A Novel Gene vp0610 Negatively Regulates Biofilm Formation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus
In this study, we discovered a hypothetical protein, VP0610 that negatively regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and we found that the loss of vp0610 typically results in pleiotropic phenotypes that contribute toward promoting biofilm formation, including significantly increased insoluble exopolysaccharide production and swimming motility, decreased soluble exopolysaccharide production, and decreased bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate production. Pull-down assays revealed that VP0610 can interact with 180 proteins, some of which (Hfq, VP0710, VP0793, and CyaA) participate in b...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification and Expression of Secreted In Xylem Pathogenicity Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi
Fusarium oxysporum is a soilborne fungal plant pathogen responsible for causing disease in many economically important crops with “special forms” (formae speciales) adapted to infect specific plant hosts. F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi (FOP) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease of pea. It has been reported in every country where peas are grown commercially. Disease is generally controlled using resistant cultivars possessing single major gene resistance and therefore there is a constant risk of breakdown. The main aim of this work was to characterise F. oxysporum isolates collected from diseased peas in the U...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Coelimycin Synthesis Activatory Proteins Are Key Regulators of Specialized Metabolism and Precursor Flux in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)
Many microbial specialized metabolites are industrially relevant agents but also serve as signaling molecules in intra-species and even inter-kingdom interactions. In the antibiotic-producing Streptomyces, members of the SARP (Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory proteins) family of regulators are often encoded within biosynthetic gene clusters and serve as their direct activators. Coelimycin is the earliest, colored specialized metabolite synthesized in the life cycle of the model organism Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Deletion of its two SARP activators cpkO and cpkN abolished coelimycin synthesis and resulted in dramatic...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Machine Learning for Predicting Mycotoxin Occurrence in Maize
In this study a machine learning (ML) approach was considered, which included weather-based mechanistic model predictions for AFLA-maize and FER-maize [predicting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisins (FBs), respectively], and cropping system factors as the input variables. The occurrence of AFB1 and FBs in maize fields was recorded, and their corresponding cropping system data collected, over the years 2005–2018 in northern Italy. Two deep neural network (DNN) models were trained to predict, at harvest, which maize fields were contaminated beyond the legal limit with AFB1 and FBs. Both models reached an accuracy>75%...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Dual Role of the Glycolipid Envelope in Different Cell Types of the Multicellular Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413
Anabaena variabilis is a filamentous cyanobacterium that is capable to differentiate specialized cells, the heterocysts and akinetes, to survive under different stress conditions. Under nitrogen limited condition, heterocysts provide the filament with nitrogen by fixing N2. Akinetes are spore-like dormant cells that allow survival during adverse environmental conditions. Both cell types are characterized by the presence of a thick multilayered envelope, including a glycolipid layer. While in the heterocyst this glycolipid layer is required for the maintenance of a microoxic environment and nitrogen fixation, its function i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multi-Replicated Enrichment Communities as a Model System in Microbial Ecology
Recent advances in robotics and affordable genomic sequencing technologies have made it possible to establish and quantitatively track the assembly of enrichment communities in high-throughput. By conducting community assembly experiments in up to thousands of synthetic habitats, where the extrinsic sources of variation among replicates can be controlled, we can now study the reproducibility and predictability of microbial community assembly at different levels of organization, and its relationship with nutrient composition and other ecological drivers. Through a dialog with mathematical models, high-throughput enrichment ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Colistin-Resistant mcr-1-Positive Escherichia coli ST131-H22 Carrying blaCTX –M–15 and qnrB19 in Agricultural Soil
