Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses

Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of antibody responses after infection or vaccination appears to be intrinsically determined by the structural biology of the antigen, with multivalent protein antigens often providing more long-lived immunity than monovalent antigens. This forms the basis for the Imprinted Lifespan model describing the differential survival of long-lived plasma cell populations. There are, however, exceptions to this rule with examples of highly attenuated live virus vaccines that are rapidly cleared and elicit only short-lived immunity despite the expression of multivalent surface epitopes. These exceptions have led to the concept that multivalency alone may not reliably determine the duration of protective humoral immune responses unless a minimum number of long-lived plasma cells are gener...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Patient´s perspective: psychological burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in 146 psoriatic patients treated with biological drugs and small molecules in real clinical practice. J Dermatolog Treat. 2020 Jul 09;:1-9 Authors: Rodríguez-Villa Lario A, Vega-Díez D, González-Cañete M, Polo-Rodríguez I, Piteiro-Bermejo AB, Herrero-Fernández M, Arévalo-Serrano J, Trasobares-Marugán L, Medina-Montalvo S PMID: 32643475 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
Authors: Okeke CAV, Shipman WD, Perry JD, Kerns ML, Okoye GA, Byrd AS PMID: 32643464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
This story is available as part of a content partnership with WFAA-TV. For more local news, visit Gov. Greg Abbott said that if recent closures and face mask requirements don't lead to better results in the state's fight in the coronavirus pandemic "additional action will be required." In an interview Friday afternoon with WFAA, Abbott said those measures, such as closing bars and other enfor cement, should lead to positive results. "If instead, we see the further explosion in the number…
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
Authors: Agrawal R, Gunasekeran DV, Xu Y, Leo YS, Ng OT, Wong CS, Testi I, Ding J, Banu I, Teoh SC Abstract PURPOSE: To explore the all-cause mortality in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients with CMV retinitis (CMVR) presented to a tertiary referral center in Singapore from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2015. RESULTS: A total of 144 patients were studied (87 survived, 11 lost to follow up, 46 died). Patients with bilateral CMVR and six-month follow up CD4 + T cell count 50 cells/mm3 (p
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: prompt diagnosis, through fundus examination and FA, and proper antiviral therapy were the mainstays to counteract the posterior uveitis. Nowadays, vaccination is a safe weapon to efficaciously reduce the ZVZ incidence among general population. PMID: 32644840 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Ocul Immunol Inflamm Source Type: research
San Quentin prison in US hasseven deaths and 1,500 positive tests; Serbia has record 18 fatalities; Australiacaps incoming flights and charges for quarantine8.22amBSTGood evening, good afternoon, good morning.This isDamien Gayle in London taking you through the next few hours of coronavirus-related updates and headlines from around the world.8.14amBSTI will be handing the blog over to my colleagues in the UK now. Thank you for following us here in Sydney and Melbourne today. Here is a wrap of the day so far:Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Coronavirus outbreak World news Infectious diseases Science Source Type: news
Authors: Rocco D, Gregorc V, Della Gravara L, Lazzari C, Palazzolo G, Gridelli C Abstract INTRODUCTION: The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has represented a revolution in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has established a new standard of care for different settings. However, through adaptive changes, cancer cells can develop resistance mechanisms to these drugs, hence the necessity for novel immunotherapeutic agents. AREAS COVERED: This paper explores the immunotherapeutics currently under investigation in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of NSCLC as monotherap...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
In this report, a total of 860 publications related to TRPM7 were analyzed. Biophysical Journal ranked top for publishing 31 papers. The United States of America had the largest number of publications (320) with a high citation frequency (11,298) and H-index (58). Chubanov V (38 publications) and Gudermann T (38 citations), who from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, were the most productive authors and had the greatest co-citation counts. Our study also combined the bibliometric study with a systematic review on TRPM7, highlighting the four research frontiers of TRPM7. This is the first study that demonstrated the tr...
Source: Channels - Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Channels (Austin) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2020Source: Preventive MedicineAuthor(s): Elizabeth M. Saewyc, Gu Li, Amy L. Gower, Ryan J. Watson, Darin Erickson, Heather L. Corliss, Marla E. Eisenberg
Source: Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Inhalant abuse, also known as huffing, is common among teenagers and adolescents in the United States and worldwide. Inhaled aerosols are dangerous due to both the presence of volatile hydrocarbons causing direct organ damage and the risk of the compressed...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Home and Consumer Product Safety Source Type: news
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