Comparison of Alginate Utilization Pathways in Culturable Bacteria Isolated From Arctic and Antarctic Marine Environments
This study systematically illustrates the alginate utilization pathways in culturable bacteria from the Arctic and Antarctic regions, shedding light into the distribution and evolution of alginate utilization pathways in polar bacteria. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Activation of the Two-Component System LisRK Promotes Cell Adhesion and High Ampicillin Tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen which can survive in harsh environmental conditions. It responds to external stimuli through an array of two-component systems (TCS) that sense external cues. Several TCS, including LisRK, have been linked to Listeria’s ability to grow at slightly elevated antibiotic levels. The aim of this study was to determine if the TCS LisRK is also involved in acquiring the high antibiotic tolerance that is characteristic of persister cells. LisRK activates a response that leads to remodeling of the cell envelope, and we therefore hypothesized that activation of LisRK could also in...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cell Cycle, Filament Growth and Synchronized Cell Division in Multicellular Cable Bacteria
Cable bacteria are multicellular, Gram-negative filamentous bacteria that display a unique division of metabolic labor between cells. Cells in deeper sediment layers are oxidizing sulfide, while cells in the surface layers of the sediment are reducing oxygen. The electrical coupling of these two redox half reactions is ensured via long-distance electron transport through a network of conductive fibers that run in the shared cell envelope of the centimeter-long filament. Here we investigate how this unique electrogenic metabolism is linked to filament growth and cell division. Combining dual-label stable isotope probing (13...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

CRISPR-Cas9-Based Toolkit for Clostridium botulinum Group II Spore and Sporulation Research
The spores of Clostridium botulinum Group II strains pose a significant threat to the safety of modern packaged foods due to the risk of their survival in pasteurization and their ability to germinate into neurotoxigenic cultures at refrigeration temperatures. Moreover, spores are the infectious agents in wound botulism, infant botulism, and intestinal toxemia in adults. The identification of factors that contribute to spore formation is, therefore, essential to the development of strategies to control related health risks. Accordingly, development of a straightforward and versatile gene manipulation tool and an efficient ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antarctic Water Tracks: Microbial Community Responses to Variation in Soil Moisture, pH, and Salinity
Ice-free soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys select for taxa able to cope with challenging environmental conditions, including extreme chemical water activity gradients, freeze-thaw cycling, desiccation, and solar radiation regimes. The low biotic complexity of Dry Valley soils makes them well suited to investigate environmental and spatial influences on bacterial community structure. Water tracks are annually wetted habitats in the cold-arid soils of Antarctica that form briefly each summer with moisture sourced from snow melt, ground ice thaw, and atmospheric deposition via deliquescence and vapor flow into brines. Compared...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Application of CRISPR/Cas for Diagnosis and Management of Viral Diseases of Banana
This article presents a synopsis of recent advancements and perspectives on the application of CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing for diagnosing and developing resistance against banana viruses and challenges in genome-editing of banana. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Size Matters: Biological and Food Safety Relevance of Leaf Damage for Colonization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 gfp+
This study examined the biological and food safety relevance of leaf lesions for potential invasion of food pathogens into the plant tissue (internalization). This was done by determining the role of artificial leaf damage in terms of damaged leaf area on proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 gfp+. In a two-factorial experiment, unwashed fresh baby leaf spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was subjected to four damage levels (undamaged, low, moderate, high damage; factor 1) and three incubation intervals (0, 1, 2 days post-inoculation; factor 2). Individual leaves were immersed for 15 s in a suspension loaded with E. coli O157:H7 gfp...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phages Bind to Vegetative and Spore Forms of Paenibacillus larvae and to Vegetative Brevibacillus laterosporus
Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB), the most destructive bacterial infection in honeybees. Even antibiotic-sensitive strains of P. larvae can produce recurrent AFB months to weeks post-antibiotic treatment due to the survival of bacterial spores. Recently, phages that infect P. larvae have been shown to effectively combat AFB in the field. Here, we present evidence that phages not only bind to vegetative P. larvae but also bind to P. larvae spores. Spore binding was observed in the results of three specific experiments: (1) bacteria counted by flow cytometry generated quantitative data ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Futuristic Non-antibiotic Therapies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance: A Review
This article highlights the present scenario of increasing antimicrobial-resistance in pathogenic bacteria and the clinical importance of unconventional or non-antibiotic therapies to thwart the infectious pathogenic microorganisms. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Biological Characteristics of Novel H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus and Its Pathogenesis in Ducks
Clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have caused outbreaks in poultry in the world. Some of these viruses acquired internal genes from other subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) such as H9 and H6 for the generation of novel reassortant viruses and continually circulated in poultry. Here, we applied a duck-origin virus DK87 and a chicken-origin virus CK66 to assess the biological characteristics of novel reassortant H5N6 HPAIVs and its pathogenesis in ducks. A genetic analysis indicated that the HA genes of the two H5N6 HPAIVs were closely related to the H5 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 circula...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of Ethanol Vapor Treatment on the Growth of Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea and Defense-Related Enzymes of Fungi-Inoculated Blueberry During Storage
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ethanol vapor on the inhibition of Alternaria alternata and Botrytis cinerea in postharvest blueberry and the induction of defense-related enzymes (DREs) activities in fungi-inoculated blueberries stored at 0±0.5°C for 16days. Results indicated that ethanol vapor markedly inhibited the mycelial growth of A. alternata and B. cinerea in a dose-dependent manner, with inhibition rates of 9.1% (250μlL−1), 36.4% (500μlL−1), and 5.5% (1,000μlL−1) on A. alternata and 14.2% (250μlL−1), 44.7% (500μlL−1), and 76.6% (...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Pediatric Patients in Southwest China
In conclusion, among pediatric patients in Southwest China, resistance rates were high for clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, and rifampicin, whereas nil resistance was found to amoxicillin, tetracycline, and furazolidone. Our data suggest that the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy should be abandoned as empiric therapy, whereas the bismuth quadruple therapy (bismuth/PPI/amoxicillin/tetracycline) would be suitable as first-line empiric treatment regimen for this pediatric population. Tetracycline and furazolidone may be considered for treating refractory H. pylori infections in adolescent patients. (So...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Assessment of Bacterial Community Composition and Dynamics in Alfalfa Silages With and Without Lactobacillus plantarum Inoculation Using Absolute Quantification 16S rRNA Sequencing
In conclusion, AQS effectively illustrated the dynamics of bacterial communities during the ensiling process. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Flavor Composition and Microbial Community Structure of Mianning Ham
Mianning ham, a traditional Chinese dry-cured ham, is protected by national geographical indications. To understand the surface and internal flavor composition and microbial community structure of Mianning ham, solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC-MS) technology and Illumina high-throughput sequencing were utilized. The results showed that a total of 60 flavor substances were identified in the hams. Forty-nine kinds of flavorings were identified on the surface, including 14 aldehydes, 6 ketones, 10 alcohols, 5 esters, 7 hydrocarbons, 5 acids, and 2 other compounds. Thirty-six kinds of internal flavorings...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Purification of Crude Fructo-Oligosaccharide Preparations Using Probiotic Bacteria for the Selective Fermentation of Monosaccharide Byproducts
Probiotics are microbes that promote health when consumed in sufficient amounts. They are present in many fermented foods or can be provided directly as supplements. Probiotics utilize non-digestible prebiotic oligosaccharides for growth in the intestinal tract, contributing to a healthy microbiome. The oligosaccharides favored by probiotics are species-dependent, as shown by the selective utilization of substrates in mixed sugar solutions such as crude fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Enzymatically produced crude FOS preparations contain abundant monosaccharide byproducts, residual sucrose, and FOS varying in chain length. ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Plant-Soil-Microbiota Combination for the Removal of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): An In-Field Experiment
