biomarkers for ASD.IntroductionAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by atypical social communication and restricted patterns of behavior, interest, or activities, both of which must be present in the early developmental period (1). Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory stimuli and unu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Functional and Structural Connectomics of Mood Disorders
This report calls to attention the importance of keeping the dynamic nature of the functional connectome in mind while exploring biomarkers of illness severity and treatment response in mood disorders. Finally, confounding effects of comorbid conditions such as sleep disturbance frequently seen in mood disorders need to be addressed while studying the connectome. Klumpp et al. report that regardless of diagnosis of depression or anxiety disorder, poor self-reported sleep quality correlates with abnormal amygdala connectivity. Poor reported sleep correlated negatively with left amygdala-subgenual connectivity and positivel...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Hikikomori Is Most Associated With Interpersonal Relationships, Followed by Suicide Risks: A Secondary Analysis of a National Cross-Sectional Study
Roseline Yong* and Kyoko NomuraPublic Health Department, The Graduate School of Medicine, Akita University, Akita, JapanThere have been few population studies of hikikomori (that is, prolonged social withdrawal and isolation), and the basic correlating factors of hikikomori are yet to be identified. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the associated basic characteristics and psychiatric factors of hikikomori. Data were obtained from the Survey of Young People’s Attitudes of 5,000 residents (aged 15–39 years) who were randomly selected from 200 urban and suburban municipalities in Japan in February 2010. The...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Baclofen but Not Diazepam Alleviates Alcohol-Seeking Behavior and Hypothalamic –Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Dysfunction in Stressed Withdrawn Mice
In conclusion, this study evidences that a pre-treatment with baclofen but not with diazepam during the withdrawal phase normalized, even after a long period of abstinence, the HPA axis response to stress, which contributes to the long-term preventing effects of this compound on alcohol-seeking behavior.IntroductionThere is substantial evidence that cognitive and neurobiological alterations are either dramatically enhanced or gradually developed after alcohol withdrawal (1–4). One of the main disturbances associated with alcohol withdrawal involves a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HP...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Associations of Emotion Coping Appraisal With Both the Cue –Outcome Contingency and Perceived Verbal Abuse Exposure
In this study, using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that decreased emotion coping appraisal of resilience in young adults was explained by an increased tendency to update beliefs about cue–outcome associative probability in a volatile environment and the increase in the parental verbal abuse experienced in early childhood. The total scores of resilience appraisals were also explained in the same manner (see Supplementary Tables 4 and 7). In addition, we did not find any effect of gender on the results both with whole subject (Figure 4) and in the gender-matched subgroup (see Supplementary Figure 3).Not...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Qualitative Systematic Review of Effects of Provider Characteristics and Nonverbal Behavior on Pain, and Placebo and Nocebo Effects
Conclusion: Characteristics and nonverbal behaviors of experimenters/clinicians contribute to the elicitation and modulation of pain, placebo, and nocebo effects.IntroductionThe present qualitative review investigated whether the characteristics or nonverbal behavior (NB) of the person administrating painful stimulation affected pain or placebo/nocebo effects in the research participant. The placebo effect is a psychobiological response that may occur following the application of active and inactive interventions (1). Applying an inactive medication paired with positive information about its analgesic effects can reduce pa...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Technology and College Student Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities
Emily G. Lattie1*, Sarah Ketchen Lipson2 and Daniel Eisenberg31Center for Behavioral Intervention Technologies, Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States2Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Health Law Policy and Management, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States3University of Michigan School of Public Health, Department of Health Management and Policy, and Population Studies Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United StatesIn recent years, there has been an increase in symptoms of depression, anxiety, eatin...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prognostic Utility of Multivariate Morphometry in Schizophrenia
Conclusions: The baseline deficit in a covariance-based network-like spatial component comprising of insula and IFG is predictive of the clinical course of schizophrenia. We do not find any evidence to support the notion of symptoms per se being neurotoxic to gray matter tissue. If judiciously combined with other available predictors of clinical outcome, multivariate morphometric information can improve our ability to predict prognosis in schizophrenia.IntroductionOver the last five decades, several neuroimaging studies have reported numerous morphological abnormalities in the brain, especially in the gray matter volume (G...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Auditory Event-Related Potentials in Antipsychotic-Free Subjects With Ultra-High-Risk State and First-Episode Psychosis
