Biocontrol Ability and Mechanism of a Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Strain Bacillus safensis sp. QN1NO-4 Against Strawberry Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fragariae
Strawberry is a very popular fruit with a special taste, color, and nutritional value. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum fragariae severely limits fruit shelf life during post-harvest storage. Use of traditional chemical fungicides leads to serious environment pollution and threatens food safety. Biocontrol is considered as a promising strategy to manage the post-harvest fruit diseases. Here, strain QN1NO-4 isolated from noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit exhibited a high antifungal activity against C. fragariae. Based on its physicochemical profiles and phylogenetic tree of the 16S rRNA sequence, strain QN1NO-4 belonge...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Targeted Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria With Antibacterial Activity Toward Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex Type 1 Associated With Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by an epidermal barrier impairment, as well as a Th2/Th22-skewed immune response, both favoring skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. Colonization is strongly related to severity of the disease, and a reduction of S. aureus has been found to alleviate symptoms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids and bacteriocins and are widely used as probiotics. The aim of this study was to isolate LAB and screen for antibacterial effect specifically toward S. aureus clonal complex type 1. A total of 680 LAB wer...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of the Histone Methyltransferase Specific Probe BRD4770 on Metabolic Profiling of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe longicolla
The endophytic fungus Diaporthe longicolla was isolated from the stem of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd., commonly known as Ashok plant in India and Sri Lanka. Since no reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations by BRD4770 in microbial entities, D. longicolla was treated with different concentrations of BRD4770 for this purpose and evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Shigella boydii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts Obtained From Cultivation of Native Endophytic Fungi Belonging to a Tropical Montane Rainforest in Colombia
Bioactive secondary metabolite production from endophytic fungi has gained a recurring research focus in recent decades as these microorganisms represent an unexplored biological niche for their diverse biotechnological potential. Despite this focus, studies involving tropical endophytes remain scarce, particularly those isolated from medicinal plants of these ecosystems. In addition, the state of the art of the pharmaceutical industry has experienced stagnation in the past 30years, which has pushed pathogenic infections to get one step ahead, resulting in the development of resistance to existing treatments. Here, five fu...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Translation of a Leaderless Reporter Is Robust During Exponential Growth and Well Sustained During Stress Conditions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis expresses a large number of leaderless mRNA transcripts; these lack the 5′ leader region, which usually contains the Shine–Dalgarno sequence required for translation initiation in bacteria. In M. tuberculosis, transcripts encoding proteins like toxin–antitoxin systems are predominantly leaderless and the overall ratio of leaderless to Shine–Dalgarno transcripts significantly increases during growth arrest, suggesting that leaderless translation might be important during persistence in the host. However, whether these two types of transcripts are translated with differing e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Fecal Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients and Healthy Individuals Colonized With Blastocystis
Blastocystis is the most frequently isolated protozoan from human stool. Its role in human health is still debated, and a high prevalence was reported in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) subjects, suggesting a potential link with microbiota. In the present study, we aimed to investigate prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota in both IBS-C (constipated) and healthy individuals. We recruited 35 IBS-C patients and 23 healthy subjects, from which 12 and 11 carried Blastocystis, respectively. We performed 16S and 18S rRNA high-throughput sequencing on feces. Whereas we did not observe differences between infected and non-infected ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Colonizing Microbes, IL-10 and IL-22: Keeping the Peace at the Mucosal Surface