In this study, we performed a genomic investigation of an E. coli (strain S802) isolated from a kale crop in Brazil, which exhibited a multidrug-resistant (MDR) profile to clinically significant antimicrobials (i.e., polymyxin, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones). Whole-genome sequencing analysis revealed that the S802 strain belonged to serotype O25:H4, ST131/CC131, phylogenetic group B2, and virotype D5. Furthermore, S802 carried the clade B-associated fimH22 allele, genes encoding resistance to clinically important antimicrobials, metals, and biocides, and was phylogenetically related t...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Anti-biofilm Potential of Elletaria cardamomum Essential Oil Against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium JSG 1748
In this study, the chemical profile, antimicrobial, and mutagenic activities of the Elletaria cardamomum essential oil were investigated. GC-MS analysis identified the major bioactive components as α-terpinyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, linalool acetate, and sabinene, at concentrations of 34.95, 25.30, 8.13, and 5.48% respectively, of the essential oil’s content. Regarding antimicrobial activity, the minimum inhibitory concentration of green cardamom essential oil was 1% against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 14213. Green cardamom essential oil, when used at concentrations of 0.015, 0.031, 0...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Heat Shock Transcription Factor HsfA Is Essential for Thermotolerance and Regulates Cell Wall Integrity in Aspergillus fumigatus
The deleterious effects of human-induced climate change have long been predicted. However, the imminent emergence and spread of new diseases, including fungal infections through the rise of thermotolerant strains, is still neglected, despite being a potential consequence of global warming. Thermotolerance is a remarkable virulence attribute of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus. Under high-temperature stress, opportunistic fungal pathogens deploy an adaptive mechanism known as heat shock (HS) response controlled by heat shock transcription factors (HSFs). In eukaryotes, HSFs regulate the expression of several heat shock protei...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Improvement of Free Fatty Acid Secretory Productivity in Aspergillus oryzae by Comprehensive Analysis on Time-Series Gene Expression
Aspergillus oryzae is a filamentous fungus that has historically been utilized in the fermentation of food products. In recent times, it has also been introduced as a component in the industrial biosynthesis of consumable compounds, including free fatty acids (FFAs), which are valuable and versatile products that can be utilized as feedstocks in the production of other commodities, such as pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. To improve the FFA secretory productivity of A. oryzae in the presence of Triton X-100, we analyzed the gene expression of a wild-type control strain and a disruptant strain of an acyl-CoA synthet...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Targets and Mechanisms of Geminivirus Silencing Suppressor Protein AC2
Geminiviruses are plant DNA viruses that infect a wide range of plant species and cause significant losses to economically important food and fiber crops. The single-stranded geminiviral genome encodes a small number of proteins which act in an orchestrated manner to infect the host. The fewer proteins encoded by the virus are multifunctional, a mechanism uniquely evolved by the viruses to balance the genome-constraint. The host-mediated resistance against incoming virus includes post-transcriptional gene silencing, transcriptional gene silencing, and expression of defense responsive genes and other cellular regulatory gen...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rock-Hosted Subsurface Biofilms: Mineral Selectivity Drives Hotspots for Intraterrestrial Life
The continental deep subsurface is likely the largest reservoir of biofilm-based microbial biomass on Earth, but the role of mineral selectivity in regulating its distribution and diversity is unclear. Minerals can produce hotspots for intraterrestrial life by locally enhancing biofilm biomass. Metabolic transformations of minerals by subsurface biofilms may occur widely with the potential to significantly impact subsurface biogeochemical cycles. However, the degree of impact depends upon the amount of biofilm biomass and its relationship to host rock mineralogy, estimates that are currently loosely constrained to non-exis...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of Commodity Chemicals From Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Lignin
This study demonstrates a simple, one-pot biosynthesis approach that directly utilizes derivatives of agricultural waste to produce commodity chemicals. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance Glides in the Sky —Free-Living Birds as a Reservoir of Resistant Escherichia coli With Zoonotic Potential
