Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses

Role of Multivalency and Antigenic Threshold in Generating Protective Antibody Responses Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of antibody responses after infection or vaccination appears to be intrinsically determined by the structural biology of the antigen, with multivalent protein antigens often providing more long-lived immunity than monovalent antigens. This forms the basis for the Imprinted Lifespan model describing the differential survival of long-lived plasma cell populations. There are, however, exceptions to this rule with examples of highly attenuated live virus vaccines that are rapidly cleared and elicit only short-lived immunity despite the expression of multivalent surface epitopes. These exceptions have led to the concept that multivalency alone may not reliably determine the duration of protective humoral immune responses unless a minimum number of long-lived plasma cells are gener...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Tags: Notice of Correction Source Type: research
Authors: Ridruejo E, Garcia-Agudo R, Mendizabal M, Aoufi-Rabih S, Dixit V, Silva M, Fabrizi F Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The advent of direct-acting antiviral agents promises to change the management of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a patient group in which the treatment of hepatitis C was historically challenging. We investigated the safety and efficacy of all-oral, interferon-free direct-acting antiviral agents for the treatment of hepatitis C in a 'real-world' cohort of patients with CKD. METHODS: We performed an observational single-arm multi-centre stud...
Source: Nefrologia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Nefrologia Source Type: research
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: Public Policy Reports - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: news
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Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Solid organ transplantation from hepatitis C virus–positive (HCV-positive) deceased donors into HCV-negative recipients is a recent approach aimed to expand the donor organ pool in the setting of severe shortage. Good short-term outcomes have been reported with this approach in combination with direct-acting antivirals. In this issue of the JCI, Zahid and colleagues have characterized early viral kinetics and the genetic landscape of donor-to-recipient HCV transmission using single-genome sequencing. In seven HCV-negative recipients of four HCV-positive donor organs, productive infection with a highly diverse viral p...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Highly effective direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) have created an opportunity to transplant organs from HCV-positive individuals into HCV-negative recipients, since de novo infection can be routinely cured. As this procedure is performed more widely, it becomes increasingly important to understand the biological underpinnings of virus transmission, especially the multiplicity of infection. Here, we used single genome sequencing of plasma virus in 4 genotype 1a HCV-positive organ donors and their 7 organ recipients to assess the genetic bottleneck associated with HCV transmission following renal and ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
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