Our world is filled with microbes. Each multicellular organism has developed ways to interact with this microbial environment. Microbes do not always pose a threat; they can contribute to many processes that benefit the host. Upon colonization both host and microbes adapt resulting in dynamic ecosystems in different host niches. Regulatory processes develop within the host to prevent overt inflammation to beneficial microbes, yet keeping the possibility to respond when pathogens attempt to adhere and invade tissues. This review will focus on microbial colonization and the early (innate) host immune response, with special e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibacterial Activity of Pediocin and Pediocin-Producing Bacteria Against Listeria monocytogenes in Meat Products
One of the most important challenges in the food industry is to produce healthy and safe food products, and this could be achieved through various processes as well as the use of different additives, especially chemical preservatives. However, consumer awareness and concern about chemical preservatives have led researchers to focus on the use of natural antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. Pediocins, which belong to subclass IIa of bacteriocin characterized as small unmodified peptides with a low molecular weight (2.7–17 kDa), are produced by some of the Pediococcus bacteria. Pediocin and pediocin-like bacte...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Fnr Negatively Regulates Prodigiosin Synthesis in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 During Aerobic Fermentation
The well-known Crp/Fnr family regulator Fnr has long been recognized as an oxygen sensor to regulate multiple biological processes, including the switch between aerobic/anaerobic metabolism, nitrogen fixation, bioluminescence, infection, and virulence. In most cases, Fnr was found to be active under anaerobic conditions. However, its role in aerobic antibiotic metabolism has not yet been revealed. In this research, we report that in the model organism, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006, Fnr (Ser39006_013370) negatively regulates prodigiosin production by binding to the spacer between the −10 and −35 region in the promote...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multivariate Analysis in Microbiome Description: Correlation of Human Gut Protein Degraders, Metabolites, and Predicted Metabolic Functions
Protein catabolism by intestinal bacteria is infamous for releasing many harmful compounds, negatively affecting the health status, both locally and systemically. In a previous study, we enriched in protein degraders the fecal microbiota of five subjects, utilizing a medium containing protein and peptides as sole fermentable substrates and we monitored their evolution by 16S rRNA gene profiling. In the present study, we fused the microbiome data and the data obtained by the analysis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of the cultures. Then, we utilized ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) to e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Insight Into Whole Genome of Aeromonas veronii Isolated From Freshwater Fish by Resistome Analysis Reveal Extensively Antibiotic Resistant Traits
In conclusion, A. veronii strains isolated from tilapia exhibited a resistance to several antimicrobials and multidrug resistance (MDR) which was related to the presence of multiple ARGs. Aeromonas veronii shared the ARGs in their population worldwide with a possibility of a plasmid-mediated acquisition due to the presence of resistance islands. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alteration and the Function of Intestinal Microbiota in High-Fat-Diet- or Genetics-Induced Lipid Accumulation
Diet and host genetics influence the composition of intestinal microbiota, yet few studies have compared the function of intestinal microbiota in the diet- or genotype-induced lipid deposition, which limits our understanding of the role of intestinal bacteria in metabolic disorders. The lipid accumulation in wild-type zebrafish fed with control (CON) or high-fat (HF) diet and two gene-knockout zebrafish lines (cpt1b–/– or pparab–/–) fed with control diet was measured after a 4-week feeding experiment. The intestinal microbiota composition of these groups was investigated using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRN...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Community Structure and Function of Epiphytic Bacteria Associated With Myriophyllum spicatum in Baiyangdian Lake, China
In this study, the abundance, diversity, and functions of the epiphytic bacterial community of Myriophyllum spicatum collected from Baiyangdian Lake in June, August, and October 2019 were studied using quantitative PCR (qPCR), high-throughput sequencing, and the prediction of functions. An analysis using qPCR showed that the epiphytic bacteria were the most abundant in October and the least abundant in August. High-throughput sequencing revealed that Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Aeromonas were the dominant phylum, class, and genus in all the samples. The common analyses of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), NM...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diverse Bacterial Resistance Genes Detected in Fecal Samples From Clinically Healthy Women and Infants in Australia —A Descriptive Pilot Study
