Gambling in COVID-19 Lockdown in the UK: Depression, Stress, and Anxiety
To combat the spread of COVID-19, the UK Government implemented a range of “lockdown” measures. Lockdown has necessarily changed the gambling habits of gamblers in the UK, and the impact of these measures on the mental health of gamblers is unknown. To understand the impact of lockdown on gamblers, in April 2020, after ~6 weeks of lockdown, participants (N = 1,028, 72% female) completed an online questionnaire. Gambling engagement data was collected for pre-lockdown via the Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS) allowing participants to be classified as Non-Gamblers (NG), Non-Problem Gamblers (NPG) or Potential P...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Effects of Responsible Gambling Pop-Up Messages on Gambling Behaviors and Cognitions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pop-up messages utilized by gambling operators are normally presented to gamblers during gambling sessions in order to prevent excessive gambling and/or to help in the appraisal of maladaptive gambling cognitions. However, the effect of such messages on gambling behavior and gambling cognitions has not previously been synthesized quantitatively. Consequently, a meta-analysis estimating the efficacy of pop-up messages on gambling behavior and cognitions was conducted. A systematic literature search with no time constraints was performed on Web of Science, PsychInfo, Medline, PsychNET, and the Cochrane Library. Search terms ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Perspective on Age Restrictions and Other Harm Reduction Approaches Targeting Youth Online Gambling, Considering Convergences of Gambling and Videogaming
This article explores age restrictions and other harm reduction measures relating to youth and young adult online gambling. A systematic rapid review was conducted by searching eight databases. Additional articles on online gambling (e.g., from references) were later included. To place this perspective into context, articles on adult gambling, land-based gambling, and substance use and other problematic behaviors were also considered. Several studies show promising findings for legally restricting youth from gambling in that such restrictions may reduce the amount of youth gambling and gambling-related harms. However, simp...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Extreme Eating Behaviours
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Enhancing Communication Skills of Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders While Maintaining Social Distancing Using Two Tele-Operated Robots
The objective of this study was to test whether this system can maintain motivation for training in individuals with ASD and whether our system was useful for improving communication skills. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the taking a class by teachers alone (TCT) group or robot-mediated communication exercise (RMC) group. Participants in the TCT group took a class about communication skills from their teacher. Participants in the RMC group, in addition to taking a class by teacher, were grouped in pairs and communicated with each other through the tele-operated robot once a week over 4 weeks (fo...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Characterizing Pathways of Non-oral Prescription Stimulant Non-medical Use Among Adults Recruited From Reddit
Conclusions: Oral prescription stimulant NMU was a precursor to non-oral prescription stimulant NMU. Non-oral prescription stimulant NMU was a precursor to illicit substance use, suggesting that prescription stimulant NMU impacts substance use pathways and revealing opportunities for intervention. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rehabilitation and Disability Spectrum From Adverse Childhood Experience: The Impact of the Movement Cognition and Narration of Emotions Treatment (MCNT) Version 2.0
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) are associated with an increased risk of cerebral, behavioral, and cognitive outcomes, and vulnerability to develop a Borderline Intellectual Functioning (BIF). BIF is characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range 70–85, poor executive functioning, difficulties in emotion processing, and motor competencies. All these difficulties can lead to mental and/or neurodevelopmental disorders that require long-term care. Accordingly, we developed an intensive and multidomain rehabilitation program for children with ACE and BIF, termed the Movement Cognition and Narration of em...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Social Cognition and Interpersonal Problems in Persistent Depressive Disorder vs. Episodic Depression: The Role of Childhood Maltreatment
Conclusion: Depressed patients may not show deficits in decoding the affective states of others and in feeling with others. However, depressed individuals—in particular patients with PDD—may feel easily overwhelmed by emotionally tense situations, resulting in empathic distress and avoidant/submissive interpersonal behavior. Exposure to CM might be an origin of alterations in social cognition and interpersonal problems. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Experts by Experience: Qualitative Evaluation of Adolescent Participation in the Development of a Technological Intervention to Prevent Youth Suicide in Chile
Adolescent suicide is a pressing problem in Chile that has not yet been sufficiently addressed, as suicide rates have stagnated in recent years. One possible explanation could be linked to the adult-centered paradigm that continues to prevail in relation to adolescent health initiatives. In light of this, programs that seek to promote youth mental health should consider incorporating adolescents in the design process using participatory methodologies, to ensure that these initiatives are well-suited for the population. In line with this recommendation, a group of seven adolescents, 13 to 20 years of age, were incorporated ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Amplitude of Low-Frequency Oscillations in Major Depressive Disorder With Childhood Trauma
