Niches and Seasonal Changes, Rather Than Transgenic Events, Affect the Microbial Community of Populus × euramericana ‘Neva’
This study provides a reference for the safety evaluation of transgenic plants and the internal colonization mechanism of microorganisms in plants. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Cpx Stress Response Regulates Turnover of Respiratory Chain Proteins at the Inner Membrane of Escherichia coli
In this study, we examine the interaction between Cpx-regulated protein folding and degrading factors and the respiratory complexes NADH dehydrogenase I and succinate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli. Here we show that the cellular need for Cpx-mediated stress adaptation increases when respiratory complexes are more prevalent or active, which is demonstrated by the growth defect of Cpx-deficient strains on media that requires a functional electron transport chain. Interestingly, deletion of several Cpx-regulated proteolytic factors and chaperones results in similar growth-deficient phenotypes. Furthermore, we find that th...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Micro-Technologies for Assessing Microbial Dynamics in Controlled Environments
With recent advances in microfabrication technologies, the miniaturization of traditional culturing techniques has provided ideal methods for interrogating microbial communities in a confined and finely controlled environment. Micro-technologies offer high-throughput screening and analysis, reduced experimental time and resources, and have low footprint. More importantly, they provide access to culturing microbes in situ in their natural environments and similarly, offer optical access to real-time dynamics under a microscope. Utilizing micro-technologies for the discovery, isolation and cultivation of “unculturable&...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An Integrative Approach to Study Bacterial Enzymatic Degradation of Toxic Dyes
Synthetic dyes pose a large threat to the environment and consequently to human health. Various dyes are used in textile, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, and are released into the environment without any treatment, thus adversely affecting both the environment and neighboring human populations. Several existing physical and chemical methods for dye degradation are effective but have many drawbacks. Biological methods over the years have gained importance in the decolorization and degradation of dye and have also overcome the disadvantages of physiochemical methods. Furthermore, biological methods are eco-friendly...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 28, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cytotoxin-Associated Gene A-Negative Helicobacter pylori Promotes Gastric Mucosal CX3CR1+CD4+ Effector Memory T Cell Recruitment in Mice
ConclusionCagA–H. pylori promotes gastric mucosal CX3CR1+CD4+ Tem recruitment in mice. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Sinorhizobium meliloti Nitrogen Stress Response Changes Radically in the Face of Concurrent Phosphate Stress
Expression of hundreds of S. meliloti genes changed more than two-fold in response to either nitrogen or phosphate limitation. When these two stresses were applied together, stress responsive gene expression shifted dramatically. In particular, the nitrogen stress response in the presence of phosphate stress had only 30 of about 350 genes in common with the 280 genes that responded to nitrogen stress with adequate phosphate. Expression of sRNAs was also altered in response to these stresses. 82% of genes that responded to nitrogen stress also responded to phosphate stress, including 20 sRNAs. A subset of these sRNAs is kno...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Acid Tolerant and Acidophilic Microalgae: An Underexplored World of Biotechnological Opportunities
Despite their large number and diversity, microalgae from only four genera are currently cultivated at large-scale. Three of those share common characteristics: they are cultivated mainly autotrophically and are extremophiles or tolerate “extreme conditions.” Extreme growth conditions aid in preventing contamination and predation of microalgae, therefore facilitating outdoor cultivation. In search for new extremophilic algae suitable for large-scale production, we investigated six microalgal strains able to grow at pH below 3 and belonging to four genera; Stichococcus bacillaris ACUF158, Chlamydomonas acidophil...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterioplankton Diversity and Distribution in Relation to Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Ross Sea Surface Waters
Primary productivity in the Ross Sea region is characterized by intense phytoplankton blooms whose temporal and spatial distribution are driven by changes in environmental conditions as well as interactions with the bacterioplankton community. However, the number of studies reporting the simultaneous diversity of the phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in Antarctic waters are limited. Here, we report data on the bacterial diversity in relation to phytoplankton community structure in the surface waters of the Ross Sea during the Austral summer 2017. Our results show partially overlapping bacterioplankton communities between ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phage Revolution Against Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Pathogens in Southeast Asia
We present a three-phase strategy to encourage a phage revolution in the SEA clinical setting, which involves: (1) enhancing phage discovery and characterization efforts, (2) creating and implementing laboratory protocols and clinical guidelines for the evaluation of phage activity, and (3) adapting regulatory standards for therapeutic phage formulations. We hope that this review will open avenues for scientific and policy-based discussions on phage therapy in SEA and eventually lead the way to its fullest potential in countering the threat of MDR pathogens in the region and worldwide. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biocontrol Activity of Nonpathogenic Strains of Fusarium oxysporum: Colonization on the Root Surface to Overcome Nutritional Competition
Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilts in a wide variety of crops. Certain nonpathogenic strains of F. oxysporum are known to protect crops against F. oxysporum pathogens. We assessed the biocontrol activities of nonpathogenic mutants of F. oxysporum ff. spp. melonis and lycopersici generated by disruption of the FOW2 gene, which encodes a Zn(II)2Cys6-type transcriptional regulator essential for their pathogenicity. Pre-inoculation of melon or tomato roots with strain ΔFOW2 conidia markedly reduced disease incidence caused by the parental wild-type strain in a concentration-depe...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative Genomics of Three Colletotrichum scovillei Strains and Genetic Analysis Revealed Genes Involved in Fungal Growth and Virulence on Chili Pepper
In conclusion, the highest virulent strain Coll-524 had more genes and encoded more pathogenicity related proteins and transposable elements than the other two strains, which may contribute to the high virulence of Coll-524. In addition, the absence of the 34-kb fragment plays a critical role in the defects of growth and virulence of strain Coll-365. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Integrated Analysis Reveals the Characteristics and Effects of SARS-CoV-2 Maternal –Fetal Transmission
In conclusion, our present study suggests that though the placenta provides a good physical barrier against SARS-CoV-2 infection for healthy fetal development, multiple embryonic tissues are under risks of the virus infection, which may be adversely affected once infected prenatally. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance maternal care to prevent the potential impact and harm of SARS-CoV-2 maternal–fetal transmission. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Perspective: Simple State Communities to Study Microbial Interactions: Examples and Future Directions
Microbial interactions in natural environments are intricately complex. High numbers and rich diversity of microorganisms, along with compositional heterogeneities complicate the cause. It is essential to simplify these complex communities to understand the microbial interactions. We proposed a concept of “simple state community,” which represents a subset of microbes and/or microbial functions of the original population that is necessary to build a stable community. By combining microbial culturing and high-throughput sequencing, we can better understand microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions. To suppor...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Roles of Bacterial Symbionts in Transmission of Plant Virus by Hemipteran Vectors
The majority of plant viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects. Bacterial symbionts in hemipteran hosts have a significant impact on the host life, physiology and ecology. Recently, the involvement of bacterial symbionts in hemipteran vector-virus and vector-plant interactions has been documented. Thus, the exploitation and manipulation of bacterial symbionts have great potential for plant viral disease control. Herein, we review the studies performed on the impact of symbiotic bacteria on plant virus transmission, including insect-bacterial symbiont associations, the role of these bacterial symbionts in viral acquisi...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Dietary Effects on Biological Parameters and Gut Microbiota of Harmonia axyridis
In this study, we investigated the influence of the food sources (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, and artificial diets) on the gut microbiota diversity and the biology, reproductive variables, and population growth indicators of H. axyridis. Three kinds of diets were considered in this study: (1) HY: the adult of A. pisum Harris (HY group); (2) HM: the adult of D. citri Kuwayama (HM group); (3) HR: artificial diets prepared by blending a portion of fresh homogenized pork liver (15 g), honey (3 g), distilled water (35 ml) (HR group). We found that gut microbiota composition and diversity and the biolo...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Snowstorm Enhanced the Deterministic Processes of the Microbial Community in Cryoconite at Laohugou Glacier, Tibetan Plateau
Cryoconites harbor diverse microbial communities and are the metabolic hotspot in the glacial ecosystem. Glacial ecosystems are subjected to frequent climate disturbances such as precipitation (snowing), but little is known about whether microbial communities in cryoconite can maintain stability under such disturbance. Here, we investigated the bacterial community in supraglacial cryoconite before and after a snowfall event on the Laohugou Glacier (Tibetan Plateau), based on Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our results showed that the diversity of the microbial community significantly decreased, and the stru...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Assessing Viability and Stress Tolerance of Probiotics —A Review
The interest in probiotics has increased rapidly the latest years together with the global market for probiotic products. Consequently, establishing reliable microbiological methods for assuring the presence of a certain number of viable microorganisms in probiotic products has become increasingly important. To assure adequate numbers of viable cells, authorities are enquiring for information on viability rates within a certain shelf-life in colony forming units (CFU). This information is obtained from plate count enumeration, a method that enables detection of bacterial cells based on their ability to replicate. Although ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Plant Natural Products as Antimicrobials for Control of Streptomyces scabies: A Causative Agent of the Common Scab Disease