Conclusion: Our study is one of the few studies focused on drug-naive or minimally treated patients at pre- or early-psychotic states. Our results exhibited impaired performance in sensory gating and deviance detection shown by certain parameters. A longitudinal study with larger sample sizes will be helpful to provide more evidence to elucidate the role of antipsychotics on an individual’s neurophysiological performance at different stages of psychosis.IntroductionNeuroscience tools have been widely employed in schizophrenia research in recent decades (1–3). Neurobiological impairments precede the onset of a f...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Financial Incentive Does Not Affect P300 in the Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) Version of the Concealed Information Test (CIT) in Malingering Detection. II. Uninstructed Subjects
This study utilized the older “3-stimulus protocol” [3SP, (7)]. We want to emphasize, however, that the malingering protocol that detects feigned cognitive deficit about autobiographical knowledge has critical differences from the forensic CIT protocol that detects feigned ignorance of crime details, and this fact makes it difficult to generalize from malingering data to forensic CIT data. We will re-visit this issue in the discussion. It is noted that the present and previous tests of malingering use both verbal/behavioral tests as well as P300 data, typically with a comparative aim. The verbal/behavioral tes...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Competence to Consent and Its Relationship With Cognitive Function in Patients With Schizophrenia
Conclusions Neurocognitive functioning may explain competence to consent more accurately than positive and negative symptoms. Previous results have not indicated differential relationships between specific cognitive ability areas and decision-making capacity. Interventions with multimedia procedure, MCT, etc. likely enhance competence to consent. Cognitive remediation might provide ethically adequate care as well as clinical improvement. Clinicians and researchers are responsible for maximizing decision-making capacities of patients in the informed consent process. Further studies are warranted to elucidate competence to ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Two Sides of the Same Coin: A Case Report of First-Episode Catatonic Syndrome in a High-Functioning Autism Patient
Conclusion: This case represents an example of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of catatonic schizophrenia in high-functioning autism due to clinical and neurobiological overlaps of these conditions. We discuss clinical features together with pathophysiological concepts of both conditions. Furthermore, we tackle social and legal hurdles in Germany that naturally arise in these patients. Finally, we present diagnostic “red flags” that can be used to rationally select and conduct current recommended diagnostic assessments if there is a suspicion of ASD in patients with catatonic syndrome in order to provide ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Treating Depression With Tai Chi: State of the Art and Future Perspectives
This study had a large sample size and obtained positive findings in both patients’ subjective ratings and in inflammatory marker levels. It demonstrates the benefits of adding Tai Chi to an antidepressant regimen but does not examine the specific effect of Tai Chi on depression.Field et al. (16) investigated the effects of combined Tai Chi/yoga in 92 prenatally depressed pregnant women. They found that women practicing Tai Chi/yoga (20 min per week for 12 weeks) had lower depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance scores compared to a waitlist control group (Table 1). This study had a large sample size and provided ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Mandated Treatment and Its Impact on Therapeutic Process and Outcome Factors
In conclusion, treatment outcomes in different domains seem to be linked to the client’s motivation to attend treatment and the feeling of being coerced into therapy, regardless of mandate (2). It has been argued that there is, potentially, an element of coercion in every clinical encounter (80) and the perception of coercion has a variety of determinants, many of which are dependent on the quality of relationship with the service provider (45). Therefore, reducing feelings of coercion might improve treatment outcomes, prevent disengagement from services, and ameliorate therapeutic relationships (5). Facilitating the...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sleep Disorders in Huntington ’s Disease
ConclusionsDifferent patterns of sleep disturbances are observed in HD patients: insomnia, difficulties in falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and excessive daytime sleepiness are the most common sleep problems reported by patients with HD. In several HD studies, specific changes in sleep architecture and in circadian melatonin secretion were identified in laboratory testing.Sleep disorders in HD have diverse and complex determinants, the most significant of which includes damage to brain areas that are responsible for the proper sleep pattern and circadian rhythm regulation. Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Generalizability Analysis of the Mobile Phone Addiction Tendency Scale for Chinese College Students
ConclusionsThe two generalized designs (the two-facet unbalanced design and the one-facet multivariate design) indicated that the effects of the participate and the effects associated with the participate accounted for the majority of the total variation of the MPATS for Chinese college students, and the test items were not the main source of measurement errors. According to the generalizability coefficient and dependability index, the MPATS can be used either as a Norm Referenced Test or as a Criterion Referenced Test, but it depends on the research intention of the study that uses this scale. For the specific dimensions ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Prediction of Depression Scores From Aerobic Fitness, Body Fatness, Physical Activity, and Vagal Indices in Non-exercising, Female Workers