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with childhood trauma is one of the functional subtypes of depression. Frequency-dependent changes in the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) have been reported in MDD patients. However, there are few studies on ALFF about MDD with childhood trauma. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the ALFF in 69 MDD patients with childhood trauma (28.7 ± 9.6 years) and 30 healthy subjects (28.12 ± 4.41 years). Two frequency bands (slow-5: 0.010–0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz) were analyzed. Compared with controls, the MDD with chi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Exploding Head Syndrome Accompanied by Repeating Panic Attacks: A Case Report
In this report, we argue the importance of gaining further knowledge about EHS, including that about complicating psychiatric symptoms and that about its treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The “Labeled” Side of COVID-19 in India: Psychosocial Perspectives on Islamophobia During the Pandemic
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global public health threat over the last few months. Historically, infectious disease outbreaks like the plague, Influenza, cholera, HIV, etc. have generated stigma, prejudice, “othering” and xenophobia, against certain communities. One such prevalent form of xenophobia, is Islamophobia or “fear and discrimination against the Muslims.” Though debated over its various facets and definitions, it is on the rise worldwide. India, being a socio-politically diverse and populous nation, has been facing unique challenges during COVID-19. Considering ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Quality of Life and Its Correlates in Alcohol Use Disorder Patients With and Without Depression in China
Objective: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a serious issue worldwide and frequently co-occurs with depression. However, the quality of life (QOL) of AUD patients with and without depression is not well studied in the Chinese Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate QOL and its correlates in AUD patients with and without depression in China.Methods: Five hundred and fifteen psychiatric patients diagnosed with AUD were recruited. All these patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess depression, the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) to evaluate QOL and the Alcoho...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Brief Research Report: A Pilot Study of Cognitive Behavioral Regulation Therapy (CBT-REG) for Young People at High Risk of Early Transition to Bipolar Disorders
We describe an intervention that includes strategies for problem-solving, reducing sleep-wake cycle disturbances, self-management of rumination and that addresses the needs of individuals with “sub-threshold” presentations who are probably at risk of developing a bipolar or other major mental disorders. Outcome data from a case series of 14 youth indicates that the intervention appears to demonstrate a relatively high benefit-to-risk ratio, promising levels of engagement with the therapy modules, and the therapy appears to be acceptable to a wide range of help-seeking youth with early expressions of bipolar psy...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

A Virtual Reality Game to Assess OCD Symptoms
Conclusions: Our study clearly shows our OCD VR game is capable of provoking more anxiety and virtual compulsions in patients with OCD compared to healthy controls. Providing a direct patient-rated measurement in the clinicians room, the VR game could help in assessing core OCD symptoms and recognizing OCD.Clinical Trial Registry Number: Netherlands Trial Register NTR5935. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Acute Effects of Cannabis Concentrate on Motor Control and Speed: Smartphone-Based Mobile Assessment
This study measured postural control and motor speed after the use of high potency concentrates in males and females.Methods: Experienced concentrate users (N = 65, Female: 46%, 17 ± 11 days/month of concentrate use) were assessed for motor performance in a mobile laboratory before, immediately after, and 1 h after ad-libitum cannabis concentrate use. Plasma levels of THC were obtained via venipuncture at each timepoint. We used a remotely deployable motor performance battery to assess arm and leg movement speed, index finger tapping rate, and balance. The sensors on a smart device (iPod Touch) attached to the parti...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychiatric Advance Directives and Artificial Intelligence: A Conceptual Framework for Theoretical and Ethical Principles
The patient's decision-making abilities are often altered in psychiatric disorders. The legal framework of psychiatric advance directives (PADs) has been made to provide care to patients in these situations while respecting their free and informed consent. The implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) within Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) may result in improvements for complex decisions that are often made in situations covered by PADs. Still, it raises theoretical and ethical issues this paper aims to address. First, it goes through every level of possible intervention of AI in the PAD drafting process, beg...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Resilience of Social Service Providers and Families of Children With Autism or Development Delays During the COVID-19 Pandemic —A Community Case Study in Hong Kong
Conclusion: In comparison with other cities, Hong Kong has responded to the COVID-19 efficiently and effectively based on the citizen's strict adherence to behavioral advice and the innovative altruistic efforts from the multi-sectors in the community. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in a Psychiatric Closed Ward: What We Have to Learn
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Theoretical Mapping of Suicidal Risk Factors During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mini-Review
