Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses

Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of antibody responses after infection or vaccination appears to be intrinsically determined by the structural biology of the antigen, with multivalent protein antigens often providing more long-lived immunity than monovalent antigens. This forms the basis for the Imprinted Lifespan model describing the differential survival of long-lived plasma cell populations. There are, however, exceptions to this rule with examples of highly attenuated live virus vaccines that are rapidly cleared and elicit only short-lived immunity despite the expression of multivalent surface epitopes. These exceptions have led to the concept that multivalency alone may not reliably determine the duration of protective humoral immune responses unless a minimum number of long-lived plasma cells are gener...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: 15 February 2021Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 404, Part BAuthor(s): Yanhua Liu, Yang Li, Shanshan Dong, Lu Han, Ruixin Guo, Yourong Fu, Shenghu Zhang, Jianqiu Chen
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Authors: Musio F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anemia has and will continue to be a central theme in medicine particularly as clinicians are treating a burgeoning population of complex multi-organ system processes. As a result of multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs), meta-analyses, and societal recommendations overly restrictive paradigms and under-administration of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) have likely been followed by clinicians among all specialties. AREAS COVERED: A review of anemia in the context of chronic kidney disease, hematologic malignancies and cancer is presented with focus on the e...
Source: Expert Review of Hematology - Category: Hematology Tags: Expert Rev Hematol Source Type: research
Publication date: January 2021Source: Urology Case Reports, Volume 34Author(s): Nina Al-Saadi, Safa Al-Musawi, Yousuf Khan, Daben Dawam
Source: Urology Case Reports - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Victoria Lucas-Guerrero, Mireia Pascua-Solé, José Luis Ramos Rodríguez, Anna Trinidad Borrás, Carlos González de Pedro, José María Jover Navalón, Pere Rebasa, Eduardo M. Targarona Soler, Xavier Serra-Aracil, on behalf of the Comisión Nacional de la Especialidad de Cirugía General y del Aparato Digestivo, de la Sección de Formación de la Asociación Española de Cirujanos
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Source: European Journal of Sport Science - Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Matti B, Zargar-Shoshtari K Abstract Prostate cancer represents a significant health burden worldwide. The cancer incidence had substantially increased since the introduction of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in cancer screening. This had led to considerable debates among health professionals and epidemiologists, since PSA as a screening tool seemed to be far from perfect. In New Zealand, the controversy was quite prominent in the last three decades, with some advocating the benefits of screening, while others concerned regarding the risk of harms. With the absence of an organised screening programme and ...
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This single practice study showed total patient contact was similar over both sample periods, but most contact in 2020 was virtual. Further longitudinal multi-practice studies to confirm these findings and describe future consultation patterns are needed to inform general practice service delivery post-COVID-19. PMID: 33032304 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study found that childhood cancer survivors in New Zealand had a high prevalence of developmental dental abnormalities and it identified potential risk factors related to their cancer treatment. Inequitable access to oral rehabilitation for this patient group argues for a mechanism for consistent improved access to publicly funded dental care across district health boards in New Zealand. PMID: 33032302 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Authors: Zarrabi A, Mark S PMID: 33032299 [PubMed - in process]
Source: New Zealand Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: N Z Med J Source Type: research
Curious what people think with pandemic and lack of away rotations.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Radiation Oncology Source Type: forums
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