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most important global health concerns; therefore, the identification of AMR reservoirs and vectors is essential. Attention should be paid to the recognition of potential hazards associated with wildlife as this field still seems to be incompletely explored. In this context, the role of free-living birds as AMR carriers is noteworthy. Therefore, we applied methods used in AMR monitoring, supplemented by colistin resistance screening, to investigate the AMR status of Escherichia coli from free-living birds coming from natural habitats and rescue centers. Whole-genome sequencing (W...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Electron & Biomass Dynamics of Cyanothece Under Interacting Nitrogen & Carbon Limitations
Marine diazotrophs are a diverse group with key roles in biogeochemical fluxes linked to primary productivity. The unicellular, diazotrophic cyanobacterium Cyanothece is widely found in coastal, subtropical oceans. We analyze the consequences of diazotrophy on growth efficiency, compared to NO3–-supported growth in Cyanothece, to understand how cells cope with N2-fixation when they also have to face carbon limitation, which may transiently affect populations in coastal environments or during blooms of phytoplankton communities. When grown in obligate diazotrophy, cells face the double burden of a more ATP-demanding N...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bacterial Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase, an Emerging Biocatalyst: Insights Into Structure –Function Relationship and Its Biotechnological Applications
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) enzyme is ubiquitously present in all life forms and plays a variety of roles in diverse organisms. Higher eukaryotes mainly utilize GGT for glutathione degradation, and mammalian GGTs have implications in many physiological disorders also. GGTs from unicellular prokaryotes serve different physiological functions in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In the present review, the physiological significance of bacterial GGTs has been discussed categorizing GGTs from Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli as glutathione degraders and from pathogenic species like Helicobacter pylo...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 9, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbiome Modulation —Toward a Better Understanding of Plant Microbiome Response to Microbial Inoculants
Plant-associated microorganisms are involved in important functions related to growth, performance and health of their hosts. Understanding their modes of action is important for the design of promising microbial inoculants for sustainable agriculture. Plant-associated microorganisms are able to interact with their hosts and often exert specific functions toward potential pathogens; the underlying in vitro interactions are well studied. In contrast, in situ effects of inoculants, and especially their impact on the plant indigenous microbiome was mostly neglected so far. Recently, microbiome research has revolutionized our ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cloning, Expression, Characterization, and Antioxidant Protection of Glutaredoxin3 From Psychrophilic Bacterium Psychrobacter sp. ANT206
This study provides new insights into the structure and catalytic activity of a cold-adapted Grx3. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

A Conserved Phenylalanine Residue of Autographa Californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus AC75 Protein Is Required for Occlusion Body Formation
In this study, sequence alignment revealed that residues Phe-54 and Gln-81 of AC75 were highly conserved among alphabaculoviruses and betabaculoviurses. Thus, Phe-54 and Gln-81 AC75 mutation bacmids were constructed. We found that Gln-81 was not required for viral propagation, whereas mutating Phe-54 reduced budded virus production by 10-fold and impaired occlusion body formation when compared with that of the wild-type AcMNPV. Electron microscopy observations showed that the Phe-54 mutation affected polyhedrin assembly and also occlusion-derived virus embedding, whereas western blot analysis revealed that mutating Phe-54 ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Gut Structure and Microbial Communities in Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) and Their Predicted Contribution to Larval Nutrition
This study could provide an understanding of larval nutrient acquisition in nutrient-deficient host xylem to some extent. Our study may unlock novel strategies for the development of pest management approaches based on interfering with the gut microbiota and restricting their role in larval survival and development. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Do Long-Term Conservation Pasture Management Practices Influence Microbial Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistant Genes in Runoff?