Suicide prevention in times of COVID-19 pandemic has become more challenging than ever due to unusual circumstances. The common risk factors identified with regard to suicidal behavior are fear of COVID-19, economic instability, poor access to healthcare facilities, pre-existing psychiatric disorders, and social disconnect. The studies done so far have reported either case studies or have made an effort to understand the risk factors. An understanding of the underlying causal pattern from existing theories, behind these risks, will enable adopting appropriate prevention mechanisms. Hence, this review examines evidence rela...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Effect of COVID-19 on Mental Health and Wellbeing in a Representative Sample of Australian Adults
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived Stress, Hope, and Health Outcomes Among Medical Staff in China During the COVID-19 Pandemic
This study investigated the buffering role of hope between perceived stress and health outcomes among front-line medical staff treating patients with suspected COVID-19 infection in Shenzhen, China. In the cross-sectional study with online questionnaires, medical staff's perceived stress, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and hope were measured by the 10-item Chinese Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Locus-of-Hope Scale, respectively. A total of 319 eligible front-line medical staff participated. The prevalence of anxiety (29.70%), depression (28.80...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Serum Levels of FGF21, β-Klotho, and BDNF in Stable Coronary Artery Disease Patients With Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Single-Center Study
Conclusions: The depression score was positively correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis, and serum FGF21, β-klotho, mBDNF, and proBDNF were closely related to the development of DS in patients with SCAD. These observations suggest FGF21, β-klotho, mBDNF, and proBDNF as potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets for SCAD with co-morbid depression. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Use of Virtual Reality Working Memory Task and Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Assess Brain Hemodynamic Responses to Methylphenidate in ADHD Children
Virtual reality (VR) neuropsychological tests have emerged as a method to explore drug effects in real-life contexts in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a useful tool to measure brain activity during VR tasks in ADHD children with motor restlessness. The present study aimed to explore the acute effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on behavioral performance and brain activity during a VR-based working memory task simulating real-life classroom settings in ADHD children. In total, 23 children with ADHD performed a VR n-back task before and 2 h after MPH ad...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Dietary Glutamic Acid, Obesity, and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Schizophrenia
Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate a possible correlation between dietary glutamic acid a depressive symptoms in non-obese patients with schizophrenia, although further research is needed to specifically examine this relationship. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Feasibility and Effectiveness of a New Short-Term Psychotherapy Concept for Adolescents With Emotional Dysregulation
Conclusion: START demonstrates preliminary evidence for improvement in emotional dysregulation after a 5-weeks course of treatment. Therefore, this short-term intervention can possibly be regarded as a tool to improve emotional stability in children with a high load of trauma-related psychopathology. The results are promising and warrant future studies, specifically randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of START for strengthening resilience at-risk-populations. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Development of the DDads Questionnaire: Awareness, Knowledge and Attitudes of the General Population Towards Paternal Depression
Conclusions: We developed an instrument to establish awareness, knowledge and attitudes of the general population toward paternal perinatal depression in Belgium. The DDads can be valuable in identifying knowledge gaps. It can help to inform policy makers and health professionals to identify gaps and predisposed attitudes in society toward paternal depression which may hinder appropriate management. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Editorial: Innovations in Research and Practice of Family Based Treatment for Eating Disorders
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Right to Life or Right to Die in Advanced Dementia: Physician-Assisted Dying
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Toxic Nightlife Relationships, Substance Abuse, and Mental Health: Is There a Link? A Qualitative Case Study of Two Patients
Conclusion: This paper points out the relevance of considering quality of social relationships when examining substance use disorders and related mental health problems. Additionally, the findings indicate the importance of fostering quality peer relationships in mental health rehabilitation programs addressed to patients with histories of drug addiction to improve treatment outcome. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Evaluation of Cognitive Impairment in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Through RBANS Combined With ERPs
Conclusion: As RBANS scale was highly correlated with the results of ERPs, the combined use of these two scales may serve as an objective basis for early diagnosis of cognitive impairment in patients with alcohol dependence. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Measurement Invariance of Psychotic-Like Symptoms as Measured With the Prodromal Questionnaire, Brief Version (PQ-B) in Adolescent and Adult Population Samples
