Salt-Tolerant Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities of the Corn Defensin ZmD32

We examined whether the high charge on ZmD32 would allow this defensin to retain activity in media with elevated salt concentrations. ZmD32 inhibited C. albicans, C. auris, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis growth with IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 3.0 in ½ PDB medium containing 100 mM NaCl. In contrast, NaD1 was only active against C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis with IC50 values of 3.4 and 1.3 μM, respectively, in medium with added NaCl. ZmD32 also retained activity against E. coli when NaC1 concentrations were raised to 100 mM while NaD1 did not (Table 1). For C. albicans and C. krusei the IC50 for ZmD32 was slightly higher when the assay was performed with the addition of 100 mM NaCl, for C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis the IC50 was not significantly different at 100 mM NaCl and for C. auris and E. coli. The activity of ZmD32 and NaD1 against C. albicans was also assessed in the presence of 5 mM MgCl2 or 2 mM CaCl2. NaD1 lost activity in the presence of both MgCl2 and CaCl2 while ZmD32 was active in both divalent metal salts but had an sevenfold increase in IC50 (data not shown). The Rate of Fungal Cell Killing by ZmD32 Is Slower in 100 mM NaCl A cell survival assay was used to assess whether ZmD32 was fungistatic or fungicidal against C. albicans. There was a greater than 95% reduction in survival of C. albicans cells after a 30 min exposure to 10 μM ZmD32 and no viable cells after 2 h in ½ PDB medium wit...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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In this study we explored the use of a natural compound rubusoside (RUB) as a solubilizer to enhance the solubility of a fluorescence-labeled C6-Ceramide (NBD C6-Ceramide) and to characterize its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in an animal model. RUB significantly enhanced the solubility of NBD C6-Ceramide by forming nanomicelles, and efficiently delivered NBD C6-Ceramide in rats by oral and intravenous administration. RUB loaded 1.96% of NBD C6-Ceramide in the nanomicelles and solubilized it to a concentration of 3.6 mg/mL in water. NBD C6-Ceramide in nanomicelles remained stable in aqueous solutions, all...
Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators - Category: Lipidology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Journal of Food Composition and AnalysisAuthor(s): Afsaneh Mohajer, Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Parisa Sadighara, Kiandokht Ghanati, Shahrokh NazmaraAbstractIn this current study, the contents of heavy metals including Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Mn in imported rice bran oil in Iran were investigated with microwave digestion method based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry system (ICP-OES). The concentrations range of Pb, Cr, Cd, As, Zn, and Cu in rice bran oil samples were measured as 0.066 - 0.30, 0.008 - 0.014, 0.005 - 0.01, 0.047- 0.01, ...
Source: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
Authors: Hill BG, Shiva S, Ballinger S, Zhang J, Darley-Usmar VM Abstract It is now becoming clear that human metabolism is extremely plastic and varies substantially between healthy individuals. Understanding the biochemistry that underlies this physiology will enable personalized clinical interventions related to metabolism. Mitochondrial quality control and the detailed mechanisms of mitochondrial energy generation are central to understanding susceptibility to pathologies associated with aging including cancer, cardiac and neurodegenerative diseases. A precision medicine approach is also needed to evaluate the ...
Source: Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Tags: Biol Chem Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2019Source: Artificial Intelligence in MedicineAuthor(s): Sarah Ali Abdelaziz Ismael, Ammar Mohammed, Hesham HefnyAbstractCancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. Out of all types of cancer, brain cancer has the lowest survival rate. Brain tumors can have different types depending on their shape, texture, and location. Proper diagnosis of the tumor type enables the doctor to make the correct treatment choice and help save the patient's life. There is a high need in the Artificial Intelligence field for a Computer Assisted Diagnosis (CAD) syste...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Radiation Physics and ChemistryAuthor(s): Vimal Kishore, Lalit Kumar, Manindra Bhushan, Girigesh YadavAbstractTo fabricate a cost effective low density heterogeneous phantom with the combination of racemosa wood and Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for dose verification in the high energy photon beam. The use of solid tissue equivalent material for dose verification is a well accepted and common practice for dosimetric studies. The measured Hounsfield units (HU), relative electron density, mass density were −776.6 ± 72.4, 0.223 ± 0.072, ...
Source: Radiation Physics and Chemistry - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Neutrophils, as "Trojan horses", participate in the delivery of therapeutical PLGA nanoparticles into a tumor based on the chemotactic effect. Drug Deliv. 2020 Dec;27(1):1-14 Authors: Hao J, Chen J, Wang M, Zhao J, Wang J, Wang X, Li Y, Tang H Abstract Inspired by the fact that leukocytes have innate phagocytic functions and oriented migration capabilities in response to chemoattractants, we have unveiled that endogenous neutrophils as "Trojan horses", participate in the delivery of nanoparticles in an "in vivo self-armed assembly" manner. Neutrophils were the main populat...
Source: Drug Delivery - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Deliv Source Type: research
Preparation of levofloxacin loaded in situ gel for sustained ocular delivery: in vitro and ex vivo evaluations. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2019 Dec 09;:1-7 Authors: Jain P, Jaiswal CP, Mirza MA, Anwer MK, Iqbal Z Abstract The major drawback of the eye drops is rapid elimination of drug from the precorneal region, thus ensuing poor bioavailability as well as therapeutic efficacy. To conquer these limitations, a pH triggered in situ gel was developed for sustained delivery of levofloxacin. Two polymers namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium alginate along with the boric acid buffer were use...
Source: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Dev Ind Pharm Source Type: research
Authors: Chaaben Arij B, Nesrine O, Hayet D, Fayza A, Hajer A, Tesnim M, Latifa H, Cathy F, Wahid B, Rajagopal K, Dominique C, Sonia G, Fethi G, Ryad T Abstract The MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is a ligand for the activating natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D. A part from its genetic diversity, MICA is characterized by the presence of membrane-bound and soluble isoform (sMICA) and by the propensity to elicit antibody-mediated allogeneicity (MICA Abs). Altogether such properties are important in the cancer setting. Here, we investigated whether MICA polymorphism, serum level of sMICA and MICA ant...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Journal of Molecular StructureAuthor(s): Terence J. Noonan, Kelly Chibale, Susan A. Bourne, Mino R. CairaAbstractA crystal engineering approach combined with experimental screening methods was employed as a preformulation step for producing expectedly useful forms of a novel antimalarial drug lead (MMV652103). In previous experiments, this drug lead had shown promise both in vitro and in vivo against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Various new forms of MMV652103 were produced earlier, including co-crystals, a salt, polymorphs and a hydrated form a...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: 15 March 2020Source: Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1204Author(s): Puspendu Roy, Deblina Sarkar, Paramita Ghosh, Chandan Kumar Manna, Nabendu Murmu, Tapan Kumar MondalAbstractA new fluorescent Rh(III) cyclometalated complex, [Rh(PPh3)2(L)Cl] (1) is synthesized via sp2(C)–S bond activation of a thioether containing azo-phenol ligand (L-SCH2CH3). The pseudo octahedral geometry around rhodium is confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. Cyclic voltammogram of the complex exhibits a quasi-reversible oxidation couple with E1/2 of 0.74 V (ΔE = 100 mV) along wi...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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