In conclusion, our evaluation implied both the rhizosphere effects and functional features of the plant and suggested that plants should (i) have marked tolerance to specific contaminants, (ii) be characterized by an extensive root system, and (iii) be susceptible to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) infection. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Prospective Synergy of Antitubercular Drugs With NAD Biosynthesis Inhibitors
In conclusion, future strategies targeting NAD metabolism in Mtb should consider its potential synergy with current and other forthcoming TB-drugs. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Regional Diversity of Maritime Antarctic Soil Fungi and Predicted Responses of Guilds and Growth Forms to Climate Change
We report a metabarcoding study documenting the fungal taxa in 29 barren fellfield soils sampled from along a 1,650 km transect encompassing almost the entire maritime Antarctic (60–72°S) and the environmental factors structuring the richness, relative abundance, and taxonomic composition of three guilds and growth forms. The richness of the lichenised fungal guild, which accounted for 19% of the total fungal community, was positively associated with mean annual surface air temperature (MASAT), with an increase of 1.7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of lichenised fungi per degree Celsius rise in air temperatur...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influences of Seasonal Monsoons on the Taxonomic Composition and Diversity of Bacterial Community in the Eastern Tropical Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is characterized by its complex physical systems and strong seasonal monsoons. To better understand effects of seasonal monsoon-driven circulation on the bacterioplanktonic community structure in surface waters and the bacterial distribution response to vertical stratification, patterns of seasonal, and vertical distribution of bacterial communities in the Eastern Tropical Indian Ocean were investigated using 16S rRNA gene profiling. Water samples were collected during the Southwest monsoon (from June to August), the fall inter-monsoon (from October and November) and the Northeast monsoon (from December to...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative Virulence and Genomic Analysis of Streptococcus suis Isolates
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the virulence capacity of nine United States S. suis isolates following intranasal challenge in swine and then perform comparative genomic analyses to identify genomic attributes associated with swine-virulent phenotypes. No correlation was found between the capacity to cause disease in swine and the functional characteristics of genome size, serotype, sequence type (ST), or in vitro virulence-associated phenotypes. A search for orthologs found in highly virulent isolates and not found in non-virulent isolates revealed numerous predicted protein coding sequences specific to eac...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multilocus Sequence Typing of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains From the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
In this study, molecular analysis based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) with eight housekeeping genes (pyrG, groeL, rpoB, recA, uvrC, murC, carB, and pheS) was carried out on 45 L. mesenteroides strains isolated from different plants and dairy products from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China. The objective of this study was to perform genetic diversity analysis and explore the relationship between strains and isolate samples or separate regions. A total of 25 sequence types (STs) were identified with a diversity of up to 55.6%, which were grouped into one clonal complexes (CCs), 3 doublets and 17 singletons by eBURST. The...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phenotypic Characterization and Whole-Genome Analysis of a Novel Bacteriophage HCF1 Infecting Citrobacter amalonaticus and C. freundii
In this study, Citrobacter virus HCF1, a novel virulent bacteriophage capable of killing Citrobacter amalonaticus and Citrobacter freundii, was isolated from the sewage water. The isolated bacteriophage was characterized with respect to transmission electron microscopy, one-step growth curve, host range, in vitro efficacy, storage stability, and environmental stress tolerance. The one-step growth curve analysis revealed that the latent period of HCF1 was 30 min and the estimated burst size was 121 plaque-forming units (PFU) per bacterial cell. Host range testing indicated that the HCF1 was specific to the Citrobacter genus...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Basis of Serum Resistance and Virulence Related Traits in XDR P. aeruginosa Evolved Under Antibiotic Pressure in a Morbidostat Device
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic against the critical status pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Virulence and related traits such as biofilm formation and serum resistance after exposure to sub-inhibitory levels of colistin have been underexplored. We cultivated P. aeruginosa in a semi-automated morbidostat device with colistin, metronidazole and a combination of the two antibiotics for 21 days, and completed RNA-Seq to uncover the transcriptional changes over time. Strains became resistant to colistin within this time period. Colistin-resistant strains show significantly increased biofilm formation: the cell density in ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of Functional Interactome of Colistin Resistance Protein MCR-1 in Escherichia coli