Valid measurement of group differences in self-reported psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) requires knowing any group-specific measurement properties of the instruments. We investigated the measurement invariance of the 21-item Prodromal Questionnaire–Brief (PQ-B) questionnaire across gender, ethnic minority/majority status, and presence of depressive symptoms in two different US non-clinical undergraduate samples (N = 1,099). For each item, endorsement of the experience and the associated distress were combined for analysis. A unidimensional model of the PQ-B fit the data well. Across genders, the PQ-B showed configu...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Disentangling Trait-Like Between-Individual vs. State-Like Within-Individual Effects in Studying the Mechanisms of Change in CBT
Hofmann et al. argued that “[w]hile the clinical field has produced a dizzying number of treatment models and treatment protocols for virtually every psychiatric and psychological problem imaginable, increases in understanding of the processes of change in psychotherapy has been slow to arrive.” We propose that one of the reasons for the slow progress is that prior psychotherapy research conflates trait-like and state-like components of mechanisms of change. Trait-like components can serve as prescriptive or prognostic variables, whereas state-like components reflect within-client processes of change, and may h...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Genomic Variation, Evolvability, and the Paradox of Mental Illness
Twentieth-century genetics was hard put to explain the irregular behavior of neuropsychiatric disorders. Autism and schizophrenia defy a principle of natural selection; they are highly heritable but associated with low reproductive success. Nevertheless, they persist. The genetic origins of such conditions are confounded by the problem of variable expression, that is, when a given genetic aberration can lead to any one of several distinct disorders. Also, autism and schizophrenia occur on a spectrum of severity, from mild and subclinical cases to the overt and disabling. Such irregularities reflect the problem of missing h...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Refugee Status Determination Procedure and Mental Health of the Applicant: Dynamics and Reciprocal Effects
(Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Impulsivity, Lack of Premeditation, and Debts in Online Gambling Disorder
This study aims to compare sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics between treatment-seeking online and offline gamblers and analyze the effect of the gambling mode (online or offline) on anxiety, depression, impulsivity, and debts.Methods: Seventy-nine treatment-seeking gamblers (96.2% males), who were simultaneously receiving treatment at a specialized Pathological Gambling and Behavioral Addictions Unit, participated in this study. The sample was divided into two subsamples: online (n = 29, 100% males) and offline (n = 50, 94% males); the characteristics of these two groups were compared and analyz...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Adiponectin in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Disturbances in Patients With Schizophrenia
Antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbance is a common adverse event occurring in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. The mechanisms underlying metabolic dysregulation are complex, involving various neurochemical and hormonal systems, the interaction of genetic and lifestyle risk factors, and the antipsychotic drug prescribed. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the relationship between antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbances and body weight regulatory hormones such as adiponectin. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein related to insulin sensitivity, weight gain, and anti-inflammation, has attr...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Resilience, Mental Health, and Inhibitory Control Among Youth and Young Adults Under Stress
Psychological resilience allows one to cope successfully with adversities occurring during stressful periods, which may otherwise trigger mental illness. Recent models suggest that inhibitory control (IC), the executive control function which supports our goal-directed behavior and regulates our emotional response, may underlie resilience. However, the ways in which this is manifested during stressful situations in real life is still unclear. Here, we examined the relationship between IC, psychological resilience, psychological distress, and anxiety among 138 female and male participants in a stressful situation: during th...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Volumetric Deficit Within the Fronto-Limbic-Striatal Circuit in First-Episode Drug Na ïve Patients With Major Depression Disorder
Conclusions: Our findings provide robust evidence that gray matter structural abnormalities within the prefronto-limbic-striatal circuit are implicated in the pathophysiology of MDD at an early stage without confounding influence of medication status. Besides, our data suggest that the cerebellum, lingual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus should also be integrated into the brain alterations in MDD. Future synthesis of individual neuroimaging studies and more advanced statistical analysis comparing subfields of the aforementioned regions are warranted to further shed light on the neurobiology of the disease and assist in the diagno...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Stress Influences the Effect of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms on Emotion Regulation
This study highlights the necessity of targeting stress in current therapy-based treatments for OCD. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Association Between Childhood Maltreatment and Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: Our meta-analysis indicates that OCD patients who suffered more CM may exhibit more severe OCS and depressive symptoms. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Brain Age Prediction With Morphological Features Using Deep Neural Networks: Results From Predictive Analytic Competition 2019
