Hepatic Natural Killer Cells: Organ-Specific Sentinels of Liver Immune Homeostasis and Physiopathology

Hepatic Natural Killer Cells: Organ-Specific Sentinels of Liver Immune Homeostasis and Physiopathology Joanna Mikulak1,2, Elena Bruni1,2, Ferdinando Oriolo1,2, Clara Di Vito1 and Domenico Mavilio1,2* 1Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Milan, Italy 2Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy The liver is considered a preferential tissue for NK cells residency. In humans, almost 50% of all intrahepatic lymphocytes are NK cells that are strongly imprinted in a liver-specific manner and show a broad spectrum of cellular heterogeneity. Hepatic NK (he-NK) cells play key roles in tuning liver immune response in both physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, there is a pressing need to comprehensively characterize human he-NK cells to better understand the related mechanisms regulating their effector-functions within the dynamic balance between immune-tolerance and immune-surveillance. This is of particular relevance in the liver that is the only solid organ whose parenchyma is constantly challenged on daily basis by millions of foreign antigens drained from the gut. Therefore, the present review summarizes our current knowledge on he-NK cells in the light of the latest discoveries in the field of NK cell biology and clinical relevance. Introduction The liver is the largest solid organ in our body receiving every day more than 2,000 liters of bloo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In conclusion, placebo therapies can be beneficial and ethically justifiable but it is not a sufficient reason to publish biased information. Importantly, placebo must be devoid of adverse effects, otherwise it is named pseudo-placebo. Therapeutic methods with unproven effects should be tested in high quality research shielded from the funding bias. Some issues discussed in this review are not entirely clear, and the arguments provided here can initiate a constructive discussion. PMID: 31424374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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Clinical Pathologic Mismatch in a TNF-α Inhibitor-Associated Drug Reaction J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Aug 01;18(8):828-830 Authors: O’Brien KF, Maiman RE, DeWitt CA Abstract A 56-year-old Caucasian male with a history of chronic plaque psoriasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis status-post liver transplant on tacrolimus, and ulcerative colitis on infliximab developed a progressive erythematous eruption with associated fatigue, anorexia, myalgias, and arthralgias. On two separate occasions, his skin biopsy demonstrated a lichenoid interface dermatitis (LID). Despite multiple courses of oral predn...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: J Health Care Poor Underserved Source Type: research
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