The common scab disease caused by Streptomyces scabies, a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium, is an economically important disease of potatoes and other tuber crops. The lack of effective treatments against this disease accounts for large economic losses globally. Plant extracts were screened to find several that effectively inhibited Streptomyces scabies growth in culture. Seven tinctures showed the greatest inhibition of S. scabies growth by reducing pathogen growth in culture by 75% or more. These extracts were myrrh, garlic, cayenne, barberry, frankincense, wild indigo root, and lavender. Myrrh extract from Commipho...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Urinary Tract Infection Etiological Profiles and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns Varied Among Different Age Categories: A Retrospective Study From a Tertiary General Hospital During a 12-Year Period
ConclusionThe UTI etiological profiles and antibiotic resistance patterns varied among different age categories, especially in pediatric and geriatric patients; thus, a different antibiotic therapy for various age categories should be considered when initiating empirical antimicrobial therapies. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Aquatic Macrophytes Are Associated With Variation in Biogeochemistry and Bacterial Assemblages of Mountain Lakes
In aquatic systems, microbes likely play critical roles in biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem processes, but much remains to be learned regarding microbial biogeography and ecology. The microbial ecology of mountain lakes is particularly understudied. We hypothesized that microbial distribution among lakes is shaped, in part, by aquatic plant communities and the biogeochemistry of the lake. Specifically, we investigated the associations of yellow water lilies (Nuphar polysepala) with the biogeochemistry and microbial assemblages within mountain lakes at two scales: within a single lake and among lakes within a mountain r...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Curvularia coatesiae XK8, a Potential Bioadsorbent Material for Adsorbing Cd(II) and Sb(III) Compound Pollution: Characteristics and Effects
In this study, we screened out a cadmium and antimony tolerant fungus named XK8 from the slags collected from the Xikuangshan. Then, we explored the single and binary biosorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Sb(III) on it. In our results, the fungus XK8 was identified as Curvularia coatesiae XK8 by ITS sequencing analysis. Under the optimal conditions, in binary biosorption of the XK8, the main effect of the initial cadmium concentration on the cadmium removal rate of XK8 is negative, while the main effect of the initial antimony concentration, biosorption time, and initial pH on the cadmium removal rate of XK8 is positiv...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Experimental Evolution Expands the Breadth of Adaptation to an Environmental Gradient Correlated With Genome Reduction
Whether and how adaptive evolution adjusts the breadth of adaptation in coordination with the genome are essential issues for connecting evolution with ecology. To address these questions, experimental evolution in five Escherichia coli strains carrying either the wild-type genome or a reduced genome was performed in a defined minimal medium (C0). The ancestral and evolved populations were subsequently subjected to fitness and chemical niche analyses across an environmental gradient with 29 combinations of eight chemical components of the minimal medium. The results showed that adaptation was achieved not only specific to ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Global Phosphoproteomics Analysis of IBRS-2 Cells Infected With Senecavirus A
Phosphorylation is a widespread posttranslational modification that regulates numerous biological processes. Viruses can alter the physiological activities of host cells to promote virus particle replication, and manipulating phosphorylation is one of the mechanisms. Senecavirus A (SVA) is the causative agent of porcine idiopathic vesicular disease. Although numerous studies on SVA have been performed, comprehensive phosphoproteomics analysis of SVA infection is lacking. The present study performed a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics survey of SVA infection in Instituto Biologico-Rim Suino-2 (IBRS-2) c...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Elimination of the Sugar Transporter GAT1 Increased Xylanase I Production in Trichoderma reesei
The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei secretes large quantities of cellulases and hemicellulases that have found wide applications in industry. Compared with extensive studies on the mechanism controlling cellulase gene expression, less is known about the regulatory mechanism behind xylanase gene expression. Herein, several putative sugar transporter encoding genes that showed significant upregulation on xylan were identified in T. reesei. Deletion of one such gene, gat1, resulted in increased xylanase production but hardly affected cellulase induction. Further analyses demonstrated that deletion of gat1 markedly incre...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Bacterial Inoculant Delivery Methods for Cereal Crops