Morphological changes in the brain over the lifespan have been successfully described by using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with machine learning (ML) algorithms. International challenges and scientific initiatives to share open access imaging datasets also contributed significantly to the advance in brain structure characterization and brain age prediction methods. In this work, we present the results of the predictive model based on deep neural networks (DNN) proposed during the Predictive Analytic Competition 2019 for brain age prediction of 2638 healthy individuals. We used FreeSurfer soft...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Family-Based Intervention Program for Children of Mentally Ill Parents: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial
Discussion: This paper describes the evaluation of a family-based intervention program for children of mentally ill parents (CHIMPs) in the regular health care system in Germany and Switzerland. A methodically sophisticated study design has been developed to reflect the complexity of the actual health care situation. This trial will contribute to the regular health care for the high-risk group of children of mentally ill parents.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02308462; German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00006806. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Antidepressant-Like Effects of a Clinically Relevant Dose of Ketamine Are Accompanied by Biphasic Alterations in Working Memory in the Wistar Kyoto Rat Model of Depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The majority of antidepressant drugs require several weeks or months of treatment to demonstrate efficacy and a subset of patients are resistant to such interventions. Ketamine demonstrates rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in treatment resistant patients; however, side effects may limit its widespread clinical utility. The pharmaceutical industry is engaged in developing novel rapid-acting antidepressant drugs and the establishment of clinically relevant assays are needed to advance this process. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are a valuabl...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

News and Commercials: Binding Deficits for Complex Information in Schizophrenia
Memory for complex content is severely impaired in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, which might make processing of daily information such as news and commercials particularly challenging. The goal of the present study was to assess the impairment of everyday memory in patients with schizophrenia. Healthy controls (HC) and patients with schizophrenia (SZ) were asked to watch a selection of six news segments and six commercials and complete a recognition task on the content of these video clips. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery comprising measures of attention, working and episodic ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Perceptions, Experiences, and Challenges of Physicians Involved in Dementia Care During the COVID-19 Lockdown in India: A Qualitative Study
Conclusion: Resource constraints and pandemic burden are currently high. This study looks at the “voices” of those actively providing dementia care during the ongoing crisis and to the best of our knowledge, is the first one from India to do so. Concurring with their experiences, PwD and their families are exposed to multiple vulnerabilities during COVID-19, need tailored care, especially at the primary healthcare level which includes general physicians. These relevant “voices” are discussed in light of the new tele-psychiatry guidelines and further optimization of dementia care in an aging India. (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Rescuers at Risk: Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Police Officers, Fire Fighters, Ambulance Personnel, and Emergency and Psychiatric Nurses
Emergency personnel and rescue workers may be at a risk of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) due to exposure to trauma and work-related stressors. Though rescuers of different professions are often engaged in the same type of emergency, they have different tasks and responsibilities and receive different training in coping with traumatic events and stress; hence, we speculated that the salience of identified risk factors for PTSS vary across their respective professions. The present cross-sectional survey aimed to identify influencing variables on PTSS, well-being, and suicidal ideation that can act differently across p...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

The Continuum Between Temperament and Mental Illness as Dynamical Phases and Transitions
The full range of biopsychosocial complexity is mind-boggling, spanning a vast range of spatiotemporal scales with complicated vertical, horizontal, and diagonal feedback interactions between contributing systems. It is unlikely that such complexity can be dealt with by a single model. One approach is to focus on a narrower range of phenomena which involve fewer systems but still cover the range of spatiotemporal scales. The suggestion is to focus on the relationship between temperament in healthy individuals and mental illness, which have been conjectured to lie along a continuum of neurobehavioral regulation involving ne...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Panic Buying in Bangladesh: An Exploration of Media Reports
Conclusion: The study revealed preliminary findings on panic buying in Bangladesh; however, they are aligned with the current concept of it. Further empirical studies are warranted to see the geographical variation, precise factors, and to test the culturally appropriate controlling measures. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Inflexibility in Reasoning: Comparisons of Cognitive Flexibility, Explanatory Flexibility, and Belief Flexibility Between Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder
Discussion: We found an effect of diagnosis on cognitive flexibility, which might be confounded by differences in intellectual functioning. Reduced belief flexibility tended to be specific to delusions. (Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry)
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research