The gut microbiota is an immense reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), the so-called “resistome.” In Australia, where antibiotic use is high and resistance rates in some common pathogens are increasing, very little is known about the human resistome. To assess the presence and diversity of ARGs in the gut of Australians from south-eastern Victoria, we investigated fecal samples from clinically healthy infants and pregnant women using non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics sequencing or SMS) and targeted sequencing (two Ion AmpliseqTM panels). All methods detected ARGs in all samples, with the detectio...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Growth and Characteristics of Two Different Epichlo ë sinensis Strains Under Different Cultures
In the present study, two Epichloë sinensis endophyte strains isolated from different Festuca sinensis ecotypes were inoculated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and potato dextrose broth (PDB) media with or without (control) exogenous additives. After 4weeks of growth, the growth (colony diameter, hyphal diameter, and mycelial biomass) and other characteristics (pH and antioxidant capacity of culture filtrate, mycelial ion contents, and hormone contents) were measured. The results showed that the culture conditions had significant effects (p
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the Genetic Diversity Associated With the Drug Resistance and Pathogenicity of Influenza A Virus Isolated in Bangladesh From 2002 to 2019
This study provides a detailed analysis of the subtypes, and the host range of the IAV isolates and the genetic variations related to their proteins, which may aid in the prevention, treatment, and control of IAV infections in Bangladesh, and would serve as a basis for future investigations. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Combined Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomics Approaches Reveal Urinary Changes of Amino Acids and Energy Metabolism in Canine Babesiosis With Different Levels of Kidney Function
In this study, 22 dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis and 12 healthy dogs were included. Untargeted metabolomics approach identified 601 features with a differential abundance between the healthy group and groups of dogs with babesiosis and different level of kidney function, with 27 of them identified as a match to known standards; while targeted approach identified 17 metabolites with significantly different concentrations between the groups. A pattern of significantly altered metabolites referring to the inflammatory host response, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism modulation in babesiosis was presented. Ou...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Soil Fungal Community in Grazed Inner Mongolian Grassland Adjacent to Coal-Mining Activity
Coal mining results in reduced soil quality and makes environments less stable. Soil fungi are suitable indicators of soil quality for monitoring purposes. Here, the objective was therefore to investigate the effects of grazing and mining on the composition of the soil fungal community at the periphery of an opencast coal-mine dump in the Shengli mining area, Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia. A total of 2,110 fungal operational taxonomic units were identified and subdivided into 81 orders and nine categories, based on trophic modes. The sensitive factor to mining was soil pH, and that to grazing were soil nitrate-nitrogen a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial Composition Associated With Giant Colonies of the Harmful Algal Species Phaeocystis globosa
The cosmopolitan algae Phaeocystis globosa forms harmful algal blooms frequently in a number of tropical and subtropical coastal regions in the past two decades. During the bloom, the giant colony, which is formed by P. globosa, is the dominant morphotype. However, the microenvironment and the microbial composition in the intracolonial fluid are poorly understood. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to examine the bacterial composition and predicted functions in intracolonial fluid. Compared with the bacterial consortia in ambient seawater, intracolonial fluids possessed the lower levels of microbial...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multidrug Resistance Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilms: Evaluation of Phenotypic ŰGenotypic Association and Susceptibility to Cinnamic and Gallic Acids
This study examined the biofilm-forming ability of the isolates by crystal violet staining and the antibiotic susceptibility by broth microdilution method. The genetic basis of the MDR and biofilm-forming phenotypes was screened by polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial activities of cinnamic and gallic acids against planktonic cells and biofilms of A. baumannii were investigated, and the findings were confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among 90 A. baumannii isolates, 69 (76.6%) were MDR, and all were biofilm formers; they were classified into weak (12.2%), moderate (53.3%), and strong (34.5%) biofilm...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Is There a Connection Between Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis Occurring in COVID-19 Patients and Post-COVID-19 Symptoms?
(Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Potential Activities and Long Lifetimes of Organic Carbon-Degrading Extracellular Enzymes in Deep Subsurface Sediments of the Baltic Sea
Heterotrophic microorganisms in marine sediments produce extracellular enzymes to hydrolyze organic macromolecules, so their products can be transported inside the cell and used for energy and growth. Therefore, extracellular enzymes may mediate the fate of organic carbon in sediments. The Baltic Sea Basin is a primarily depositional environment with high potential for organic matter preservation. The potential activities of multiple organic carbon-degrading enzymes were measured in samples obtained by the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 347 from the Little Belt Strait, Denmark, core M0059C. Potential maxi...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Community Assembly and Co-occurrence Patterns Underlying the Core and Satellite Bacterial Sub-communities in the Tibetan Lakes
Microbial communities normally comprise a few core species and large numbers of satellite species. These two sub-communities have different ecological and functional roles in natural environments, but knowledge on the assembly processes and co-occurrence patterns of the core and satellite species in Tibetan lakes is still sparse. Here, we investigated the ecological processes and co-occurrence relationships of the core and satellite bacterial sub-communities in the Tibetan lakes via 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Our studies indicated that the core and satellite bacterial sub-communities have similar dominant phyla (Prot...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Relationships Between the Microbial Composition and the Geochemistry and Mineralogy of the Cobalt-Bearing Legacy Mine Tailings in Northeastern Ontario
Mine tailings host dynamic biogeochemical processes that can mobilize a range of elements from the host material and release them into the environment through acidic, neutral, or alkaline mine drainage. Here we use a combination of mineralogical, geochemical, and microbiological techniques that provide a better understanding of biogeochemical processes within the surficial layers of neutral cobalt and arsenic-rich tailings material at Cobalt, ON, Canada. Tailings material within 30-cm depth profiles from three tailings sites (sites A, B, and C) were characterized for their mineralogical, chemical and microbial community co...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 17, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Aptasensors for Staphylococcus aureus Risk Assessment in Food
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the top ordinary pathogen causing epidemic and food poisoning. The authentication of S. aureus has great significance for pathologic diagnosis and food hygiene supervision. Various biosensor methods have been established for identification. This paper reviews the research progress of aptasensors for S. aureus detection, focusing on the classification of aptamer technologies, including optical aptasensors and electrochemical aptasensors. Furthermore, the feasibility and future challenges of S. aureus detection for aptamer assays are discussed. Combining aptasensors with nanomaterials app...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae Meal Modulates Intestinal Morphology and Microbiota in Xuefeng Black-Bone Chickens
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HILM on intestinal morphology and microbial diversity in different intestinal segments of Xuefeng black-bone chickens. All of 432 birds (45 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four equal groups with six replicates and 18 hens in each replicate: (A) basal diet, (B) basal diet with 1% HILM, (C) basal diet with 3% HILM, and (D) basal diet with 5% HILM. The results showed that, compared with the basal diet group, the HILM supplement significantly increased the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and Chao index in cecum (p
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Kinetic Characterization and Inhibitor Screening of Pyruvate Kinase I From Babesia microti
In this study, we cloned, expressed, and purified B. microti PYK I (BmPYKI). Western blotting illustrated that anti-rBmPYKI antibody could specifically recognize the native BmPYKI protein in the lysate of B. microti with a 54-kDa band, which is consistent with the predicted size. In addition, the enzymatic activity of the purified recombinant PYKI (rPYKI) was tested under a range of pH values. The results showed that the maximum catalytic activity could be achieved at pH 7.0. The saturation curves for substrates demonstrated that the Km value for PEP was 0.655 ± 0.117 mM and that for ADP was 0.388 ± 0.087 mM....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative Metagenomics Reveals Microbial Communities and Their Associated Functions in Two Types of Fuzhuan Brick Tea
This study provides new insights into FBT microbial communities on their potential functions and roles in FBT characteristics. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Appendectomy Is Associated With Alteration of Human Gut Bacterial and Fungal Communities
This study revealed a marked impact of appendectomy on gut bacteria and fungi, which was particularly durable for fungi. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Growth Coordination Between Butyrate-Oxidizing Syntrophs and Hydrogenotrophic Methanogens