Runoff from land-applied manure and poultry litter is one mechanism by which manure-borne bacteria are transported over large distances in the environment. There is a global concern that antimicrobial resistant (AMR) genes may be transmitted through the food chain from animal manures to soil to surface water. However, details are lacking on the ecology of AMR genes in water runoff as well as how conservation management practices may affect the runoff microbiome or minimize the movement of AMR genes. The aim of this study was to identify microbial community structure and diversity in water runoff following 14-years of poult...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of Divalent Cations (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Sr) on Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation and Mineralogical Properties
Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) is a bio-geochemical process involving calcium carbonate precipitation and possible co-precipitation of other metals. The study investigated the extent to which a urease-positive bacterium, Sporosarcina pasteurii, can tolerate a range of metals (e.g., Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Sr), and analyzed the role of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation in eliminating these divalent toxicants from aqueous solutions. The experiments using S. pasteurii were performed aerobically in growth media including urea, CaCl2 (30 mM) and different metals such Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd (0.01 ∼ 1 mM)...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influence of the ABC Transporter YtrBCDEF of Bacillus subtilis on Competence, Biofilm Formation and Cell Wall Thickness
In this study, we assessed whether proteins required for genetic transformation play a role in the activation of ComK or rather act downstream of competence gene expression. While these possibilities could be distinguished for most of the tested factors, we assume that two proteins, PNPase and the transcription factor YtrA, are required both for full ComK activity and for the downstream processes of DNA uptake and integration. Further analyses of the role of the transcription factor YtrA for the competence development revealed that the overexpression of the YtrBCDEF ABC transporter in the ytrA mutant causes the loss of gen...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of an Invertase With High Specific Activity for Raffinose Hydrolysis and Its Application in Soymilk Treatment
In this study, a novel invertase named InvDz13 was screened and purified from Microbacterium trichothecenolyticum and characterized. InvDz13 was one of the invertases with the highest specific activity toward raffinose. Specifically, it had a specific activity of 229 U/mg toward raffinose at pH 6.5 and 35°C. InvDz13 retained more than 80% of its maximum activity at pH 5.5–7.5 and 25–40°C and was resistant to or stimulated by most cations that presented in soymilk. In soymilk treated with InvDz13 under mild conditions, melibiose concentration increased from 3.1 ± 0.2 to 6.1 ± 0.1 mM due to ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Identification of a New Genetic Clade of Cowpea Mild Mottle Virus and Characterization of Its Interaction With Soybean Mosaic Virus in Co-infected Soybean
Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV; genus Carlavirus) can be a destructive pathogen of soybean but there is little information about its distribution on soybean in China. Here, we collected soybean plants with virus-like symptoms from 11 fields widely scattered within China, and used high-throughput sequencing to determine their virome. Most samples (8/11) were co-infected by the well-studied potyvirus soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and CPMMV, and the remaining three samples were singly infected with CPMMV. The near-complete genome sequences of the 11 CPMMV isolates were determined and phylogenetic analysis showed that they const...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Virulence Factors in Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae
Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) has spread globally since first described in the Asian Pacific Rim. It is an invasive variant that differs from the classical K. pneumoniae (cKP), with hypermucoviscosity and hypervirulence, causing community-acquired infections, including pyogenic liver abscess, pneumonia, meningitis, and endophthalmitis. It utilizes a battery of virulence factors for survival and pathogenesis, such as capsule, siderophores, lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae, outer membrane proteins, and type 6 secretion system, of which the former two are dominant. This review summarizes these hvKP-associated virulen...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Thiocyanate and Organic Carbon Inputs Drive Convergent Selection for Specific Autotrophic Afipia and Thiobacillus Strains Within Complex Microbiomes
Thiocyanate (SCN–) contamination threatens aquatic ecosystems and pollutes vital freshwater supplies. SCN–-degrading microbial consortia are commercially adapted for remediation, but the impact of organic amendments on selection within SCN–-degrading microbial communities has not been investigated. Here, we tested whether specific strains capable of degrading SCN– could be reproducibly selected for based on SCN– loading and the presence or absence of added organic carbon. Complex microbial communities derived from those used to treat SCN–-contaminated water were exposed to systematically...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic Insight of Alicyclobacillus mali FL18 Isolated From an Arsenic-Rich Hot Spring