The emergence and worldwide dissemination of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has attracted global attention. The MCR-1 enzyme mediated colistin resistance by catalyzing phosphoethanolamine (PEA) transfer onto bacterial lipid A. However, the interaction partners of MCR-1 located in membrane protein in E. coli are unknown. Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and Mass Spectrometry were performed to define the interacting proteins of MCR-1. A total of three different anti-MCR-1 monoclonal antibody (mAbs) were prepared and 3G4 mAb was selected as the bait protein by compared their suitability for Co-IP. We identified...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus that causes a respiratory disease with variable severity and fatal consequences. It was first reported in Wuhan and subsequently caused a global pandemic. The viral spike protein binds with the ACE-2 cell surface receptor for entry, while TMPRSS2 triggers its membrane fusion. In addition, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 3′–5′ exoribonuclease (nsp14), viral proteases, N, and M proteins are important in different stages of viral replication. Accordingly, they are attractive targets for different antiviral therapeutic agents. Although many antiviral agents have ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Distinguishing Homokaryons and Heterokaryons in Medicinal Polypore Mushroom Wolfiporia cocos (Agaricomycetes) Based on Cultural and Genetic Characteristics
This study will be helpful for the cross-breeding of this precious medicinal mushroom and for understanding its evolution and population structure. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Predominance of III/ST19 and Ib/ST10 Lineages With High Multidrug Resistance in Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Group B Streptococci Isolates in Which a New Integrative and Conjugative Element Was Identified
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FQ resistance among GBS from neonatal invasive infections and maternal colonization in northern and southern China, to investigate the serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and antibiotic cross-resistance, and to characterize the mutations in gyrA and parC genes in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). In order to provide a comprehensive view of the location and structure of resistance genes, whole-genome sequencing on III/ST19 MDR isolates were performed. Among 426 GBS, 138 (32.4%) were FQ resistant, with higher prevalence in northern China than in southern China...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 25, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Combating Antimicrobial Resistance Through Student-Driven Research and Environmental Surveillance
Emerging resistance to all classes of antimicrobials is one of the defining crises of the 21st century. Many advances in modern medicine, such as routine surgeries, are predicated on sustaining patients with antimicrobials during a period when their immune systems alone cannot clear infection. The development of new antimicrobials has not kept pace with the antimicrobial resistance (AR) threat. AR bacteria have been documented in various environments, such as drinking and surface water, food, sewage, and soil, yet surveillance and sampling has largely been from infected patients. The prevalence and diversity of AR bacteria...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Protein Kinase R Restricts the Intracellular Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Promoting Selective Autophagy
Tuberculosis (TB) is a deadly infectious lung disease caused by the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The identification of macrophage signaling proteins exploited by Mtb during infection will enable the development of alternative host-directed therapies (HDT) for TB. HDT strategies will boost host immunity to restrict the intracellular replication of Mtb and therefore hold promise to overcome antimicrobial resistance, a growing crisis in TB therapy. Protein Kinase R (PKR) is a key host sensor that functions in the cellular antiviral response. However, its role in defense against intracellular bacteria...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Diversity of Fungal DNA Methyltransferases and Their Association With DNA Methylation Patterns
DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are a group of proteins that catalyze DNA methylation by transferring a methyl group to DNA. The genetic variation in DNMTs results in differential DNA methylation patterns associated with various biological processes. In fungal species, DNMTs and their DNA methylation profiles were found to be very diverse and have gained many research interests. We reviewed fungal DNMTs in terms of their biological functions, protein domain structures, and their associated epigenetic regulations compared to those known in plant and animal systems. In addition, we summarized recent reports on potential RNA-d...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bioactive Metabolites From Acid-Tolerant Fungi in a Thai Mangrove Sediment