In this study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the cell-to-cell interaction in a thermophilic coculture consisting of Syntrophothermus lipocalidus and Methanocella conradii and a mesophilic coculture consisting of Syntrophomonas wolfei and Methanococcus maripaludis. First, syntrophs and methanogens were inoculated at different initial cell ratios to evaluate the growth synchronization. The quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the organism with a lower relative abundance at the beginning always grew faster, and the cell ratio converged over time to relative constant values in both the thermophilic and mesoph...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

In vivo Emergence of Colistin and Tigecycline Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae During Antibiotics Treatment
Three carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP; strains KP-426, KP-C76, and KP-CT77) were isolated from a patient with severe burns during the treatment of colistin and tigecycline. Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing showed that three ST11 CRKP were clonally related. Three isolates harbored the same set of antimicrobial resistance genes. blaKPC-2, blaSHV-12, blaTEM-1, and rmtB genes were located on the same 128,928-bp IncFII/IncR plasmid. Tet(A), catA2, sul2, and dfrA14 genes were located on a plasmid with an unknown Inc-type. blaSHV-11, fosA, and aadA2 were chromosomal genes. An IS1 and an ISKpn14 were found in...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance and CRISPR Typing Among Salmonella Isolates From Poultry Farms in China
Although knowledge of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system has been applied in many research areas, comprehensive studies of this system in Salmonella, particularly in analysis of antibiotic resistance, have not been reported. In this work, 75 Salmonella isolates obtained from broilers or broilers products were characterized to determine their antimicrobial susceptibilities, antibiotic resistance gene profiles, and CRISPR array diversities, and genotyping was explored. In total, 80.00% (60/75) of the strains were multidrug resistant, and the main pattern observed in the isolates ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Tracing Eukaryotic Ribosome Biogenesis Factors Into the Archaeal Domain Sheds Light on the Evolution of Functional Complexity
Ribosome assembly is an essential and carefully choreographed cellular process. In eukaryotes, several 100 proteins, distributed across the nucleolus, nucleus, and cytoplasm, co-ordinate the step-wise assembly of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and approximately 80 ribosomal proteins (RPs) into the mature ribosomal subunits. Due to the inherent complexity of the assembly process, functional studies identifying ribosome biogenesis factors and, more importantly, their precise functions and interplay are confined to a few and very well-established model organisms. Although best characterized in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), e...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of Methane Inhibitors on Ruminal Microbiota During Early Life and Its Relationship With Ruminal Metabolism and Growth in Calves
The present study aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with methanogen inhibitors during early life may lead to an imprint on the rumen microbial community and change the rumen function and performance of calves to 49-weeks of rearing. Twenty-four 4-day-old Friesian x Jersey cross calves were randomly assigned into a control and a treatment group. Treated calves were fed a combination of chloroform (CF) and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) in the solid diets during the first 12 weeks of rearing. Afterward, calves were grouped by treatments until week 14, and then managed as a single group on pasture. Solid diets and w...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Hepatitis B Virus Interactome: A Comprehensive Overview
This article provides a comprehensive review of the virus-host relationship from viral entry to release, as well as an interactome of cccDNA, HBc, and HBx. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Untargeted Metabolomics Investigation on Selenite Reduction to Elemental Selenium by Bacillus mycoides SeITE01
Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 is an environmental isolate that transforms the oxyanion selenite (SeO32−) into the less bioavailable elemental selenium (Se0) forming biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Bio-SeNPs). In the present study, the reduction of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) by SeITE01 strain and the effect of SeO32− exposure on the bacterial cells was examined through untargeted metabolomics. A time-course approach was used to monitor both cell pellet and cell free spent medium (referred as intracellular and extracellular, respectively) metabolites in SeITE01 cells treated or not with SeO32−. The results show...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome of Ganoderma Species Provides Insights Into the Evolution, Conifers Substrate Utilization, and Terpene Synthesis for Ganoderma tsugae