Extreme environments are excellent places to find microorganisms capable of tolerating extreme temperature, pH, salinity pressure, and elevated concentration of heavy metals and other toxic compounds. In the last decades, extremophilic microorganisms have been extensively studied since they can be applied in several fields of biotechnology along with their enzymes. In this context, the characterization of heavy metal resistance determinants in thermophilic microorganisms is the starting point for the development of new biosystems and bioprocesses for environmental monitoring and remediation. This work focuses on the isolat...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Enhanced Glutamate Synthesis and Export by the Thermotolerant Emerging Industrial Workhorse Bacillus methanolicus in Response to High Osmolarity
The thermotolerant methylotroph Bacillus methanolicus MGA3 was originally isolated from freshwater marsh soil. Due to its ability to use methanol as sole carbon and energy source, B. methanolicus is increasingly explored as a cell factory for the production of amino acids, fine chemicals, and proteins of biotechnological interest. During high cell density fermentation in industrial settings with the membrane-permeable methanol as the feed, the excretion of low molecular weight products synthesized from it will increase the osmotic pressure of the medium. This in turn will impair cell growth and productivity of the overall ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Rapidly Improving High Light and High Temperature Tolerances of Cyanobacterial Cell Factories Through the Convenient Introduction of an AtpA-C252F Mutation
Photosynthetic biomanufacturing is a promising route for green production of biofuels and biochemicals utilizing carbon dioxide and solar energy. Cyanobacteria are important microbial platforms for constructing photosynthetic cell factories. Toward scaled outdoor cultivations in the future, high light and high temperature tolerances of cyanobacterial chassis strains and cell factories would be determinant properties to be optimized. We proposed a convenient strategy for rapidly improving high light and high temperature tolerances of an important cyanobacterial chassis Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and the derived cell f...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Surface Topography, Bacterial Carrying Capacity, and the Prospect of Microbiome Manipulation in the Sea Anemone Coral Model Aiptasia
Aiptasia is an emerging model organism to study cnidarian symbioses due to its taxonomic relatedness to other anthozoans such as stony corals and similarities of its microalgal and bacterial partners, complementing the existing Hydra (Hydrozoa) and Nematostella (Anthozoa) model systems. Despite the availability of studies characterizing the microbiomes of several natural Aiptasia populations and laboratory strains, knowledge on basic information, such as surface topography, bacterial carrying capacity, or the prospect of microbiome manipulation is lacking. Here we address these knowledge gaps. Our results show that the sur...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phosphorus Release and Regeneration Following Laboratory Lysis of Bacterial Cells
The availability of phosphorus limits primary production in large regions of the oceans, and marine microbes use a variety of strategies to overcome this limitation. One strategy is the production of alkaline phosphatase (APase), which allows hydrolysis of larger dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) compounds in the periplasm or at the cell surface for transport of orthophosphate into the cell. Cell lysis, driven by grazing and viral infection, releases phosphorus-containing cell components, along with active enzymes that could persist after lysis. The importance of this continued enzymatic activity for orthophosphate regene...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Bioremediation of Crude Glycerol by a Sustainable Inorganic –Microbe Hybrid System
This study demonstrated the feasibility of using an inorganic–microbe hybrid system as a waste-to-energy technology. (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 8, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Real-World Ethical Dilemmas in Laboratory Safety for Microbiology Under-Resourced and Outreach Teaching
With modernization of safety standards for microbiology outreach teaching laboratories, ethical challenges arise in teaching microbiology for the public good without short-changing students in under-resourced situations, or when institutional support is subpar. Still, educators want students to engage using applied skills for inquiry, research-based microbial learning activities – safely. Following several United States microbial outbreaks, federal investigation traced sources back to teaching laboratories. Policy discussions ensued. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Task Force provides recommended but not ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Understanding the Transcriptional Changes During Infection of Meloidogyne incognita Eggs by the Egg-Parasitic Fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum
This study presents the whole transcriptome sequencing of P. lilacinum and transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis of P. lilacinum upon infecting the eggs of Meloidogyne incognita compared to non-infecting controls. A transcriptomic library of P. lilacinum was used as reference gene set and six transcriptomic libraries of the non-infecting control and P. lilacinum infecting M. incognita eggs were constructed, respectively, comprising three biological replicates of each. A total of 1,011 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the infecting samples, including 553 up-regulated and 458 down-regulated genes c...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Colonization of Supplemented Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Low Birth Weight Infants and Its Effects on Their Gut Microbiota Weeks Post-administration