Despite being potentially useful extremophile resources, there have been few reports on acid-tolerant fungi and their bioactive metabolites. Acidophilic/aciduric fungi (n = 237) were isolated from Thai mangrove sediments in an acidic medium. Using fungal identification technology (including morphologic observation, chemical screening, and sequence comparisons) all the isolates were identified and 41 representative isolates were selected for analysis of the phylogenetic relationships (ITS rDNA, β-tubulin, calmodulin, and actin gene sequences). There were seven genera identified – Penicillium; Aspergillus; Talarom...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Anti-Foc RT4 Activity of a Newly Isolated Streptomyces sp. 5 –10 From a Medicinal Plant (Curculigo capitulata)
Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a disastrous soil-borne fungal disease. Foc tropical race 4 (Foc TR4) can infect almost all banana cultivars. Until now, there is a shortage of safety and effective control methods and commercial banana cultivars with a resistance against Foc TR4. Biocontrol using environmentally friendly microbes is a promising strategy for the management of Foc TR4. Here, a strain 5–10, newly isolated from a medicinal plant (Curculigo capitulata), exhibited a high antifungal activity against Foc TR4. Combing the morphological characteristics and molecular ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Use of Synonymous Deoptimization to Derive Modified Live Attenuated Strains of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically important viral diseases that can affect livestock. In the last 70 years, use of an inactivated whole antigen vaccine has contributed to the eradication of disease from many developed nations. However, recent outbreaks in Europe and Eastern Asia demonstrated that infection can spread as wildfire causing economic and social devastation. Therefore, it is essential to develop new control strategies that could confer early protection and rapidly stop disease spread. Live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are one of the best choices to obtain a strong early and long-lasting p...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Longitudinal Study of the Human Oropharynx Microbiota Over Time Reveals a Common Core and Significant Variations With Self-Reported Disease
Our understanding of human microbial communities, in particular in regard to diseases is advancing, yet the basic understanding of the microbiome in healthy subjects over time remains limited. The oropharynx is a key target for colonization by several important human pathogens. To understand how the oropharyngeal microbiome might limit infections, and how intercurrent infections might be associated with its composition, we characterized the oropharyngeal microbiome of 18 healthy adults, sampled weekly over a 40-weeks using culture-independent molecular techniques. We detected nine phyla, 202 genera and 1438 assignments on ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Functional Insights From KpfR, a New Transcriptional Regulator of Fimbrial Expression That Is Crucial for Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenicity
Although originally known as an opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae has been considered a worldwide health threat nowadays due to the emergence of hypervirulent and antibiotic-resistant strains capable of causing severe infections not only on immunocompromised patients but also on healthy individuals. Fimbriae is an essential virulence factor for K. pneumoniae, especially in urinary tract infections (UTIs), because it allows the pathogen to adhere and invade urothelial cells and to form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. The importance of fimbriae for K. pneumoniae pathogenicity is highlighted by the large ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impact of Processed Food (Canteen and Oil Wastes) on the Development of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae and Their Gut Microbiome Functions
In this study, the food waste fraction of canteen leftovers was identified as an optimal diet for black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae based on 50% higher consumption and 15% higher waste reduction indices compared with control chicken feed diet. Although the digestibility of food waste was nearly twice as high, the conversion efficiency of ingested and digested chicken feed remains unparalleled (17.9 ± 0.6 and 37.5 ± 0.9 in CFD and 7.9 ± 0.9 and 9.6 ± 1.0 in FWD, respectively). The oil separator waste fraction, however, inhibited biomass gain by at least 85% and ultimately led to a larv...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The GTPase-Activating Protein FgGyp1 Is Important for Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, and Virulence and Negatively Regulates DON Biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearium
Ypt1 is a small Rab GTPase in yeast, Gyp1 functions at the Golgi as a negative regulator of Ypt1. Gyp1 homologs are conserved in filamentous fungi. However, the roles of Gyp1 in phytopathogenic fungi are still unclear. Herein, we investigated the functions of FgGyp1 in the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum by live-cell imaging, genetic, and pathological analyses. Targeted gene replacement method was used to delete FgGYP1 in F. graminearum. Phenotypic analyses showed that FgGyp1 is critically important not only for the vegetative growth of F. graminearum but also its conidiation. The mutant’s vegetative growth was s...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Different Biochemical Compositions of Particulate Organic Matter Driven by Major Phytoplankton Communities in the Northwestern Ross Sea
In this study, variations in the biochemical compositions in POM were principally determined by two different bloom-forming taxa (diatoms and Phaeocystis antarctica). The southern region dominated majorly by diatoms was positively correlated with PRT, EAA, and EAAI indicating a good protein quality, while P. antarctica-abundant northern region with higher CHO contribution was negatively correlated with good protein quality factors. Climate-driven environmental changes could alter not only the phytoplankton community but also the physiological conditions of phytoplankton. Our findings could provide a better understanding fo...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

BioMaster: An Integrated Database and Analytic Platform to Provide Comprehensive Information About BioBrick Parts
Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological parts, devices, and systems, and to reconfigure existing natural biological systems for custom-designed purposes. The standardized BioBrick parts are the foundation of synthetic biology. The incomplete and flawed metadata of BioBrick parts, however, are a major obstacle for designing genetic circuit easily, quickly, and accurately. Here, a database termed BioMaster http://www.biomaster-uestc.cn was developed to extensively complement information about BioBrick parts, which includes 47,934 items of BioBrick parts from the international Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Re...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

DeepT3_4: A Hybrid Deep Neural Network Model for the Distinction Between Bacterial Type III and IV Secreted Effectors
Gram-negative bacteria can deliver secreted proteins (also known as secreted effectors) directly into host cells through type III secretion system (T3SS), type IV secretion system (T4SS), and type VI secretion system (T6SS) and cause various diseases. These secreted effectors are heavily involved in the interactions between bacteria and host cells, so their identification is crucial for the discovery and development of novel anti-bacterial drugs. It is currently challenging to accurately distinguish type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) and type IV secreted effectors (T4SEs) because neither T3SEs nor T4SEs contain N-terminal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Can Control Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Both Human Trophoblast Cells and Villous Explants
In conclusion, AgNp-Bio can decrease T. gondii infection in trophoblast cells and villous explants. Therefore, this treatment demonstrated the ability to reduce the T. gondii proliferation with induction of inflammatory mediators in the cells and independent of mediators in chorionic villus which we consider the use of AgNp-Bio promising in the treatment of toxoplasmosis in BeWo and HTR8/SVneo cell models and in chorionic villi. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antiproliferative Sorbicillinoids From the Deep-Sea-Derived Penicillium allii-sativi
Two new (1–2) and three known (3–5) sorbicillinoids were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus Penicillium allii-sativi MCCC 3A00580. Compounds 1 and 2, named sorbicatechols C and D, were two new hybrid dihydrosorbillinoids. Their structures were established mainly by spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All five isolates were tested for antiproliferative activities against four tumor cell lines of MCF-7, HT-29, HuH-7, and LNCap. Compounds 2 and 5 inhibited HT-29 cells in a good dose-dependent manner. Mechanism investigation uncovered that they could significantly ind...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Wickerhamomyces anomalus in Mosquitoes: A Promising Yeast-Based Tool for the “Symbiotic Control” of Mosquito-Borne Diseases
The ascomycete yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus is a mutualistic symbiont of different insects, including diptera vectors of diseases. Although fungal symbioses have been so far poorly characterized, the topic is gaining attention as yeast-insect interactions can provide pivotal information on insect biology, such as their environmental adaptation or vectorial capability. We review the symbiosis between W. anomalus and mosquitoes, which implies nutritional and protective functions. Furthermore, we focus on antiplasmodial effects of W. anomalus in malaria vectors and discuss the yeast potential for the “symbiotic contro...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

An Evolutionary Arms Race Between Burkholderia pseudomallei and Host Immune System: What Do We Know?