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of three seed coating methods, seedling priming, and soil drench for delivering three bacterial inoculants to the sorghum rhizosphere and root endosphere. The methods were compared across multiple time points under axenic conditions and colonization efficiency was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Two seed coating methods were also assessed in the field to test the reproducibility of the greenhouse results under non-sterile conditions. In the greenhouse seed coating methods were more successful in delivering the Gram-positive inoculant (Terr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Role of Extracellular Trap Release During Bacterial and Viral Infection
Neutrophils are innate immune cells that play an essential role during the clearance of pathogens that can release chromatin structures coated by several cytoplasmatic and granular antibacterial proteins, called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). These supra-molecular structures are produced to kill or immobilize several types of microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses. The contribution of the NET release process (or NETosis) to acute inflammation or the prevention of pathogen spreading depends on the specific microorganism involved in triggering this response. Furthermore, studies highlight the role of innate c...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Bacteriophages Isolation From the Environment and Their Antimicrobial Therapeutic Potential, Volume 2
(Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Distinct Co-occurrence Relationships and Assembly Processes of Active Methane-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities Between Paddy and Natural Wetlands of Northeast China
Studies of methane-oxidizing bacteria are updating our views of their composition and function in paddy and natural wetlands. However, few studies have characterized differences in the methane-oxidizing bacterial communities between paddy and natural wetlands. Here, we conducted a 13C stable isotope-probing experiment and high-throughput sequencing to determine the structure profiling, co-occurrence relationships, and assembly processes of methanotrophic communities in four wetlands of Northeast China. There was a clear difference in community structure between paddy and natural wetlands. LEfSe analyses revealed that Methy...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clinical Aspects and Detection of Emerging Rickettsial Pathogens: A “One Health” Approach Study in Serbia, 2020
Ticks carry numerous pathogens that, if transmitted, can cause disease in susceptible humans and animals. The present study describes our approach on how to investigate clinical presentations following tick bites in humans. To this aim, the occurrence of major tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in human blood samples (n = 85) and the ticks collected (n = 93) from the same individuals were tested using an unbiased high-throughput pathogen detection microfluidic system. The clinical symptoms were characterized in enrolled patients. In patients with suspected TBP infection, serological assays were conducted to test for the presence ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Lactic Acid Bacteria as Biopreservation Against Spoilage Molds in Dairy Products – A Review
Mold spoilage of dairy products such as yogurt is a concern in dairy industry. Not only does it lead to substantial food waste, economic losses, and even brand image damage, but it may also cause public health concern due to the potential production of mycotoxin. Good hygiene practices are necessary to prevent contamination, but contamination may nevertheless occur at the production site and, not least, at the site of the consumer. In recent years, there has been a growing interest from consumers for “clean label” food products, which are natural, less-processed, and free of added, chemical preservatives, and a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Different Circulation Pattern of Multiple Respiratory Viruses in Southern China During the COVID-19 Pandemic
In this study, we utilized data from routine respiratory virus testing requests from physicians and examined circulation of 11 other respiratory viruses in Southern China, from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2020. A total of 58,169 throat swabs from patients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) were collected and tested. We found that while the overall activity of respiratory viruses was lower during the period with stringent NPIs, virus activity rebounded shortly after the NPIs were relaxed and social activities resumed. Only influenza was effectively suppressed with very low circulation which extended to the ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Probiotics Exhibit Strain-Specific Protective Effects in T84 Cells Challenged With Clostridioides difficile-Infected Fecal Water
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is frequently associated with intestinal injury and mucosal barrier dysfunction, leading to an inflammatory response involving neutrophil localization and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The severity of clinical manifestations is associated with the extent of the immune response, which requires mitigation for better clinical management. Probiotics could play a protective role in this disorder due to their immunomodulatory ability in gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed five single-strain and three multi-strain probiotics for their ability to modulate CDI fecal water (...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nitrogen Advanced Treatment of Urban Sewage by Denitrification Deep-Bed Filter: Removal Performance and Metabolic Pathway