Ganoderma tsugae is an endemic medicinal mushroom in Northeast China, providing important source of pharmaceutical product. Comparing with other Ganoderma species, wild G. tsugae can utilize coniferous wood. However, functional genes related to medicinal component synthesis and the genetic mechanism of conifer substrate utilization is still obscure. Here, we assembled a high-quality G. tsugae genome with 18 contigs and 98.5% BUSCO genes and performed the comparative genomics with other Ganoderma species. G. tsugae diverged from their common ancestor of G. lingzhi and G. sinense about 21 million years ago. Genes in G. tsuga...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of the Gradient Diffusion Strip Method and Disk Diffusion Method for Ceftazidime –Avibactam Against Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Dual-Center Study
Objectives: Ceftazidime–avibactam is a novel synthetic beta-lactam + beta-lactamase inhibitor combination. We evaluated the performance of the gradient diffusion strip method and the disk diffusion method for the determination of ceftazidime–avibactam against Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 302 clinical Enterobacterales and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two centers were conducted by broth microdilution (BMD), gradient diffusion strip method, and disk diffusion method for ceftazidime–avibactam. Using BMD as a gold standard, essential agree...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of Clostridium butyricum, Sodium Butyrate, and Butyric Acid Glycerides on the Reproductive Performance, Egg Quality, Intestinal Health, and Offspring Performance of Yellow-Feathered Breeder Hens
In conclusion, dietary inclusion of CB and BAG improved the reproductive parameters, egg quality, and intestinal morphology of breeders. CB also influenced the hatching performance of breeders and growth performance of the offspring, while SB improved the oviduct-related variables. These beneficial effects may result from the regulation of cytokines, nutrient transporters, apoptosis, and gut microbiota; high-level CB had more obvious impact. Further study is needed to explore and understand the correlation between the altered gut microbiota induced by butyrate and the performance, egg quality, intestinal health, and also o...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Serotyping, MLST, and Core Genome MLST Analysis of Salmonella enterica From Different Sources in China During 2004 –2019
In conclusion, we sorted out the phenotyping and genotyping diversity of S. enterica isolates in China during 2004–2019 and clarified the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of Salmonella from different hosts in China in the recent 16 years. These results greatly supplement Salmonella strain resources, genetic information, and traceability typing data; facilitate the typing, traceability, identification, and genetic evolution analysis of Salmonella; and therefore, improve the level of analysis, monitoring, and controlling of foodborne microorganisms in China. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Overview of the Diversity, Phylogeny and Biogeography of Strombidiid Oligotrich Ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora), With a Brief Revision and a Key to the Known Genera
Strombidiids are common free-living ciliates that have colonized coastal and open oceanic waters across the world. In recent years, numerous new taxa and gene sequences of strombidiids have been reported, revealing a large diversity of both their morphologic and genetic features. Here, we compare the taxonomic characters of all genera in the family Strombidiidae, provide a key to their identification, and investigate their molecular phylogeny. In addition, we analyze their regional distribution based on faunal data accumulated in China and attempt to infer their global distribution based on SSU rRNA gene sequence data. The...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Taxon-Wise Insight Into Rock Weathering and Nitrogen Fixation Functional Profiles of Proglacial Systems
The Arctic environment is particularly affected by global warming, and a clear trend of the ice retreat is observed worldwide. In proglacial systems, the newly exposed terrain represents different environmental and nutrient conditions compared to later soil stages. Therefore, proglacial systems show several environmental gradients along the soil succession where microorganisms are active protagonists of the soil and carbon pool formation through nitrogen fixation and rock weathering. We studied the microbial succession of three Arctic proglacial systems located in Svalbard (Midtre Lovénbreen), Sweden (Storglaciä...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacillus subtilis DSM29784 Alleviates Negative Effects on Growth Performance in Broilers by Improving the Intestinal Health Under Necrotic Enteritis Challenge
Along with banning antibiotics, necrotic enteritis (NE), especially subclinical enteritis (SNE), poses a significant threat to the chicken industry; however, probiotics are a potentially promising intervention. We aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of Bacillus subtilis DSM29784 (BS) on the treatment of Clostridium perfringens (CP)-induced SNE in broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old broiler chicks were divided into three treatment groups, namely control (Ctr), SNE, and BS treatment (BST) groups, all of which were fed with a basal died for 21days, and then from day 22 onward, only the BST group had a BS supplemented d...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Establishment of Tree Shrew Animal Model for Kaposi ’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (HHV-8) Infection