A better understanding of co-evolution between pathogens and hosts holds promise for better prevention and control strategies. This review will explore the interactions between Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental and opportunistic pathogen, and the human host immune system. B. pseudomallei causes “Melioidosis,” a rapidly fatal tropical infectious disease predicted to affect 165,000 cases annually worldwide, of which 89,000 are fatal. Genetic heterogeneities were reported in both B. pseudomallei and human host population, some of which may, at least in part, contribute to inter-individual differences in ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Unravelling the Role of Rumen Microbial Communities, Genes, and Activities on Milk Fatty Acid Profile Using a Combination of Omics Approaches
Milk products are an important component of human diets, with beneficial effects for human health, but also one of the major sources of nutritionally undesirable saturated fatty acids (SFA). Recent discoveries showing the importance of the rumen microbiome on dairy cattle health, metabolism and performance highlight that milk composition, and potentially milk SFA content, may also be associated with microorganisms, their genes and their activities. Understanding these mechanisms can be used for the development of cost-effective strategies for the production of milk with less SFA. This work aimed to compare the rumen microb...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Patterns of Relative and Quantitative Abundances of Marine Bacteria in Surface Waters of the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean Estimated With High-Throughput Quantification Sequencing
This study advanced understanding of the community structure and distribution patterns of marine bacteria as well as some potentially important determinants thereof in a subtropical oligotrophic ocean system. Results highlighted the importance of considering both the quantitative and relative abundances of members of marine bacterial communities. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Coupled Transcription-Translation in Prokaryotes: An Old Couple With New Surprises
Coupled transcription-translation (CTT) is a hallmark of prokaryotic gene expression. CTT occurs when ribosomes associate with and initiate translation of mRNAs whose transcription has not yet concluded, therefore forming “RNAP.mRNA.ribosome” complexes. CTT is a well-documented phenomenon that is involved in important gene regulation processes, such as attenuation and operon polarity. Despite the progress in our understanding of the cellular signals that coordinate CTT, certain aspects of its molecular architecture remain controversial. Additionally, new information on the spatial segregation between the transc...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Denitrification, Nitrogen Uptake, and Organic Matter Quality Undergo Different Seasonality in Sandy and Muddy Sediments of a Turbid Estuary
The interaction between microbial communities and benthic algae as nitrogen (N) regulators in poorly illuminated sediments is scarcely investigated in the literature. The role of sediments as sources or sinks of N was analyzed in spring and summer in sandy and muddy sediments in a turbid freshwater estuary, the Curonian Lagoon, Lithuania. Seasonality in this ecosystem is strongly marked by phytoplankton community succession with diatoms dominating in spring and cyanobacteria dominating in summer. Fluxes of dissolved gas and inorganic N and rates of denitrification of water column nitrate (Dw) and of nitrate produced by nit...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbial Grazers May Aid in Controlling Infections Caused by the Aquatic Zoosporic Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Free-living eukaryotic microbes may reduce animal diseases. We evaluated the dynamics by which micrograzers (primarily protozoa) apply top-down control on the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) a devastating, panzootic pathogen of amphibians. Although micrograzers consumed zoospores (∼3 μm), the dispersal stage of chytrids, not all species grew monoxenically on zoospores. However, the ubiquitous ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, which likely co-occurs with Bd, grew at near its maximum rate (r = 1.7 d–1). A functional response (ingestion vs. prey abundance) for T. pyriformis, measured using spore-surroga...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Direct Evidence of Abortive Lytic Infection-Mediated Establishment of Epstein-Barr Virus Latency During B-Cell Infection
Viral infection induces dynamic changes in transcriptional profiles. Virus-induced and antiviral responses are intertwined during the infection. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gammaherpesvirus that provides a model of herpesvirus latency. To measure the transcriptome changes during the establishment of EBV latency, we infected EBV-negative Akata cells with EBV-EGFP and performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) at 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after infection. We found transient downregulation of mitotic division-related genes, reflecting reprogramming of cell growth by EBV, and a burst of viral lytic gene expression ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research