This study aimed to explore the performance of denitrification deep-bed filter (DN-DBF) to treat municipal sewage for meeting a more stringent discharge standard of total nitrogen (TN) (10.0 mg L–1). A lab-scale DN-DBF was conducted to optimize operation parameters and reveal the microbiological mechanism for TN removal. The results showed that more than 12.7% TN removal was obtained by adding methanol compared with sodium acetate. The effluent TN concentration reached 6.0–7.0 mg L–1 with the optimal influent carbon and nitrogen ratio (C/N) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) (3:1 and 0.25 h). For the nitr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Field Site-Specific Effects of an Azospirillum Seed Inoculant on Key Microbial Functional Groups in the Rhizosphere
This study revealed an ecological impact that was field specific (even though a few taxa were impacted in all fields) and of unexpected magnitude with the phytostimulatory Azospirillum inoculant, when considering microbial functional groups. Further methodological developments are needed to monitor additional functional groups important for soil functioning and plant growth under optimal or stress conditions. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of Multispecies Probiotic on Intestinal Microbiota and Mucosal Barrier Function of Neonatal Calves Infected With E. coli K99
Altered gut microbiota are implicated in inflammatory neonatal calf diarrhea caused by E. coli K99. Beneficial probiotics are used to modulate gut microbiota. However, factors that mediate host-microbe interactions remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of a combination of multispecies probiotics (MSP) on growth, intestinal epithelial development, intestinal immune function and microbiota of neonatal calves infected with E. coli K99. Twelve newborn calves were randomly assigned as follows: C (control, without MSP); D (E. coli O78:K99 + gentamycin); and P (E. coli O78:K99 + supplemental MSP). All groups were studied for 2...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Overexpression of Two New Acyl-CoA:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase 2-Like Acyl-CoA:Sterol Acyltransferases Enhanced Squalene Accumulation in Aurantiochytrium limacinum
In this study, two putative type-2 Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT2) genes of Aurantiochytrium sp. T66, T66ASATa, and T66ASATb, and their homologs in Aurantiochytrium limacinum SR21, AlASATa and AlASATb, were characterized. In A. limacinum SR21, genomic knockout of AlASATb reduced the amount of the steryl esters of palmitic acid, SE (16:0), and docosahexaenoic acid, SE (22:6). The double mutant of AlASATa and AlASATb produced even less of these steryl esters. The expression and overexpression of T66ASATb and AlASATb, respectively, enhanced SE (16:0) and SE (22:6) production more significantly than those of T...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Important for Growth of Dickeya dadantii and Dickeya dianthicola in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Tubers
This study generated comparable gene fitness measurements across ecologically relevant conditions for both model and non-model strains. Tubers from the potato cultivars “Atlantic,” “Dark Red Norland,” and “Upstate Abundance” provided highly similar conditions for bacterial growth. Using the homolog detection software PyParanoid, we matched fitness values for orthologous genes in the three bacterial strains. Direct comparison of fitness among the strains highlighted shared and variable traits important for growth. Bacterial growth in minimal medium required many metabolic traits that were...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of β-Carotin and Green Tea Powder Diets on Alleviating the Symptoms of Gouty Arthritis and Improving Gut Microbiota in C57BL/6 Mice
In conclusion, our study provided evidence to support the application of β-carotin and green tea powder diet as a dietary adjustment method to prevent and treat gouty arthritis. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas12a Technology Combined With RPA for Rapid and Portable SFTSV Detection
In this study, we developed a rapid, highly sensitive, instrument-flexible SFTSV detection method that utilizes recombinase polymerase amplification and the CRISPR/Cas12a system. We found that three copies of the L gene from the SFTSV genome per reaction were enough to ensure stable detection within 40 min. The assay clearly showed no cross-reactivity with other RNA viruses. Additionally, our method demonstrated 100% agreement with Q-PCR detection results for SFTSV in 46 clinical samples. We simplified the requirements for on-site detection instruments by combining the CRISPR/Cas12a tool and immunochromatographic st...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Host Molecules That Promote Pathophysiology of Ocular Herpes
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a human virus that causes lifelong infections in a large population worldwide. Recurrence of HSV-1 from latency in trigeminal ganglion (TG) is the trigger of the morbidities seen with this virus. In addition to causing fever blisters and cold sores, occasionally the virus can also cause corneal lesions resulting in blindness in untreated individuals. Several host cell proteins play important roles in HSV-1 infection of the eye. HSV-1 enters into the corneal epithelial cells via its interactions with cell surface receptors. In parallel, the Toll-like receptors sense viral invasion and ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Fungal Systematics and Biogeography
(Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

RW-BP100-4D, a Promising Antimicrobial Candidate With Broad-Spectrum Bactericidal Activity
This study presented a short linear antimicrobial peptide RW-BP100-4D, which was derived from RW-BP100 (RRLFRRILRWL-NH2) by transforming the N-terminal 4th amino acid from L- to D-enantiomer. This modification remarkably reduced the peptide cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, as indicated by hemolytic and cytotoxicity assays. Meanwhile, the antimicrobial activity of RW-BP100-4D was improved against a more variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (sensitive and resistant) as well as fungi. Also, RW-BP100-4D showed strong in vitro anti-biofilm activity in a concentration-dependent manner, including inhibition of the ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