This study was designed to explore the susceptibility of tree shrews as a possible KSHV-infected small animal model. A recombinant GFP (latent)/RFP (lytic)-positive rKSHV.219 strain was used to infect primary cells cultured from different tissues of tree shrews as an in vitro model and adult tree shrews as an in vivo model. KSHV latent nuclear antigen (LANA) and DNA were successfully detected in primary cells of tree shrews. Among them, tree shrew kidney epithelial cells (TSKEC) were the most susceptible cells to KSHV infection compared to other cells. KSHV genomic DNA, mRNA, and KSHV-specific proteins were readily detecte...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Bacterial Quorum Sensing Molecule Elicits a General Stress Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
In this study, we asked whether the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can sense chemical signals from prokaryotes. When exposed to a variety of quorum sensing molecules from different bacterial species and from Candida albicans we found that N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (C12) from the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces a remarkable stress response in yeast. Microarray experiments confirmed and aided in interpreting these findings, showing a unique and specific expression pattern that differed significantly from the response to previously described stress factors. We further charact...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Detection of Bioavailable Cadmium by Double-Color Fluorescence Based on a Dual-Sensing Bioreporter System
Cadmium (Cd) is carcinogenic to humans and can accumulate in the liver, kidneys, and bones. There is widespread presence of cadmium in the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. It is important to detect cadmium in the environment to prevent further exposure to humans. Previous whole-cell biosensor designs were focused on single-sensing constructs but have had difficulty in distinguishing cadmium from other metal ions such as lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg). We developed a dual-sensing bacterial bioreporter system to detect bioavailable cadmium by employing CadC and CadR as separate metal sensory elements and...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 16, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Exploring Phenolic Compounds as Quorum Sensing Inhibitors in Foodborne Bacteria
This study aimed to evaluate the potential of phenolic compounds for QS inhibition in a QS biosensor strain (Chromobacterium violaceum) and three foodborne bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo, and Serratia marcescens). Initially, an in silico molecular docking study was performed to select the compounds with the greatest potential for QS inhibition, using structural variants of the CviR QS regulator of C. violaceum as target. Curcumin, capsaicin, resveratrol, gallic acid, and phloridizin presented good affinity to at least four CviR structural variants. These phenolic compounds w...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Isolation of Ciprofloxacin and Ceftazidime-Resistant Enterobacterales From Vegetables and River Water Is Strongly Associated With the Season and the Sample Type
The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) from water used for crop irrigation to vegetables is poorly studied. During a year, five farmer markets in a city in Central Chile were visited, and 478 vegetable samples (parsleys, corianders, celeries, lettuces, chards, and beets) were collected. Simultaneously, 32 water samples were collected from two rivers which are used to irrigate the vegetables produced in the area. Resistant Enterobacterales were isolated and identified. Colistin resistance gene mcr-1 and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) were molecularly detected. The association of environmental f...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Binary Toxin of Clostridioides difficile Alters the Proteome and Phosphoproteome of HEp-2 Cells
Clostridioides difficile is a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and some cases are leading to pseudomembranous colitis. The main virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B. Hypervirulent strains of C. difficile are linked to higher mortality rates and most of these strains produce additionally the C. difficile binary toxin (CDT) that possesses two subunits, CDTa and CDTb. The latter is responsible for binding and transfer of CDTa into the cytoplasm of target cells; CDTa is an ADP ribosyltransferase catalyzing the modification of actin fibers that disturbs the actin vs micro...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Identification and Genetic Characterization of Parechovirus Infection Among Pediatric Patients With Wide Clinical Spectrum in Chongqing, China
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are important causes of infection in children. However, without a comprehensive and persistent surveillance, the epidemiology and clinical features of HPeV infection remain ambiguous. We performed a hospital-based surveillance study among three groups of pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection (Group 1), acute diarrhea (Group 2), and hand, foot and mouth disease (Group 3) in Chongqing, China, from 2009 to 2015. Among 10,212 tested patients, 707 (6.92%) were positive for HPeV, with the positive rates differing significantly among three groups (Group 1, 3.43%; Group 2, 14.94%; Group 3, 3.55%; P
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - September 14, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research