In this study, we investigated the colonization and the effect of oral supplementation with Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the gut microbiota of low birth weight (LBW) infants. A total of 22 LBW infants (12 infants in the M-16V group and 10 infants in the control group) were enrolled. B. breve M-16V was administrated to LBW infants in the M-16V group from birth until hospital discharge. Fecal samples were collected from each subject at weeks (3.7–9.3 weeks in the M-16V group and 2.1–6.1 weeks in the control group) after discharge. qPCR analysis showed that the administrated strain was detected in 83.3% of fecal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genomic Characterization of Salmonella enterica Isolates From Retail Meat in Beijing, China
Salmonella enterica remains one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial disease. Retail meat is a major source of human salmonellosis. However, comparative genomic analyses of S. enterica isolates from retail meat from different sources in China are lacking. A total of 341 S. enterica strains were isolated from retail meat in sixteen districts of Beijing, China, at three different time points (January 1st, May 1st, and October 1st) in 2017. Comparative genomics was performed to investigate the genetic diversity, virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene (ARG) profiles of these isolates. The most common serotype was ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Microbiome Sample Comparison and Search: From Pair-Wise Calculations to Model-Based Matching
A huge quantity of microbiome samples have been accumulated, and more are yet to come from all niches around the globe. With the accumulation of data, there is an urgent need for comparisons and searches of microbiome samples among thousands of millions of samples in a fast and accurate manner. However, it is a very difficult computational challenge to identify similar samples, as well as identify their likely origins, among such a grand pool of samples from all around the world. Currently, several approaches have already been proposed for such a challenge, based on either distance calculation, unsupervised algorithms, or ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Phenotypic and Genomic Variability of Serial Peri-Lung Transplantation Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates From Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Cystic fibrosis (CF) represents one of the major genetic and chronic lung diseases affecting Caucasians of European descent. Patients with CF suffer from recurring infections that lead to further damage of the lungs. Pulmonary infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa is most prevalent, further increasing CF-related mortality. The present study describes the phenotypic and genotypic variations among 36 P. aeruginosa isolates obtained serially from a non-CF and five CF patients before, during and after lung transplantation (LTx). The classical and genomic investigation of these isolates revealed a common mucoid phenotype and ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Evolutionary Significance of the Neuroendocrine Stress Axis on Vertebrate Immunity and the Influence of the Microbiome on Early-Life Stress Regulation and Health Outcomes
Stress is broadly defined as the non-specific biological response to changes in homeostatic demands and is mediated by the evolutionarily conserved neuroendocrine networks of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Activation of these networks results in transient release of glucocorticoids (cortisol) and catecholamines (epinephrine) into circulation, as well as activation of sympathetic fibers innervating end organs. These interventions thus regulate numerous physiological processes, including energy metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, and immunity, thereby adapting to cope wit...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Changes in Soil Microbial Activity, Bacterial Community Composition and Function in a Long-Term Continuous Soybean Cropping System After Corn Insertion and Fertilization
Corn-soybean rotation and fertilization are common practices improving soil fertility and crop yield. Their effects on bacterial community have been extensively studied, yet, few comprehensive studies about the microbial activity, bacterial community and functional groups in a long-term continuous soybean cropping system after corn insertion and fertilization. The effects of corn insertions (Sm: no corn insertion, CS: 3 cycles of corn-soybean rotations and CCS: 2 cycles of corn-corn-soybean rotations) with two fertilization regimes (No fertilization and NPK) on bacterial community and microbial activity were investigated i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Understanding the Shift in the Microbiome of Composts That Are Optimized for a Better Fit-for-Purpose in Growing Media
Three characteristics are considered key for optimal use of composts in growing media: maturity, pH and organic matter content. Maturation is a critical step in the processing of composts contributing to compost quality. Blending of composts with chopped heath biomass, sieving out the larger fraction of composts and acidification of composts by adding elemental sulfur may be used either to increase organic matter content or to reduce pH for a better fit in growing media. While several studies have shown the effectiveness of these treatments to improve the use of composts in growing media, the effect of these treatments on ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Disbalancing Envelope Stress Responses as a Strategy for Sensitization of Escherichia coli to Antimicrobial Agents