“Osteomicrobiology”: The Nexus Between Bone and Bugs
A growing body of scientific evidence supports the notion that gut microbiota plays a key role in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes related to human health. Recent findings have now established that gut microbiota also contributes to the regulation of bone homeostasis. Studies on animal models have unraveled various underlying mechanisms responsible for gut microbiota-mediated bone regulation. Normal gut microbiota is thus required for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. However, dysbiosis of gut microbiota communities is reported to be associated with several bone-related ailments such as...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tannic Acid Inhibits Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection by Targeting the Type III Secretion System
This study provides an alternative anti-virulence strategy for Salmonella infection treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nipah Virus –Another Threat From the World of Zoonotic Viruses
Among the diseases that pose a serious threat to public health, those caused by viruses are of great importance. The Nipah virus (NiV) belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family was reported in Malaysia in 1998/1999. Due to its high mortality in humans, its zoonotic nature, the possibility of human-to-human transmission, and the lack of an available vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized it as a global health problem. Depending on strain specificity, neurological symptoms and severe respiratory disorders are observed in NiV infection. In most confirmed cases of NiV epidemics, the appearance of the virus i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal Stability and Cytotoxicity of Bacteriocins From Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria: A Comparative in vitro Study
Bacteriocins are receiving increased attention as potent candidates in food preservation and medicine. Although the inhibitory activity of bacteriocins has been studied widely, little is known about their gastrointestinal stability and toxicity toward normal human cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal stability and activity of microcin J25, pediocin PA-1, bactofencin A and nisin using in vitro models. In addition cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of these bacteriocins were investigated on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2) and rat erythrocytes, respectively. Pedioci...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Nucleopolyhedrovirus Coocclusion Technology: A New Concept in the Development of Biological Insecticides
Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV, Baculoviridae) that infect lepidopteran pests have an established record as safe and effective biological insecticides. Here, we describe a new approach for the development of NPV-based insecticides. This technology takes advantage of the unique way in which these viruses are transmitted as collective infectious units, and the genotypic diversity present in natural virus populations. A ten-step procedure is described involving genotypic variant selection, mixing, coinfection and intraspecific coocclusion of variants within viral occlusion bodies. Using two examples, we demonstrate how this appr...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Chicken-Derived Pattern Recognition Receptor chLGP2 Inhibits the Replication and Proliferation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus
The widespread nature and economic importance of Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and interactions between IBV and the host immune response remain poorly understood. Understanding the mechanism of virus recognition via innate immunity can help resist IBV invasion. Retinoic acid-induced gene I-like receptor (RLRs) recognize virus RNA in virus infection, and LGP2 is a member of RLRs. According to the current studies, LGP2 exhibited certain inhibition in the virus, and there is a lack of investigation for chicken’s LGP2. It is important to figure out the role of chLGP2 in host immune recognition of IBV. Our results sho...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interactions Between Marine Group II Archaea and Phytoplankton Revealed by Population Correlations in the Northern Coast of South China Sea
In this study, we studied interactions between MGII archaea and the diverse taxa of phytoplankton in the northern coast of South China Sea. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses demonstrated distinct MGII community patterns in the Pearl River plume (PRP) and the open regions of the northern South China Sea (ONSCS), with MGIIb dominating the former and MGIIa and MGIIb showing remarkable variations in the latter for the same sampling season. Nevertheless, positive correlations (Pearson correlation: R> 0.8 and P
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activation and Immune Regulation Mechanisms of PYHIN Family During Microbial Infection
The innate immune system defenses against pathogen infections via patten-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs initiate immune responses by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, and nucleic acids. Several nucleic acid sensors or families have been identified, such as RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), and PYHIN family receptors. In recent years, the PYHIN family cytosolic DNA receptors have increased attention because of their important roles in initiating innate immune responses. The family members in huma...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research