Conclusion: The present study revealed that VO2max and the sum of skinfolds were moderately related to depression scores, while VO2max was the only independent predictor of depression scores in female workers. Introduction Depression is a multifactorial disease that affects 322 million people worldwide (1). Between 2005 and 2015, there was an increase of more than 18% in the number of cases (1). The global prevalence is 4.4%, however, women suffer more from the disease, with 5.1% compared to 3.1% of men (1). In Brazil, depression affects 7.6% of the population, which represents about 11.2 million people, with a preva...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Validity, Reliability, and Factor Structure of the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale-French Version
In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the STSS-F. It makes the SSTS accessible to French speaking research contexts. Introduction Secondary traumatic stress (STS) or STS disorder (STSD) is a syndrome including intrusion, avoidance, and arousal (2). The symptoms of STSD are the same as those of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders [DSM-IV; (3)]. But unlike PTSD, STSD is due to indirect exposure in a professional context (e.g., caring for a traumatized patient)1. Hence, STSD was not i...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Altered Local and Large-Scale Dynamic Functional Connectivity Variability in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Resting-State fMRI Study
In this study, we compared the dynamic resting-state local and large-scale FC between PTSD patients (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC; n = 22; conducted as standard deviation in resting-state local and large-scale FC over a series of sliding windows). Local dynamic FC was examined by calculating the dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo), and large-scale dynamic FC (dFC) was investigated between regions with significant dReHo group differences. For the PTSD patients, we also investigated the relationship between symptom severity and dFC/dReHo. Our results showed that PTSD patients were characterized by I) increased dynamic (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Three-Year Follow-Up Study Exploring Metacognition and Function in Individuals With First Episode Psychosis
This study assessed whether neurocognition, functional capacity and metacognitive ability in FEP predicted functional outcome three years later. Methods: Eighty individuals with First Episode Psychosis were re-contacted after an average 3 years (range: 26–45 month follow-up) from baseline. Twenty-six participants (33%) completed completed measures of neurocognition, metacognition, functional capacity, functional outcome (hours spent in structured activity per week) and psychopathology at baseline and at follow-up. Results: Individual regression analyses demonstrated neurocognition, functional capacity, and metacogn...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of Xiaoyaosan on the Hippocampal Gene Expression Profile in Rats Subjected to Chronic Immobilization Stress
Conclusion: XYS may have the ability of resistance to stress, enhancement immunity and promotion nerve cell regeneration by regulating the expression of multiple genes in numerous pathways and repaired the stress-induced impairments in hippocampal structure and function by inducing cytoskeletal reorganization. These results may provide the possible target spots in the treatment of stress in rats with XYS. Introduction Xiaoyaosan (XYS) which was first recorded in the Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy contains Radix Bupleuri, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, Radix Paeoniae Al...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alexithymia and Its Associations With Depression, Suicidality, and Aggression: An Overview of the Literature
Conclusion It is clear that clinically, there is still much to be learnt about alexithymia and its relationship with a range of related phenomena. Firstly, is alexithymia a continuous and stable trait independent of psychological or somatic symptomology that is developed during childhood? Or is it instead a reactive state induced by trauma and distress at any age, which serves to defend against intense and upsetting emotions? This impacts on treatment options. For example, should we be focussing on early childhood interventions which target the child's emotional environment and parenting to encourage emotional exp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Shared Environment Effects on Children ’s Emotion Recognition
We examined genetic and environmental influences on children’s ER via facial and vocal cues in 344 7-year-old twin children [59 monozygotic (MZ) and 113 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) pairs], who were part of the Longitudinal Israeli Study of Twins. ER was assessed with the child version of the Diagnostic Assessment of Nonverbal Accuracy. For both facial and vocal cues of emotion, twin correlations were not higher for MZ twins than for DZ twins, suggesting no heritability for ER in this population. In contrast, correlations were positive for both types of twins, indicating a shared environmental effect. This was supported b...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effect of Inflammation on the Process of Stroke Rehabilitation and Poststroke Depression
Conclusions Stroke comprises ischemic stroke and ICH. The immuno-inflammatory process is involved in neural plasticity following events such as a hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. After ischemia, astrocytes, microglia, and MDMs play important roles during rehabilitation with the modulation of cytokines or chemokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1. Moreover, MiRNAs are also important posttranscriptional regulators in these glial mitochondrial responses to cerebral ischemia. ICH involves processes similar and different to those seen in ischemia, including neuronal injury, astrocytic and microglial/macrophage activation, and neu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Cognitive Remediation in Early Versus Chronic Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Report