Disbalancing envelope stress responses was investigated as a strategy for sensitization of Escherichia coli to antimicrobial agents. Seventeen isogenic strains were selected from the KEIO collection with deletions in genes corresponding to the σE, Cpx, Rcs, Bae, and Psp responses. Antimicrobial activity against 20 drugs with different targets was evaluated by disk diffusion and gradient strip tests. Growth curves and time-kill curves were also determined for selected mutant-antimicrobial combinations. An increase in susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, ertapenem, and fosfomycin was detected...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Editorial: XXXIII SIMGBM Congress 2019 - Antimicrobials and Host-Pathogen Interactions
(Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Relationship Between Cycloheximides Structures and Their Different Biological Activities
In this study, cycloheximide (CH) and acetoxycycloheximide (ACH) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. JCK-6092. The antifungal and phytotoxic activities of the two compounds (CH and ACH) and a cycloheximide derivative, hydroxycycloheximide (HCH), were compared. CH exhibited the strongest antagonistic activity against all the true fungi tested, followed by ACH and HCH. However, both CH and ACH displayed similar mycelial growth inhibitory activities against several phytopathogenic oomycetes, and both were more active than that of HCH. Disparate to antifungal ability, ACH showed the strongest phytotox...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Soil Microsite Outweighs Cultivar Genotype Contribution to Brassica Rhizobacterial Community Structure
Microorganisms residing on root surfaces play a central role in plant development and performance and may promote growth in agricultural settings. Studies have started to uncover the environmental parameters and host interactions governing their assembly. However, soil microbial communities are extremely diverse and heterogeneous, showing strong variations over short spatial scales. Here, we quantify the relative effect of meter-scale variation in soil bacterial community composition among adjacent field microsites, to better understand how microbial communities vary by host plant genotype as well as soil microsite heterog...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The Interplay of HIV-1 and Macrophages in Viral Persistence
HIV-1 has evolved mechanisms to evade host cell immune responses and persist for lifelong infection. Latent cellular reservoirs are responsible for this persistence of HIV-1 despite the powerful effects of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) to control circulating viral load. While cellular reservoirs have been extensively studied, much of these studies have focused on peripheral blood and resting memory CD4+ T cells containing latent HIV-1 provirus; however, efforts to eradicate cellular reservoirs have been stunted by reservoirs found in tissues compartments that are not easily accessible. These tissues contai...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Article Additions to the Genus Arthrinium (Apiosporaceae) From Bamboos in China
In this study, seventeen isolates of Arthrinium were collected in China. Based on their morphology and phylogenetic characterization, four new species (A. biseriale, A. cyclobalanopsidis, A. gelatinosum, and A. septatum) are described and seven known species (A. arundinis, A. garethjonesii, A. guizhouense, A. hydei, A. neosubglobosa, A. phyllostachium and A. psedoparenchymaticum) are identified, of which the sexual morph of three species (A. guizhouense, A. phyllostachium and A. psedoparenchymaticum) and asexual morph of A. garethjonesii are reported for the first time. The detailed descriptions, illustrations and comparis...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Illumina Sequencing and Metabolomics Analysis Reveal Thiamine Modulation of Ruminal Microbiota and Metabolome Characteristics in Goats Fed a High-Concentrate Diet
Long-term supplementation of a high-concentrate diet enhances the accumulation of lactate and decrease in pH in goat rumen, thereby disrupting the composition of microbial community. Studies have shown that incorporation of thiamine in high-concentrate diet increases ruminal pH and decreases rumen lactate concentration. To explore the effects of thiamine supplementation with a high-concentrate diet on alteration of the whole ruminal microbiota and their metabolites, 18 mid-lactating Saanen goats were randomly fed with one of three diets: (1) control diet (CON; n = 6; concentrate:forage 30:70), (2) high-concentrate diet (HG...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Aerobic Vaginitis Induced by Escherichia coli Infection During Pregnancy Can Result in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Through the IL-4/JAK-1/STAT-6 Pathway
Aerobic vaginitis (AV) can occur if normal vaginal microflora are dominated by aerobic bacteria, seriously affects not only female health, but also fetal health while they are pregnant. Besides, pregnant status also aggravates the symptoms and consequences of the infection. Here, we infected pregnant BALB/c mice with Escherichia coli on embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) (study group), and administered an equivalent volume of phosphate-buffered saline in another cohort of pregnant mice (control group). We recorded the weight of pregnant mice and their fetuses. The maternal and fetal weight of the study group decreased in comparison ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - April 7, 2021 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research