Conclusion: Our study confirms the effectiveness of cognitive remediation in improving clinical, cognitive, and functional parameters in patients with schizophrenia, both in patients in the early course and in chronic patients. However, patients in the early course showed a differential, greater change in clinical and functional parameters compared to chronic patients. Although this study has some limitations, it confirms the effectiveness of cognitive remediation interventions, particularly if applied in the early course of the illness.IntroductionCognitive impairment represents a core feature of schizophrenia (1, 2), and...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Altered Activity of SK Channel Underpins Morphine Withdrawal Relevant Psychiatric Deficiency in Infralimbic to Accumbens Shell Pathway
In this study, we investigated the role of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) in NAc and mPFC after morphine withdrawal. Action potential (AP) firing of neurons in the NAc shell was enhanced via the downregulations of the SK channels after morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, the expression of SK2 and SK3 subunits in the NAc was significantly reduced after 3 weeks of morphine withdrawal, but was not altered in the dorsal striatum. In mPFC, the SK channel subunits were differentially expressed. To be specific, the expression of SK3 was upregulated, while the expression of SK2 was unchanged...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Alcoholism Identification Based on an AlexNet Transfer Learning Model
Conclusion: This method can assist radiologists in their routine alcoholism screening of brain magnetic resonance images. Introduction Alcoholism (1) was previously composed of two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. According to current terminology, alcoholism differs from “harmful drinking” (2), which is an occasional pattern of drinking that contributes to increasing levels of alcohol-related ill-health. Today, it is defined depending on more than one of the following conditions: alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in social problems, drinking large amounts over a long time period, di...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association of Leptin Gene DNA Methylation With Diagnosis and Treatment Outcome of Anorexia Nervosa
Alexandra Neyazi1†, Vanessa Buchholz1†, Alexandra Burkert1, Thomas Hillemacher1,2, Martina de Zwaan3, Wolfgang Herzog4, Kirsten Jahn1, Katrin Giel5, Stephan Herpertz6, Christian A. Buchholz1, Andreas Dinkel7, Markus Burgmer8, Almut Zeeck9, Stefan Bleich1, Stephan Zipfel5† and Helge Frieling1*† 1Molecular Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry, and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School (MHH), Hannover, Germany 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Paracelsus Medizinische Privatuniversität Nürnberg, Nuremberg, Germany 3Department of Psychos...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impact of Psychotherapy in Psychosis: A Retrospective Case Control Study
Conclusions: The findings from this exploratory study are consistent with the possibility that dialogue therapy may lead to improvements in symptoms and functioning compared to standard treatment in psychosis. Introduction Standard treatment (ST) for psychosis consists primarily of antipsychotics, hospitalization, social rehabilitation, and different types of supportive therapy (1–3). Antipsychotic drugs have only moderate effects on positive symptoms and no demonstrable effects on negative symptoms (4–6). Side effects are often prominent and might include a reduction in emotional expression, menstrual ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Text Analysis of Electronic Medical Records to Predict Seclusion in Psychiatric Wards: Proof of Concept
Conclusions: The resulting significant concepts are comparable to reasons for seclusion in literature. These results are “proof of concept”. Analyzing text of reports in the EMR seems therefore promising as contribution to tools available for the prediction of seclusion. The next step is to build, train and test a model, before text mining can be part of an evidence-based clinical decision making tool. Introduction Reasons for being admitted to a closed psychiatric ward usually involve the combination of psychiatric symptoms and aggressive or impulsive behaviors and/or presenting a risk to others or one...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Role-Play-Based Guidance for Job Interviews Using an Android Robot for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Hirokazu Kumazaki1*, Taro Muramatsu2, Yuichiro Yoshikawa3,4, Yoshio Matsumoto5, Hiroshi Ishiguro3,4, Masaru Mimura2 and Mitsuru Kikuchi11Department of Clinical Research on Social Recognition and Memory, Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan3Department of Systems Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan4JST ERATO ISHIGURO Symbiotic Human-Robot Interaction, Osaka, Japan5Service Robotics Research Group, Intelligent Systems Institute, National Institute of Advanc...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Novel Contribution of Secreted Amyloid- β Precursor Protein to White Matter Brain Enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Novel Contribution of Secreted Amyloid-β Precursor Protein to White Matter Brain Enlargement in Autism Spectrum Disorder Deborah K. Sokol1, Bryan Maloney2, Cara J. Westmark3 and Debomoy K. Lahiri2,4* 1Pediatrics Section, Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States2Indiana Alzheimers Disease Center, Department of Psychiatry, Stark Neuroscience Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States3Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States4Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana Un...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Functional Gastrointestinal Disease in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Descriptive Study in a Clinical Sample
Conclusions: Almost one-third of ASD patients in our sample had at least one fGID. The presence of fGID was associated with ID, sleep problems and with behavioral problems (as measured by the prescription of psychotropic drugs). This subsample of ASD patients with fGID deserves particular attention in future research projects, focusing on specific phenotypic characteristics and overlapping biological markers that may underlie both pathologies. Introduction Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - April 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research